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Technical Paper

A Model-Based Technique for Spark Timing Control in an SI Engine Using Polynomial Regression Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-0933
Model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and polynomial regression analysis, have been developed and the reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by validating the model predictions with dynamometer test data. From the results, it was clear that the predictions by the engine cycle simulation with a knock model, which considers the two-stage hydrocarbon ignition characteristics of gasoline, were in good agreement with the dynamometer test data if the model tuning parameters were strictly adjusted. Physical model tuning and validation were done, followed by the creation of a dataset for the regression analysis of charging efficiency, EGR mass, and MBT using a 4th order polynomial equation. The stepwise method was demonstrated to yield a logarithm likelihood ratio and its false probability at each term in the polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0584
Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

Cold Start HC Reduction with Feedback Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor

2008-04-14
2008-01-1010
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas can be reduced by optimizing the air-fuel ratio. However, a conventional air-fuel ratio feedback control does not operate for the first ten seconds after the engine has started because the air-fuel ratio sensor has not yet been activated. In this paper, we report on a study to optimize the air-fuel ratio using a crank angle sensor until the air-fuel ratio sensor has been activated. A difference in fuel properties was used as a typical disturbance factor. The control was applied to both a direct-injection engine (DI) and a port-injection engine (MPI). It was evaluated for two fuel types: one which evaporates easily and one which does not. The experimental results show the air-fuel ratio is optimized for both types of fuel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation System for Analyzing Fuel Film Flow in Gasoline Engine

1993-03-01
930326
A new numerical simulation system has been developed which predicts flow behavior of fuel film formed on intake port and combustion chamber walls of gasoline engines. The system consists of a film flow model employing film thickness as a dependent variable, an air flow model, and a fuel spray model. The system can analyze fuel film flow formed on any arbitrary three-dimensional configuration. Fuel film flow formed under a condition of continuous intermittent fuel injection and steady-state air flow was calculated, and comparison with experimental data showed the system possessing ability of qualitative prediction.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Particulate Matter in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines by Non-Combustion CFD

2014-04-01
2014-01-1142
A technique of estimating particulate matter (PM) from gasoline direct injection engines is proposed that is used to compute mass density and particle number density of PM by using fuel mass in rich mixtures obtained by using non-combustion computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD code that was developed by the authors employed a Cartesian coordinates system as a discretization method and large eddy simulation (LES) as a turbulence model. Fuel spray droplets were treated with the discrete droplet model (DDM). The code was verified with some experimental data such as those obtained from in-cylinder gas-flows with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and in-cylinder fuel concentration with laser induced fluorescence (LIF). PM emissions from a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) to determine the model constants that were required in the estimation model.
Technical Paper

Multi-Swirl Type Injector for Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1436
The authors developed a multi-swirl type injector characterized by a short spray penetration length and fine atomization to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engines. In PFI gasoline engines, fuel adhesion to an intake manifold causes exhaust emission. In addition, good mixing of fuel and air causes high combustion efficiency, and as a result the fuel consumption improves. Injectors therefore require two improvements: first, a short spray penetration to avoid fuel adhesion to the intake manifold, and second, a fine atomization spray to generate a good mixture formation of fuel and air. In this study, the authors developed a multi-swirl type injector equipped with multiple orifice holes featuring swirl chambers upstream of each orifice. The key feature of the proposed injector is “involute curve-formed swirl chambers” for generating a uniform thin liquid-film in the orifices.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1596
We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

An Air-Fuel Ratio and Ignition Timing Retard Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor for Reducing Cold Start HC

2009-04-20
2009-01-0588
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas is reduced by controlling the air-fuel ratio to the low HC range and retarding the ignition timing as much as possible until the engine stability reaches a certain deterioration level. Conventionally however, the target air-fuel ratio has been set at a richer range than the low HC range and the target ignition timing has been more advanced than the engine stability limit, in order to stabilize the engine for various disturbances. As a result, the HC concentration has not been minimized. To solve this problem, a new engine control has been developed. This control uses a crank angle sensor to simultaneously control the air-fuel ratio and the ignition timing so that the HC concentration can be minimized.
Technical Paper

Development of Predictive Powertrain State Switching Control for Eco-Saving ACC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0024
In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain accurately more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing-ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops engine fuel injection, and disengages a clutch coupling a transmission when a vehicle does not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing between a sailing stop mode and an acceleration mode to generate a “pulse-and-glide” pattern.
Technical Paper

Water Recycling System for CELSS Environment in Space

1990-07-01
901208
System configurations of water recycling for space use have been continued through theoretical and experimental studies. The water recycling system plays a central role in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which offers necessary environment and life styles in closed environment such as space stations, lunar bases, etc.. Membrane technology is a possible candidate for purifying waste water produced by crew use facility, plant cultivation facility, etc. In considerations of the system compactness realizing energy saving, membrane distillation has been revealed to be a suitable purification process. Ground experiments has been performed using membrane filtration processes and membrane distillation process. Thermopervaporation technology with hydrophobic membrane is utilized in the distillation process. The energy saving is achieved by thermal return of condensation energy.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

1995-02-01
950973
A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation During Cold Starting and Warm-up in Spark Ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960065
A thermodynamic analysis of mixture formation in cylinders that takes into account mixture inhomogeneity and the wall film is presented. Conditions for obtaining low hydrocarbon emission are clarified analytically as a function of the fuel mass of the wall film and inhomogeneity of the mixture. Optimum processes for atomizing and vaporizing fuel are presented to reduce the inhomogeneity and the fuel mass of the film.
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