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Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Smooth Gear Shift Control System Using Estimated Torque

An automotive powertrain total control system using estimated output shaft torque has been investigated in order to enhance drivability and improve fuel economy. The system provides efficient control for both the engine and transmission which leads to an enhancement in drivability by reducing shocks during gear shifts. This paper describes a new smooth gear shift control method using the total control system. By use of the estimated output shaft torque, it is possible to detect accurately the fluctuation condition and the start time of the inertia phase, which are important factors affecting shock occurrence. Torque feedback, got from estimated torque, was applied to the control of engine output shaft torque during shifts. The optimum hydraulic pressure, also got from estimated torque, was applied to the clutch of the transmission during shifts.
Technical Paper

A State Adaptive Control Algorism for Vehicle Suspensions

This paper describes a state adaptive control method for vehicle suspensions proposed by Hitachi, Ltd. The objective of the control is to improve riding comfort and driving stability in reaction to road iregularities, exterior wind forces, and changes in vehicle loads as well as in reaction to inertial changes during cornering, breaking, and accelerating. The objective is attained by making considerable use of the relative displacement data between the body and the suspension. The state adaptive control system includes four shock absorbers whose damping forces can be tuned in three stages, four height sensors which measure the relative displacement, a vehicle speed sensor, and a microcomputer which decides the optimal damper stage. The validity of the proposed control method is shown through computer simulations and actual driving experiments. Vertical acceleration is reduced by about 55 % by switching from the soft damper to the hard damper in a computer simulation.
Technical Paper

A Totally Integrated Vehicle Electronic Control System

A totally integrated vehicle electronic control system is described, which optimizes vehicle performance through use of electronics. The system implements efficient coordination of functions of the engine, drive-train, brakes, steering, and suspension control subsystems to give a smoother ride, better handling and greater safety. The principles of the system are based on control and stability augmentation strategies. Each subsystem has two observers which control the force of the actuators according to the vehicle dynamics. The system features a driver support system which allows the average driver to employ the full performance potential of the vehicle in exceptional situations, and an artificial response control system to ensure optimum response and comfort. Application of the system allows the driver to experience a new level of performance and a marked improvement in handling quality and ride comfort.
Technical Paper

A Virtual ECU and Its Application to Control System Analysis - Power Window System Demonstration

A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
Technical Paper

CAN Security: Cost-Effective Intrusion Detection for Real-Time Control Systems

In-vehicle networks are generally used for computerized control and connecting information technology devices in cars. However, increasing connectivity also increases security risks. “Spoofing attacks”, in which an adversary infiltrates the controller area network (CAN) with malicious data and makes the car behave abnormally, have been reported. Therefore, countermeasures against this type of attack are needed. Modifying legacy electronic control units (ECUs) will affect development costs and reliability because in-vehicle networks have already been developed for most vehicles. Current countermeasures, such as authentication, require modification of legacy ECUs. On the other hand, anomaly detection methods may result in misdetection due to the difficulty in setting an appropriate threshold. Evaluating a reception cycle of data can be used to simply detect spoofing attacks. However, this may result in false detection due to fluctuation in the data reception cycle in the CAN.
Technical Paper

Virtual FMEA : Simulation-Based ECU Electrical Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

“Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis” (vFMEA), a novel safety-verification method of control software for automotive electronic systems, was proposed to save prototyping cost at verification stage. The proposed vFMEA is system-level FMEA method, which uses virtualized electronic control units (ECUs) consisting of microcontroller models on a microcontroller simulator and a transistor-level circuit models on a circuit simulator. By using the structure, the control software in binary code formats can be verified when a circuit-level fault occurs in the ECU hardware. As an illustrative example, vFMEA was applied to an engine ECU. As a result of short-circuit fault into a driver IC, engine revolution and engine speed decreased. However, the engine continued to operate normally when an open-circuit fault occurred in a capacitor connected in parallel. Effects of the hardware faults in ECU on a vehicle are demonstrated; thereby software verification can be performed using vFMEA system.
Technical Paper

Development of Predictive Powertrain State Switching Control for Eco-Saving ACC

In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain accurately more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing-ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops engine fuel injection, and disengages a clutch coupling a transmission when a vehicle does not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing between a sailing stop mode and an acceleration mode to generate a “pulse-and-glide” pattern.
Technical Paper

Virtual FMEA and Its Application to Software Verification of Electric Power Steering System

This paper presents the “Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (vFMEA)” system, which is a high-fidelity electrical-failure-simulation platform, and applies it to the software verification of an electric power steering (EPS) system. The vFMEA system enables engineers to dynamically inject a drift fault into a circuit model of the electronic control unit (ECU) of an EPS system, to analyze system-level failure effects, and to verify software-implemented safety mechanisms, which consequently reduces both cost and time of development. The vFMEA system can verify test cases that cannot be verified using an actual ECU and can improve test coverage as well. It consists of a cycle-accurate microcontroller model with mass-production software implemented in binary format, analog and digital circuit models, mechanical models, and a state-triggered fault-injection mechanism.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Parallel Executions on Multiple Virtual ECU Systems

We have developed a cooperative simulation environment for multiple electronic control units (ECUs) including a parallel executions mechanism to improve the test efficiency of a system, which was designed with multiple ECUs for autonomous driving. And we have applied it to a power window system for multiple ECUs with a controller area network (CAN). The power window model consists of an electronic-mechanical model and a CPU model. Each simulator with a different executions speed operates in parallel using a synchronization mechanism that exchanges data outputted from each simulator at a constant cycle. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed its control program step-by-step in binary code to test software for the product version. As co-simulation technology, a mechanism that synchronously executes heterogeneous simulators and a model of an in-vehicle communication CAN connecting each ECU were developed.
Technical Paper

A New RISC Microcontroller with On-Chip FPU to Introduce Adaptive Control into Powertrain Management

Gasoline engine control continues to become more sophisticated and so the amount of software has reached 10 to 20 times that of early control systems. By changing the embedded microcomputer from 8bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) to 32bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer), processing performance has been improved 100 times. This paper evaluates quantitative performance of the RISC CPU having a FPU (Floating Point Processing Unit) and describes an example application to adaptive control.
Technical Paper

CPU Model-based Hardware/Software Co-design for Real-Time Embedded Control Systems

This paper proposes a new development method for highly reliable real-time embedded control systems using a CPU model-based hardware/software co-simulation. We take an approach that allows the full simulation of the virtual mechanical control system including CPU and object code level software. In this paper, Renesas SH-2A microcontroller model was developed on CoMET™ platform from VaST Systems Technology. A ETC (Electronic Throttle Control) system and engine control system were chosen to prove this concept. The ETB (Electronic Throttle Body) model on Saber® simulator from Synopsys® or engine model on MATLAB®/Simulink® simulator from MathWorks can be simulated with the SH-2A model. To help the system design, debug and evaluation, we developed an integrated behavior analyzer, which can display CPU behavior graphically during the simulation without affecting the simulation result, such as task level CPU load, interrupt statistics, software variable transition chart, and so on.
Journal Article

Automatic Curve Deceleration System Using Enhanced ACC with Navigation System

We have developed a system for automatic deceleration upon entering curves to prevent collisions on tight curves on high-ways. The navigation system is used to determine safe speed negotiating the curve, defined as a speed that will keep lateral acceleration within a settled value. The navigation system sends the curve radius to a controller, which calculates the safe speed for the curve. The controller then sends the speed command to the ACC system, which adjusts the vehicle speed. One of the important features in this system is the estimation of the vehicle position, in terms of its distance from the curve entrance. Navigation systems have a certain amount of dispersion in positional accuracy. A front camera is used in our system to decrease this dispersion. This camera detects lane markers (white lines, raised pavement markers, etc.) using our line recognition technologies1).