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Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part II: Criteria for the Upper and Lower Extremities

2004-03-08
2004-01-1755
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive countermeasures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis are derived in part I of this study).
Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part I: Criteria for the Head, Neck, Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0323
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive counter-measures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities are derived in part II of this study).
Technical Paper

A Multi-Body Computational Study of the Kinematic and Injury Response of a Pedestrian with Variable Stance upon Impact with a Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-1607
This research investigates the variation of pedestrian stance in pedestrian-automobile impact using a validated multi-body vehicle and human model. Detailed vehicle models of a small family car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are developed and validated for impact with a 50th percentile human male anthropometric ellipsoid model, and different pedestrian stances (struck limb forward, feet together, and struck limb backward) are investigated. The models calculate the physical trajectory of the multi-body models including head and torso accelerations, as well as pelvic force loads. This study shows that lower limb orientation during a pedestrian-automobile impact plays a dominant role in upper body kinematics of the pedestrian. Specifically, stance has a substantial effect on the subsequent impacts of the head and thorax with the vehicle. The variation in stance can change the severity of an injury incurred during an impact by changing the impact region.
Technical Paper

Training Test Drivers with Data Acquisition

2000-11-13
2000-01-3568
Test-driving is a specialized art. Automotive manufactures, parts suppliers, and tire manufacturers employ test drivers to evaluate their products in a variety of circumstances. But Honda and some other firms prefer the automotive engineer test his own product. This gives direct feedback and provides a better “feel” for how the vehicle reacts. It produces a better car and a better engineer. Some Formula One teams send their race engineers to a racing school. Test drivers can be trained at commercial racing schools. These effectively teach students to drive at high speeds near the limit of the vehicle. The test driver must have the skills to perform a test with minimal danger to the driver and the vehicle. But the demands of a test driver are not the same as a racing car driver, though many test drivers also race. The test driver must evaluate the vehicle as well as drive fast. The test driver must faithfully execute a test plan while observing vehicle behavior.
Technical Paper

Lower extremity response of the Thor-LX compared to the Hybrid-III lower leg in frontal barrier crash tests

2001-06-04
2001-06-0162
The Thor-Lx leg and foot complex is being developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Applied Safety Technologies Corporation, and GESAC, Inc., as a new research and development (R&D) tool which will be more biofidelic than the current Hybrid-III lower extremity. This paper reviews the results from a matrix of tests performed to evaluate the response of the Thor-Lx in comparison to the Hybrid-III lower extremity in high-speed frontal crashes. The testing included three 64 km/h frontal offset deformable barrier tests and two 56 km/h flat rigid barrier tests. Testing was done using the following Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) combinations: Hybrid-III with the Hybrid-III Enhanced Instrumented Tibia, Hybrid-III with the Thor-Lx, and Thor with the Thor-Lx. The response of the lower extremity was found to vary with each leg and torso combination.
Technical Paper

New Telematics Approach by “Diversifying Communication and Customer Opportunity”

2004-10-18
2004-21-0093
Customer satisfaction is one of the most important goals for car manufacturers in providing telematics services to their customers. Telematics is not merely a chance for additional revenue, but should be used to supplement value to an OEM's core business. Unfortunately most existing Telematics business models focus on revenue opportunities. However, the customer value of Telematics still resides in a conventional vehicle–related value model. Typical examples of killer applications are related to transportation, such as real time traffic information, vehicle operation information, vehicle diagnostic information and on–board entertainment. A new approach, which is well accepted by customers, is anticipated. The key solution is a combination of several challenges, such as the transformation of customer relationship management (CRM), optimum integration of existing infrastructure, and customer value proposition based on customers' essential expectations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Benchmarking and Simulation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0465
An objective benchmarking process for vehicle dynamics that incorporates both test and simulation was used in the development of a sedan. Data from objective measurements of vehicle handling response was used as input to simulation. Simulation results generated a range of system level characteristics to evaluate on a test vehicle. In detail, this process includes system level vehicle simulation software for model building and generating an array of output characteristics. The directional changes were then applied to early build prototype vehicles for focused objective and subjective vehicle evaluation.
Journal Article

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Predicting Steering Power-Off Limit Performance

2008-04-14
2008-01-0587
A simulation tool has been developed for predicting steering effort of a vehicle during steering power-assist system failure. The vehicle system is modeled with the inclusion of a system-level vehicle model and a steering system model that are linked together through the steering moment at the kingpin and front road wheel angle. A driver model has also been designed to provide closed-loop steering angular input to make the car follow a certain target path. The simulation model is correlated well with actual vehicle tests under various steering input and lateral acceleration conditions. Also illustrated are some examples of comparison between measured and simulated sensitivity study for selected factors.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity and Brake Pedal Interaction in Frontal Collisions: Sled Tests

1998-02-23
980359
A series of eight sled tests was conducted using Hybrid III dummies and cadavers in order to examine the influence of foot placement on the brake pedal in frontal collisions. The brake pedal in the sled runs was fixed in a fully depressed position and the occupants' muscles were not tensed. The cadaver limbs and the Hybrid III lower extremities with 45° ankle and soft joint-stop were extensively instrumented to determine response during the crash event. Brake pedal reaction forces were measured using a six-axis load cell and high speed film was used for kinematic analysis of the crashes. Four right foot positions were identified from previous simulation studies as those orientations most likely to induce injury. In each test, the left foot was positioned on a simulated footrest, acting as a control variable that produced repeatable results in all dummy tests. Each of the different right foot orientations resulted in different loads and motions of the right leg and foot.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity and Brake Pedal Interaction in Frontal Collisions: Computer Simulation

1998-02-23
980364
An Articulated Total Body frontal crash simulation was created with the dummy's right foot placed on the brake pedal. This study examined how interaction of the driver's foot with the brake pedal influenced the behavior of the lower extremities in frontal collisions. Braking parameters considered in the study included foot position on the pedal, whether or not the occupant's muscles were tensed and if the brake pedal was rigid or was allowed to depress. Two basic foot positions were identified as most likely to induce injury of the lower limb. One represented a foot that was pivoted about the heel from the gas pedal to the brake pedal. The other position replicated a foot that was lifted from the gas pedal to the brake pedal, resulting in an initial gap between the heel and floor. Both positions resulted in different loads and behavior of the foot, indicating that driver pre-impact position is a contributing factor to one's injury risk.
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