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Journal Article

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Water and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with Cooled EGR and Pilot Injection

2013-10-15
2013-32-9022
Water and diesel fuel emulsions containing 13% and 26% water by volume were investigated in a modern diesel engine with relatively early pilot injection, supercharging, and cooled EGR. The heat release from the pilot injection with water emulsions is retarded toward the top dead center due to the poor ignitability, which enables larger pilot and smaller main injection quantities. This characteristic results in improvements in the thermal efficiency due to the larger heat release near the top dead center and the smaller afterburning. With the 26% water emulsion, mild, smokeless, and very low NOx operation is possible at an optimum pilot injection quantity and 15% intake oxygen with EGR at or below 0.9 MPa IMEP, a condition where large smoke emissions are unavoidable with regular unblended diesel fuel. Heat transfer analysis with Woschni's equation did not show the decrease in cooling loss with the water emulsion fuels.
Technical Paper

Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release Using Two-Stage Fuel Injection

2016-04-05
2016-01-0741
Characteristics of semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release (twin combustion) were investigated under several in-cylinder gas conditions in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine with common-rail fuel injection, super-charged, and with low pressure loop cooled EGR. The first-stage combustion fraction, the second injection timing, the intake oxygen concentration, and the intake gas pressure influence on thermal efficiency related parameters, the engine noise, and the exhaust gas emissions was systematically examined at a middle engine speed and load condition (2000 rpm, 0.7 MPa IMEP). The twin peak shaped heat release was realized with the first-stage premixed combustion with a sufficient premixing duration from the first fuel injection and with the second fuel injection taking place just after the end of the first-stage combustion.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

1987-09-01
871612
Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

Time Series Analysis of Diesel Exhaust Gas Emissions Under Transient Operation

1993-03-01
930976
Time series analysis of diesel exhaust gas emissions under transient operation was carried out using a uniquely developed gas sampling system to efficiently collect all exhaust gas throughout transient cycles. The effects of fuel properties and other engine operation parameters on the exhaust emissions under transient runs when fuel amounts abruptly increase were analyzed. The results showed that THC increased abruptly to 2 or 6 times the final steady-state concentration immediately after the start of acceleration and then decreased to the steady-state values after 70∼200 cycles. At acceleration, NOx increased abruptly to about 80 % of the final NOx concentration, and then increased gradually to reach the final values after 60∼500 cycles. The behaviors of THC and NOx during transient operation can be described by exponential functions of the elapsed cycle numbers and the final emission concentrations.
Technical Paper

Description of Diesel Emissions by Individual Fuel Properties

1992-10-01
922221
The effects of several fuel property variables on the emissions from a D.I. diesel engine were individually analyzed. The results showed that the smoke and dry soot increased with increased kinematic viscosity, shorter ignition lag, and higher aromatic content, especially at high equivalence ratios. Over the whole range of equivalence ratios, SOF depended on and increased with only ignition lag. The NOx improved slightly with increased kinematic viscosity, higher ignitability, and decreased aromatic content. The unburnt HC also improved with decreased kinematic viscosity and higher ignitability. The distribution shape of distillation curves had little influence on the emissions.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emission and High Performance Diesel Combustion with Highly Oxygenated Fuel

2000-03-06
2000-01-0231
Significant improvements in exhaust emissions and engine performance in an ordinary DI diesel engine were realized with highly oxygenated fuels. The smoke emissions decreased sharply and linearly with increases in oxygen content and entirely disappeared at an oxygen content of 38 wt-% even at stoichiometric conditions. The NOx, THC, and CO were almost all removed with a three-way catalyst under stoichiometric diesel combustion at both the higher and lower BMEP with the combination of EGR and a three-way catalyst. The engine output for the highly oxygenated fuels was significantly higher than that with the conventional diesel fuel due to the higher air utilization.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0863
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Nature of Exhaust Gas Emissions and Piston Wall Temperature Under Transient Operation in a Small Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960031
Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Molecular Structure of Hydrocarbon Fuels on Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1994-03-01
940676
The influence of the molecular structure of hydrocarbon fuels on soot, SOF, and NOx emissions from a diesel engine was analyzed while ignition delay and other physical fuel properties were kept constant. Mixtures of normal paraffin (n-tetradecane) and iso-paraffin (heptamethylnonane) were used as a base fuel and one of 5 kinds of hydrocarbons including mono-aromatic, di-aromatic, and non-aromatic was added. The aromatic content varied in the range of 0-60 vol % for the mono-aromatic fuels and 0-40 vol % for the di-aromatic fuels. The experimental results showed that regardless of the molecular structure of the fuel, both particulate and NOx emissions increased linearly with the C/H atomic ratio of the fuels under constant ignition lag. The increase in particulate emissions with C/H atomic ratio was caused by increases in dry soot. The SOF, THC, and BSEC were little affected by the C/H atomic ratio and molecular structure of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-Cycle Transient Characteristics of Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Diesel Engine with Different Increasing and Decreasing Load Patterns

1997-02-24
970750
Cycle-to-cycle changes in diesel exhaust gas emissions were investigated under two transient operation patterns: One, “an interval step decreasing and increasing load”, where the fuel amount is rapidly decreased from high to low loads, and after an interval, Δtint the fuel amount is abruptly returned to the initial level. The other is “a ramp increasing load”, where the fuel amount is increased gradually. Except just after the step increase in fuel amounts, the THC emissions were almost completely determined by the piston wall temperature and fuel amount. However, the THC concentrations immediately after the step increase in fuel amounts were much higher than the value of the corresponding steady state operation with the same piston wall temperature. This overshoot concentration, ΔTHC, was almost constant at different intervals, Δtint and it can be suppressed by ramp increased loading.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reductions in Diesel NOx and Smoke Emissions with Aqueous Metal-Salt Solutions Directly Injected into the Combustion Chamber

1996-05-01
961164
The effect of several aqueous metal-salt solutions on NOx and smoke lowering in an IDI diesel engine were examined. The solutions were directly injected into a divided chamber independent of the fuel injection. The results showed that significant lowering in NOx and smoke over a wide operation range could be achieved simultaneously with alkali metal solutions which were injected just prior to the fuel injection. With sodium-salt solutions, for instance, NOx decreased by more than 60 % and smoke decreased 50 % below conventional operation. The sodium-salt solution reduced dry soot significantly, while total particulate matter increased with increases in the water soluble fractions.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-cycle Transient Characteristics of Diesel Emissions during Starting

1999-10-25
1999-01-3495
Changes in exhaust gas emissions during starting in a DI diesel engine were investigated. The THC after starting increased until around the 50th cycle when the fuel deposited on the combustion chamber showed the maximum, and THC then decreased to reach a steady value after about 1000 cycles when the piston wall temperature became constant. The NOx showed an initial higher peak just after starting, and increased to a steady value after about 1000 cycles. Exhaust odor had a strong correlation with THC, and at the early stage odor was stronger than would be expected from the THC concentration. The THC increased with increased fuel injection amounts, decreased cranking speeds, and fuels with higher viscosity, higher 90% distillation temperature, and lower ignitability.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Behavior of Unburned Hydrocarbon Components in Diesel Exhaust Under Transient Operations

2001-03-05
2001-01-1259
Time resolved changes in unburned hydrocarbon emissions and their components were investigated in a DI diesel engine with a specially developed gas sampling system and gas chromatography. The tested transient operations include starting and increasing loads. At start-up with high equivalence ratios the total hydrocarbon (THC) at first increased, and after a maximum gradually decreased to reach a steady state value. Reducing the equivalence ratio of the high fueling at start-up and shortening the high fueling duration are effective to reduce THC emissions as long as sufficient startability is maintained. Lower hydrocarbons, mainly C1-C8, were the dominant components of the THC and mainly determined the THC behavior in the transient operations while the proportion of hydrocarbon (HC) components did not significantly change. The unregulated toxic substances, 1,3 butadiene and benzene were detected in small quantities.
Technical Paper

Low Emission and Knock-Free Combustion with Rich and Lean Biform Mixture in a Dual-Fuel CI Engine with Induced LPG as the Main Fuel

2001-09-24
2001-01-3502
Smokeless and ultra low NOx combustion without knocking in a dual-fuel diesel engine with induced LPG as the main fuel was established with a uniquely developed piston cavity divided by a lip in the sidewall. A small quantity of diesel fuel was directly injected at early compression stroke into the lower part of the cavity as an ignition source for this confined area, and this suppressed explosively rapid combustion just after ignition and spark-knock like combustion at later stage. A combination of the divided cavity, EGR, and intake air throttling was effective to simultaneously eliminate knocking, and reduce THC and NOx significantly.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Addition of Various Oxygenated Agents to Diesel Fuels

1996-10-01
962115
The effect of eight kinds of oxygenated agents added to diesel fuels on the combustion and emissions was investigated in a DI diesel engine. The results showed significant smoke and particulate suppression without increases in NOx with every oxygenated agent. The emissions decreased linearly with increasing oxygen content in the fuels, almost regardless of the kind of oxygenated agent. The improvement in smoke and particulate emissions with the oxygenated agent addition was more significant for lower volatility fuels. Combustion analysis with the two-dimensional two color method showed that soot concentration in the flame during the combustion process decreased with the addition of the oxygenated agent while the flame temperature distribution was almost unchanged.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Reactor HC-SCR System and the Evaluation of NOx Reduction Characteristics

2015-09-01
2015-01-2021
To reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines, the urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system has been introduced commercially. In urea-SCR, the freezing point of the urea aqueous solution, the deoxidizer, is −11°C, and the handling of the deoxidizer under cold weather conditions is a problem. Further, the ammonia escape from the catalyst and the generation of N2O emissions are also problems. To overcome these disadvantages of the urea-SCR system, the addition of a hydrocarbon deoxidizer has attracted attention. In this paper, a micro-reactor SCR system was developed and attached to the exhaust pipe of a single cylinder diesel engine. With the micro-reactor, the catalyst temperature, quantity of deoxidizer, and the space velocity can be controlled, and it is possible to use it with gas and liquid phase deoxidizers. The catalyst used in the tests reported here is Ag(1wt%)-γAl2O3.
Technical Paper

Significant NOx Reductions with Direct Water Injection into the Sub-Chamber of an IDI Diesel Engine

1995-02-01
950609
The effect of direct water injection into the combustion chamber on NOx reduction in an IDI diesel engine was investigated. The temperature distribution in the swirl chamber was analyzed quantitatively with high speed photography and the two color method. Direct water injection into a swirl chamber prior to fuel injection reduced NOx emission significantly over a wide output range without sacrifice of BSFC. Other emissions were almost unchanged or slightly decreased with water injection. Water injection reduced the flame temperature at the center of the swirl chamber, while the mean gas temperature in the cylinder and the rate of heat release changed little.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-0866
Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions in a New Concept DI Stratified Charge Engine with Two-Stage Fuel Injection

1994-03-01
940675
A new concept DISC engine equipped with a two-stage injection system was developed. The engine was modified from a single cylinder DI diesel engine with large cylinder diameter (135mm). Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions with regular gasoline were examined, and the experiments were also made with gasoline-diesel fuel blends with higher boiling temperatures and lower octane numbers. To realize stratified mixture distribution in combustion chamber flexibly, the fuel was injected in two-stages: the first stage was before the compression stroke to create a uniform premixed lean mixture and the second stage was at the end of the compression stroke to maintain stable ignition and faster combustion. In this paper, the effect of the two-stage injection on combustion and exhaust emissions were analyzed under several operating conditions.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control by DME-Ethanol Binary Fuel and EGR

2012-09-10
2012-01-1577
The HCCI engine offers the potential of low NOx emissions combined with diesel engine like high efficiency, however HCCI operation is restricted to low engine speeds and torques constrained by narrow noise (HCCI knocking) and misfiring limits. Gasoline like fuel vaporizes and mixes with air, but the mixture may auto-ignite at the same time, leading to heavy HCCI knocking. Retarding the CA50 (the crank angle of the 50% burn) is well known as a method to slow the maximum pressure rise rate and reduce HCCI knocking. The CA50 can be controlled by the fuel composition, for example, di-methyl ether (DME), which is easily synthesized from natural gas, has strong low temperature heat release (LTHR) characteristics and ethanol generates strong LTHR inhibitor effects. The utilization of DME-ethanol binary blended fuels has the potential to broaden the HCCI engine load-speed range.
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