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Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Smooth Gear Shift Control System Using Estimated Torque

An automotive powertrain total control system using estimated output shaft torque has been investigated in order to enhance drivability and improve fuel economy. The system provides efficient control for both the engine and transmission which leads to an enhancement in drivability by reducing shocks during gear shifts. This paper describes a new smooth gear shift control method using the total control system. By use of the estimated output shaft torque, it is possible to detect accurately the fluctuation condition and the start time of the inertia phase, which are important factors affecting shock occurrence. Torque feedback, got from estimated torque, was applied to the control of engine output shaft torque during shifts. The optimum hydraulic pressure, also got from estimated torque, was applied to the clutch of the transmission during shifts.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray Characteristics on Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Meeting the future exhaust emission and fuel consumption standards for passenger cars will require refinements in how the combustion process is carried out in spark ignition engines. A direct injection system decrease fuel consumption under road load cruising conditions, and stratified charge of the fuel mixture is particularly effective for ultra lean combustion. On the other hands, there are requirements for higher output power of gasoline engines. A direct injection system for a spark ignition engine is seen as a promising technique to meet these requirements. To get higher output power at wide open throttle conditions, spray characteristics and in-cylinder air flow must be optimized. In this paper, the engine system, which has a side injection type engine and flat piston, was investigated. We tried some injectors, which have different spray characteristics, and examined effects of spray characteristics on combustion of the direct injection gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor Utilizing Ion Transportation in Zirconia Electrolyte

To detect an air-fuel ratio in wide range is very important to control the automotive engines with low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions. Although the application of zirconia electrolyte for this purpose has been proposed by the authors several years ago, there remained several problems due to the contamination of gas diffusion apertures which are exposed to the exhaust gas environment. Here the behavior of ions transported in zirconia electrolyte have been analyzed to optimize the structure and characteristics, and to guarantee the long life operation of sensor. Gas contents and their reactions in combustion process under the wide range air-fuel ratio have been analyzed, and these results were reflected to the analysis of ion transportation in zirconia electrolyte. Experimental results supported the analytical results, and they showed the possibilities of long life operation of zirconia air-fuel ratio sensor utilizing ion transportation phenomena.
Technical Paper

Water Recycling System for CELSS Environment in Space

System configurations of water recycling for space use have been continued through theoretical and experimental studies. The water recycling system plays a central role in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which offers necessary environment and life styles in closed environment such as space stations, lunar bases, etc.. Membrane technology is a possible candidate for purifying waste water produced by crew use facility, plant cultivation facility, etc. In considerations of the system compactness realizing energy saving, membrane distillation has been revealed to be a suitable purification process. Ground experiments has been performed using membrane filtration processes and membrane distillation process. Thermopervaporation technology with hydrophobic membrane is utilized in the distillation process. The energy saving is achieved by thermal return of condensation energy.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

The basic structure of a new engine control system for lean combustion is presented. A fuel atomizer is adopted to obtain a uniform mixture of fine fuel droplets, 40µm in diameter. A new air-fuel ratio sensor and an integrated control method for air flow are developed for precise and rapid response control of cylinder air-fuel ratios 8 to 26. Great improvements in both fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics are obtained by increasing the mean air-fuel ratio to 25 under cruising condition. There are made possible by the stable combustion provided by the fine mixture. This system provides the driver with quick vehicle response and good fuel economy, while ensuring smooth driveability.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation System for Analyzing Fuel Film Flow in Gasoline Engine

A new numerical simulation system has been developed which predicts flow behavior of fuel film formed on intake port and combustion chamber walls of gasoline engines. The system consists of a film flow model employing film thickness as a dependent variable, an air flow model, and a fuel spray model. The system can analyze fuel film flow formed on any arbitrary three-dimensional configuration. Fuel film flow formed under a condition of continuous intermittent fuel injection and steady-state air flow was calculated, and comparison with experimental data showed the system possessing ability of qualitative prediction.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation of Fuel Injection Systems in Gasoline Engines

Mixture formation technology for gasoline engine multipoint fuel injection systems has been investigated. The fuel injector's spray, the volatility of droplets floating in the air flow, the movement of droplets around the intake valve's upper surface, the volatility of droplets on heated surfaces, and the process of atomizing droplets in the intake valve air flow was analyzed. Droplet diameters and spray patterns for good mixture formation without liquid film in cylinders have been clarified. When sequential injection is used for better responsiveness in fuel injection systems, engine performance may be reduced through increased HC emissions in some conditions. Reducing the diameter of spray droplets and preventing fuel from concentrating in the intake valve promotes vaporization, reduces fuel concentration on cylinder walls, and prevents reductions in engine performance.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Detection Using Multi-Spectrum Method

High engine load and over-heated engine cylinder are the main causes of engine knock. When knock occurs in an engine, vibrations composed of several specific resonant frequencies occur. Some of these resonant frequencies are missed stochastically because specific resonant frequencies are caused by different resonant vibration modes in an engine cylinder. However, a conventional knock detector can only measure a fixed resonant frequency using a band-pass filter. This paper presents a multi-spectrum method which greatly improves knock detection accuracy by detecting the knock resonance frequencies from several specific vibration frequencies. Through overcoming the random occurrences of knock resonant frequencies by selecting specific frequencies, knock detection accuracy can be greatly improved. We studied a high precision knock detection method using real-time frequency analysis and a piezoelectric accelerometer on a V-6 engine.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Technique for Spark Timing Control in an SI Engine Using Polynomial Regression Analysis

Model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and polynomial regression analysis, have been developed and the reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by validating the model predictions with dynamometer test data. From the results, it was clear that the predictions by the engine cycle simulation with a knock model, which considers the two-stage hydrocarbon ignition characteristics of gasoline, were in good agreement with the dynamometer test data if the model tuning parameters were strictly adjusted. Physical model tuning and validation were done, followed by the creation of a dataset for the regression analysis of charging efficiency, EGR mass, and MBT using a 4th order polynomial equation. The stepwise method was demonstrated to yield a logarithm likelihood ratio and its false probability at each term in the polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

A Urea-Dosing Device for Enhancing Low-Temperature Performance by Active-Ammonia Production in an SCR System

A new urea-dosing device with an active-ammonia production function was developed. This function is achieved by an electrically heated bypass passage with a hydrolysis catalyst for urea-to-ammonia conversion. The new device also has the function of mixing ammonia and exhaust gas. It is compact and has low-pressure loss by using the vortex occurring at the back of a static vane. We built a trial device for a small diesel engine and obtained steady state and transient data. The heated-bypass concept can be used in the aftertreatment system of passenger cars. Although active-ammonia production consumes electric power, a predictive calculation of power consumption (based on experimental results) shows that the developed bypass heater can suppress the energy consumption enough not to harm the high-energy efficiency of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Multi-Swirl Type Injector for Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engines

The authors developed a multi-swirl type injector characterized by a short spray penetration length and fine atomization to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engines. In PFI gasoline engines, fuel adhesion to an intake manifold causes exhaust emission. In addition, good mixing of fuel and air causes high combustion efficiency, and as a result the fuel consumption improves. Injectors therefore require two improvements: first, a short spray penetration to avoid fuel adhesion to the intake manifold, and second, a fine atomization spray to generate a good mixture formation of fuel and air. In this study, the authors developed a multi-swirl type injector equipped with multiple orifice holes featuring swirl chambers upstream of each orifice. The key feature of the proposed injector is “involute curve-formed swirl chambers” for generating a uniform thin liquid-film in the orifices.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking Suppression Effect of Cooled EGR in Turbo-Charged Gasoline Engine

The cooled EGR system has been focused on as a method for knocking suppression in gasoline engines. In this paper, the effect of cooled EGR on knocking suppression that leads to lower fuel consumption is investigated in a turbo-charged gasoline engine. First, the cooled EGR effect is estimated by combustion simulation with a knock prediction model. It shows that the ignition timing at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 1 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, combustion phasing (50% heat release timing) at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 0.5 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, and the fuel consumption amount can be decreased by about 0.4% per 1% of EGR ratio. Second, the effect of cooled EGR is verified in an experimental approach. By adding inert gas (N2/CO2) as simulated EGR gas upstream of the intake pipe, the effect of EGR is investigated when EGR gas and fresh air are mixed homogeneously. As a result, the ignition timing at the knocking limit is advanced by 7 [deg.
Technical Paper

Volumetric Efficiency Improvement of High-Pressure Fuel Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

A recent trend in high-pressure gasoline pumps is increasing the outlet pressure. One of the most important topics for increasing this pressure is improving volumetric efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to quantify the breakdown of efficiency loss factors and to suggest a new design for improving volumetric efficiency. Authors developed a method of quantifying the efficiency loss breakdown of high-pressure gasoline pumps by using 1D fluid pressure simulation results and conducting evaluation experiments regarding sensitivity. Authors separated pump movement into three phases; suction, compression, and delivery. Authors then investigated the loss factors in each phase. As a result, authors obtained an equation for predicting the final output volume. The equation consists of a limit output volume and other types of leakage volumes.
Technical Paper

Development of Breath-Alcohol-Detection System

The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
Technical Paper

A Safety Concept based on a Safety Sustainer for Highly Automated Driving Systems

Highly automated driving systems have a responsibility to keep a vehicle safe even in abnormal conditions such as random or systematic failures. However, creating redundancy in a system to respond to failures increases the cost of the system, and simple redundancy cannot detect systematic failures because some systematic failures occur in each system at the same time. Systematic failures in automated driving systems cannot be verified sufficiently during the development phase due to numerous patterns of parameters input from outside the system. A safety concept based on a “safety sustainer” for highly automated driving systems is proposed. The safety sustainer is designed for keeping a vehicle in a safe state for several seconds if a failure occurs in the system and notifying the driver that the system is in failure mode and requesting the driver to take over control of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Methodology for Air Charge Estimation and Control in Turbocharged Engines

The purpose of this study is to develop model-based methodologies which employ thermo-fluid dynamic engine simulation and multiple-objective optimization schemes for engine control and calibration, and to validate the reliability of the method using a dynamometer test. In our technique, creating a total engine system model begins by first entirely capturing the characteristics of the components affecting the engine system's behavior, then using experimental data to strictly adjust the tuning parameters in physical models. Engine outputs over the full range of engine operation conditions as determined by design of experiment (DOE) are simulated, followed by fitting the provided dataset using a nonlinear response surface model (RSM) to express the causal relationship among engine operational parameters, environmental factors and engine output. The RSM is applied to an L-jetronic® air-intake system control logic for a turbocharged engine.