A new index for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U* , which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Presenter Tadashi Naito, Honda R&D Co., Ltd.
Recently, the eigenvalue analysis and the frequency response analysis using the finite element method (FEM) is commonly used, since the vibration characteristic of the powertrain is an important specification which causes the influence on the booming noise and the durability of each parts. However, the eigenvalue analysis and the frequency response analysis cannot take into account of the dynamic behavior of the cranktrain and thenonlinear characteristics. This paper presents a new approach which considers the dynamic behavior of the crankshaft and thenonlinear oil film characteristics of the main bearings and the engine mounts for accurately predicting the vibration level at the engine mounting points under running conditions. By applying this approach to an in-line four cylinder engine, the predicted vibration level is reasonably comparable with experimental result.
This paper summarizes the development of a predictive vibro-acoustic full vehicle model of a mid-size sedan and focuses on the engineering analysis procedures used to evaluate the design performance related to engine induced noise and vibration. The vehicle model is build up from a mixture of test-based and finite element component models. FRF Based Substructuring is used for their assembly. The virtual car model is loaded by engine forces resulting from indirect force identification. This force-set includes combustion, inertia, piston slap and crank bearing forces, for engine harmonics from 0.5 to 10th order. Such forced response analysis yields vibration levels at every component, at every interface between components, and interior noise predictions. The target is to provide the vehicle NVH manager with the insight required to identify major causes for peak noise levels and to set targets and develop an action plan for every component design team.
Vaporization models for continuous multi-component liquid sprays and liquid wall films are presented using a continuous thermodynamics formulation. The models were implemented in the KIVA3V-Release 2.0 code. The models are first applied to clarify the characteristics of vaporizing continuous multi-component liquid wall films and liquid drops, and then applied to numerically analyze a practical continuous multi-component fuel - gasoline behavior in a 4-valve port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine under warm conditions. Corresponding computations with single-component fuels are also performed and presented for comparison purposes. As compared to the results of its single-component counterpart, the vaporizing continuous multi-component fuel drop displays a larger vaporization rate initially and a smaller vaporization rate as it becomes more and more dominated by heavy species.
Research into pedestrian protection has been carried out since the 1960s, in recent years there have been proposals in Europe to legislate requirements in this area and therefore the research is becoming more focused. In the draft regulation, impactor tests have been proposed as a method for evaluating the impact caused by vehicles'' body for pedestrians. This paper introduces impactor model and actual vehicle analysis as a means for simulating impactor testing. Three types of impactors for vehicle tests are presented. It is necessary that the models are first matched with the results of the calibration tests, then matched with the results of the tests on actual vehicles.
Four forces act in rings for a metal pushing V-belt. These forces are: two kinds of intercepting forces which prevent blocks from going outside of pulleys (one caused by pulley thrust, the other caused by centrifugal force), frictional force acting between the rings and the blocks, and bending force in longitudinal direction. In the previous paper (1)(2)(3)(5), distribution of three forces, excluding centrifugal force, were presented at low belt speed. We successfully measured all four kinds of forces including centrifugal force continuously at practical operation conditions for layered rings. In this paper, distribution of these four forces on the innermost ring is described at steady states.
A model of a timing belt analyzed by FEM (a general non-linear finite element program:ABAQUS) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates belt cord stress. Analysis revealed a good correlation between the experimental and computed results of stress distribution of the belt cord. Through calculation, it was discovered that belts broke near the tooth root, which is the point of maximum stress of the cord.
For a 1997 model year passenger car, Honda has released an all-new 3.0 liter, transversely mounted, SOHC VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) V6 engine. This compact, light-weight, state-of-the-art V6 engine achieves 147 kW @ 5500 rpm, improves fuel economy, and uses regular unleaded fuel. This is the world's first SOHC VTEC V6 engine, and the first V6 to be manufactured in the United States by Honda.
The moment of inertia of the crankshaft cannot be ignored when analyzing the dynamics of a motorcycle. In this research, the tire friction force (calculated by drag and tire side force) was used as an index of the drive performance. The ratio of roll rate and steering torque (here after referred to as a roll rate gain) was used as an index of the cornering performance, and it was analyzed as the influence of the moment of inertia of a crankshaft on the drive performance as well as cornering performance. As a result, the influence on drive performance and cornering performance by the moment of inertia has been found.
High viscosity index(HVI) petroleum base stock, with excellent temperature-viscosity characteristics, oxidation resistance, and low-evaporation properties, offers advantages as the base stock for high fuel economy engine oils, particularly because of its low-friction properties in the boundary and/or “E.H.L (Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication)” area due to its rheological characteristics. This research evaluated HVI base stock's low-friction properties. Upgrading the oil from 5W-30 to 5W-20 was also investigated. The friction properties of the HVI base stock were measured by a unit friction platform. The results show a 28% reduction in friction coefficient compared with the conventional, solvent refined oil, which is attributable to the high-pressure viscosity of the base oil.
The improvement of the exhaust emission and fuel consumption in the conventional two-stroke engines would be urgent. Our previous papers have suggested that the timing controlled auto-ignition, namely Activated Radical Combustion(AR combustion) could be a solution for that. In this time, the AR combustion was applied to a 250 cm3 motorcycle for the intention of commercialization of the AR engine. The alternating phases between AR combustion and SI combustion were analyzed and successfully improved the typical pinking noise. The AR combustion finally decreased the HC emission by approximately 60% in the EC 40 emission evaluation mode. As the power units for the small motorcycles or outboards, two-stroke engines are yet majority. That is because they have advantages such as higher power output, simpleness and compactness of the structure, at the same time, their drawbacks in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are also pointed out in the issues of preserving the environment.
There are several all-aluminum cylinder blocks. A typical example is a mono-block cylinder of alusil alloy produced by low pressure die casting. This material's resistance to abrasion and seizure, however, is not satisfactory for motorcycle; in addition, long processing time is another disadvantage. To cope with these problems, the authors developed a light and highly productive all-aluminum cylinder block with a cast-in liner through die casting. The liner is made from powder metallurgy composite (PMC) with 3 to 5 % alumina and 0.5 to 3 % of graphite additives. The PMC reconciles abrasion resistance and machinability. The hardness deterioration of the composite due to the heat at die casting is avoided by using heat-resistant rapidly-solidified powders, made from an aluminum-silecon-iron alloy, for the matrix.
Extensive studies in various technological fields have been conducted to determine the most appropriate engine configuration (arrangement and number of cylinders) for Honda's next-generation compact luxury automobiles. One of the basic concepts incorporated into these models include an ‘exhilarating drive’. Studies in the noise/vibration field disclosed that noise/vibration levels must be reduced while simultaneously realizing linearity in noise/vibration increase. As a result, an in-line five cylinder engine was chosen for this purpose. Additionally, Honda designed a new five-point engine mount system for a longitudinally-mounted engine in its FWD layout. Crankshaft rumbling noise in the in-line five cylinder engine was proven to be caused by crankshaft torsional resonance, as found in previous research of in-line four and six cylinder engines. This noise deteriorates linearity sensation.
A new electric power steering (EPS) was developed which uses an electric motor to provide assistance. It is a system combinning the latest in power electronics and high power motor technologies. The development was aimed at enhancing the existing hydraulic power steering's energy efficiency, driver comfort as well as increasing active stability. This paper describies the overall concept of EPS and outlines the components and control strategies using electronics. The EPS was tested on a front wheel drive vehicle weighing 1000kg in front axle load. The results showed a 5.5% improvement in fuel economy. The EPS has also achieved returnability that gives the driver more moderate feelings matching the vehicle in action as well as the active stability control strategy for high speed driving.
The Honda variable valve timing and lift electronic control system (VTEC) is incorporated in the engine of the NSX sports car that is scheduled for sales in Europe this year. In the process of advancement of Honda's engine technology, VTEC was developed for much higher output and higher efficiency. This is actually the first system in the world that can simultaneously switch the timing and lift of the intake and exhaust valves. This system has made improvements in maximum output at high rpm, and also improved the low rpm range, such as idling stability and starting capability.
An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
The weight-saving requirements for automobiles are important. In order to produce a lighter engine, an aluminum block with cast-iron liners and a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy block have been developed. (1)*, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) We developed a new aluminum engine block which has the cylinder bore surface structure reinforced with short ceramic fiber. We also established technology suitable for mass-production including a fiber preform process and a non-destructive inspection method. In this paper, the optimum properties and production technology of MMC engine blocks are introduced. A portion of the paper is dedicated to the results of a comparison study between a new light-weight aluminum engine block, a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon engine block and an aluminum engine block with cast-iron liners.
In this study, distributions of block compression force on the driving and driven pulleys were measured using a tiny load-cell inserted between two blocks and a telemeter system, under several constant speed ratios. Ring tension distributions were also measured using a specially devised block. From the experimental results, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Block compression force distribution on the driving pulley is significantly different from that on the driven pulley. (2) Ring tension takes different value at each side of strings. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by difference of saddle surface speed between two pulleys.
The idea to monitor the combustion in an internal combustion engine and using the obtained data to control combustion in the engine has been around for some time now. There are two well-known methods, although in the capacity of lab experiments, which had been developed under this principle. One features the analysis of combustion pressure and the other features the analysis of ionic currents detected in the combustion gas. Although highly precise analysis can be achieved by the former, there are problems in the installation of sensors for detecting combustion pressure, also in the durability and cost of such sensors. As for the latter, there are also problems in installing sensors for detecting the ionic currents and the reliability of obtained data from such sensors is still questionable.