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Technical Paper

New Light Truck Platform Chassis

2013-04-08
2013-01-0370
The objectives of a new generation of light trucks required the development of a new platform chassis, using advances in packaging, manufacturing efficiency, mass reduction, fuel efficiency, noise and vibration toughness, and ride comfort, while maintaining the vehicle's fun-to-drive character. This paper outlines the chassis component and packaging integration, light weight material application with structural optimization, as well as technical concepts executed to improve performance. Key component focus points are axles and bearings, wheels, tires, suspensions, brakes, engine cradles and sub-frames, steering systems, mechanical controls, and fuel and exhaust systems.
Journal Article

Development of New V6 3.5L Gasoline Engine for ACURA RLX

2013-04-08
2013-01-1728
Honda has developed a new next-generation 3.5 L V6 gasoline engine using our latest Earth Dreams Technology. The overall design objective for the engine was to reduce CO₂ emissions and provide driving exhilaration. The Earth Dreams Technology concept is to increase fuel economy while reducing emissions. To achieve this and provide an exhilarating driving experience, 3-stage Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control (VTEC) was combined with the Variable Cylinder Management (VCM) system. This valve train technology in conjunction with Direct Injection (DI), resulted in dramatic improvements in output (a 3.3% increase) and combined mode fuel economy (20% reduction). Helping to achieve Midsize Luxury Sedan level NV, a new mount system was developed to reduce engine vibrations during three-cylinder-mode operation. In this paper, we will explain the 3-stage VTEC with VCM + DI system, friction reducing technology, and the structure and benefit of the new engine mount system.
Technical Paper

Expansion of Motorized Seatbelt Control that Adjusts to Vehicle Behavior and the Effect of that Expansion

2014-04-01
2014-01-0507
Currently, a number of automobile OEMs have been equipped motorized seatbelt systems with volume-production vehicles. Since the current systems are generally initiated by the activation of the automatic collision brakes, or the brake assist systems; the benefit of those systems is limited solely in pre-crash phase. To enhance the effectiveness of the system, we attempted to develop a motorized seatbelt system which enables to control retracing force according to various situations during driving. The present system enables to accomplish both the occupants' comfort and protection performance throughout their driving from when it is buckled to when unbuckled and stored, or during both routine and sport driving, as well as pre-crash phase. Moreover, it was confirmed that lateral occupants' excursion during driving was reduced by up to 50% with the present system.
Technical Paper

New Technique for Optimizing Member Cross-Sections in Car Bodies to Reduce Noise and Weight

2012-04-16
2012-01-0772
Currently, car bodies require further weight reduction in order to support increasing fuel economy requirements. An efficient way for light weight body design is to include body member size as a design variable in addition to part thickness. However it is currently difficult for finite element (FE) models to change member size even using current morphing techniques. To break through this challenge, a hybrid modeling approach was developed which combines shell and beam element representations of body structural members. The original member shell element thickness was decreased by 40%. Then the stiffness reduction caused by this change is offset by beam elements incorporated inside these members. These beams can represent the stiffness change due to new cross sectional dimensions or orientations without changing the original shell elements, thus avoiding modeling instabilities that can occur from morphing.
Journal Article

The Honda R&D Americas Scale Model Wind Tunnel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0301
This paper describes the new Honda R&D Americas Scale Model Wind Tunnel (SWT). To help address Honda's ongoing need to improve fuel economy, reduce the driving force of a vehicle, and decrease product development time, the wind tunnel was developed and implemented to achieve high accuracy aerodynamic predictions for product development and a significantly improved capability for vehicle aerodynamics research. The SWT can accommodate model scales up to 50%. The ¾-open jet test section has a top speed of 250 km/h, a 5-belt moving ground plane with a long center belt for proper wake simulation, a test section designed specifically for very low static pressure gradient, three separate dynamic pressure measurement systems for state-of-the-art blockage corrections, and an overhead traverse for specialized measurement activities. This paper describes the decision process that led to the SWT, key commissioning results, and performance validation results with models installed.
Journal Article

DSRC Performance Comparison With and Without Antenna Diversity Using Different Transmission Power

2012-04-16
2012-01-0491
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) safety application research based on short range real-time communication has been researched for over a decade. Examples of V2V applications include Electronic Emergency Brake Light, Do Not Pass Warning, Lane Departure Warning, and Intersection Movement Assist. It is hoped that these applications, whether present as warning or intervention, will help reduce the incidence of traffic collisions, fatalities, injuries, and property damage. The safety benefits of these applications will likely depend on many factors, such as usability, market penetration, driver acceptance, and reliability. Some applications, such as DNPW and IMA, require a longer communication range to be effective. In addition, Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) may be required to communicate without direct line of sight. The signal needs to overcome shadowing effects of other vehicles and buildings that are in the way.
Technical Paper

Application of Emergent Aerodynamic Calculation Tools

2008-04-14
2008-01-0096
The cost of fuel and the desire for fuel efficiency continue to drive automobile manufacturers to invest in and to prioritize vehicle designs and performance. There has long been a fundamental understanding that aerodynamic efficiency (drag) has an effect on this phenomenon. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate how emergent aerodynamic performance calculation tools can be efficiently and effectively utilized for realizing improvements to vehicle performance, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction and societal acceptance. These tools include Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis (CFD) which further includes visualization techniques, shape deformation, DOE, and optimization methods, among others.
Technical Paper

Considerations for the Application of Magnetorheological Dampers to a Crossover SUV

2008-04-14
2008-01-0347
Magnetorheological (MR) dampers have been used in the market on various vehicles since 2001. They use a special oil-based fluid (Magnetorheological Fluid, MRF) that contains small iron particles (1-10 μm in size) and a controllable electromagnetic piston to allow a wide range of damping forces. The system's wide range of available damping force combined with nearly instantaneous response time helps maximize body control while simultaneously providing outstanding ride comfort. This paper describes how the MR technology was combined with conventional suspension tuning to achieve an enhanced level of dynamic performance. While the MR damper offers enhanced performance, its unique response characteristics require tuning of other hardware components that could be considered to be beyond the normal tuning range for that of a conventional suspension.
Journal Article

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Predicting Steering Power-Off Limit Performance

2008-04-14
2008-01-0587
A simulation tool has been developed for predicting steering effort of a vehicle during steering power-assist system failure. The vehicle system is modeled with the inclusion of a system-level vehicle model and a steering system model that are linked together through the steering moment at the kingpin and front road wheel angle. A driver model has also been designed to provide closed-loop steering angular input to make the car follow a certain target path. The simulation model is correlated well with actual vehicle tests under various steering input and lateral acceleration conditions. Also illustrated are some examples of comparison between measured and simulated sensitivity study for selected factors.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Body Computational Study of the Kinematic and Injury Response of a Pedestrian with Variable Stance upon Impact with a Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-1607
This research investigates the variation of pedestrian stance in pedestrian-automobile impact using a validated multi-body vehicle and human model. Detailed vehicle models of a small family car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are developed and validated for impact with a 50th percentile human male anthropometric ellipsoid model, and different pedestrian stances (struck limb forward, feet together, and struck limb backward) are investigated. The models calculate the physical trajectory of the multi-body models including head and torso accelerations, as well as pelvic force loads. This study shows that lower limb orientation during a pedestrian-automobile impact plays a dominant role in upper body kinematics of the pedestrian. Specifically, stance has a substantial effect on the subsequent impacts of the head and thorax with the vehicle. The variation in stance can change the severity of an injury incurred during an impact by changing the impact region.
Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part II: Criteria for the Upper and Lower Extremities

2004-03-08
2004-01-1755
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive countermeasures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis are derived in part I of this study).
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity and Brake Pedal Interaction in Frontal Collisions: Computer Simulation

1998-02-23
980364
An Articulated Total Body frontal crash simulation was created with the dummy's right foot placed on the brake pedal. This study examined how interaction of the driver's foot with the brake pedal influenced the behavior of the lower extremities in frontal collisions. Braking parameters considered in the study included foot position on the pedal, whether or not the occupant's muscles were tensed and if the brake pedal was rigid or was allowed to depress. Two basic foot positions were identified as most likely to induce injury of the lower limb. One represented a foot that was pivoted about the heel from the gas pedal to the brake pedal. The other position replicated a foot that was lifted from the gas pedal to the brake pedal, resulting in an initial gap between the heel and floor. Both positions resulted in different loads and behavior of the foot, indicating that driver pre-impact position is a contributing factor to one's injury risk.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity and Brake Pedal Interaction in Frontal Collisions: Sled Tests

1998-02-23
980359
A series of eight sled tests was conducted using Hybrid III dummies and cadavers in order to examine the influence of foot placement on the brake pedal in frontal collisions. The brake pedal in the sled runs was fixed in a fully depressed position and the occupants' muscles were not tensed. The cadaver limbs and the Hybrid III lower extremities with 45° ankle and soft joint-stop were extensively instrumented to determine response during the crash event. Brake pedal reaction forces were measured using a six-axis load cell and high speed film was used for kinematic analysis of the crashes. Four right foot positions were identified from previous simulation studies as those orientations most likely to induce injury. In each test, the left foot was positioned on a simulated footrest, acting as a control variable that produced repeatable results in all dummy tests. Each of the different right foot orientations resulted in different loads and motions of the right leg and foot.
Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part I: Criteria for the Head, Neck, Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0323
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive counter-measures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities are derived in part II of this study).
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Toughness Improvement Through Water Jacket Optimization

2003-10-27
2003-01-3259
Improvement of engine cycle thermal efficiency is an effective way to increase engine torque and to reduce fuel consumption simultaneously. However, the extent of the improvement is limited by engine knock, which is more evident at low engine speeds when combustion flame propagation is relatively slow. To prevent engine damage due to knock, the spark ignition timing of a gasoline engine is usually controlled by a knock sensor. Therefore, an engine's ignition timing cannot be set freely to achieve best engine performance and fuel economy. Whether ignition timings for a multi-cylinder engine are the same or can be set differently for each cylinder, it is not desirable for each cylinder has big deviation from the median with respect to knock tendency. It is apparent that effective measures to improve engine knock toughness should address both uniformity of all cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine and improvement of median knock toughness.
Technical Paper

Lower extremity response of the Thor-LX compared to the Hybrid-III lower leg in frontal barrier crash tests

2001-06-04
2001-06-0162
The Thor-Lx leg and foot complex is being developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Applied Safety Technologies Corporation, and GESAC, Inc., as a new research and development (R&D) tool which will be more biofidelic than the current Hybrid-III lower extremity. This paper reviews the results from a matrix of tests performed to evaluate the response of the Thor-Lx in comparison to the Hybrid-III lower extremity in high-speed frontal crashes. The testing included three 64 km/h frontal offset deformable barrier tests and two 56 km/h flat rigid barrier tests. Testing was done using the following Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) combinations: Hybrid-III with the Hybrid-III Enhanced Instrumented Tibia, Hybrid-III with the Thor-Lx, and Thor with the Thor-Lx. The response of the lower extremity was found to vary with each leg and torso combination.
Technical Paper

Training Test Drivers with Data Acquisition

2000-11-13
2000-01-3568
Test-driving is a specialized art. Automotive manufactures, parts suppliers, and tire manufacturers employ test drivers to evaluate their products in a variety of circumstances. But Honda and some other firms prefer the automotive engineer test his own product. This gives direct feedback and provides a better “feel” for how the vehicle reacts. It produces a better car and a better engineer. Some Formula One teams send their race engineers to a racing school. Test drivers can be trained at commercial racing schools. These effectively teach students to drive at high speeds near the limit of the vehicle. The test driver must have the skills to perform a test with minimal danger to the driver and the vehicle. But the demands of a test driver are not the same as a racing car driver, though many test drivers also race. The test driver must evaluate the vehicle as well as drive fast. The test driver must faithfully execute a test plan while observing vehicle behavior.
Technical Paper

Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Safety: Countermeasures for Ejection Mitigation in Rollover

2016-04-05
2016-01-1513
Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs), since their introduction onto the market in the late-1990s, have been related to over 300 fatalities with the majority occurring in vehicle rollover. In recent years several organizations made attempts to improve ROV safety. This paper is intended to evaluate ejection mitigation measures considered by the ROV manufacturers. Evaluated countermeasures include two types of occupant restraints (three and four point) and two structural barriers (torso bar, door with net). The Rollover protection structure (ROPS) provided by the manufacturer was attached to a Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), and a full factorial series of roll/drop/catch tests was performed. The ROV buck was equipped with two Hybrid III dummies, a 5th percentile female and a 95th percentile male. Additionally, occupant and vehicle kinematics were recorded using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric camera system.
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