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A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2012-06-18
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
Technical Paper

Improving the Exhaust Emissions of Two-Stroke Engines by Applying the Activated Radical Combustion

1996-02-01
960742
The improvement of the exhaust emission and fuel consumption in the conventional two-stroke engines would be urgent. Our previous papers have suggested that the timing controlled auto-ignition, namely Activated Radical Combustion(AR combustion) could be a solution for that. In this time, the AR combustion was applied to a 250 cm3 motorcycle for the intention of commercialization of the AR engine. The alternating phases between AR combustion and SI combustion were analyzed and successfully improved the typical pinking noise. The AR combustion finally decreased the HC emission by approximately 60% in the EC 40 emission evaluation mode. As the power units for the small motorcycles or outboards, two-stroke engines are yet majority. That is because they have advantages such as higher power output, simpleness and compactness of the structure, at the same time, their drawbacks in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are also pointed out in the issues of preserving the environment.
Technical Paper

Development of the Ultra Low Heat Capacity and Highly Insulating (ULOC) Exhaust Manifold for ULEV

1998-02-23
980937
With the total amount of air pollution caused by vehicle emissions on the increase, the problem has now became a global concern, and various regulatory measures have been put into effect in each region of the world. This is especially true in California, U.S.A, where countermeasures have been adopted early. There, the ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standard, which was ones deemed impossible for gasoline engines to meet, is now in effect. In response to these developments, Honda announced the ULEV system for a 2.2 liter gasoline engine with a closed-coupled catalytic converter (CC) and an under-floor catalytic converter (UF) at the beginning of 1995, and reported on the system's emission characteristics. 1) A new ULEV system has been developed based on the previous system but using only UF, aiming for marketable improvements in product characteristics such as higher output. The new system features the ultra low heat capacity and high heat insulating (ULOC) exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

Study on Roadway NMHC Concentrations Around Clean Air Vehicles

1998-02-23
980679
An ambient air quality study was carried out in the South Coast Air Basin in California in the summer of 1997. Non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations in the air to which clean air vehicles were exposed on roadways were studied by both computational simulations and experiments. Compared with conventional technologies of air quality simulations, a micro-scale model of ambient pollutants on roadways was used. Experimental observations showed that proposed model gave improved level of roadway concentrations.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four-Valve Lean Burn Engine

1992-02-01
920455
The reduction of fuel consumption is of great importance to automobile manufacturers. As a prospective means to achieve fuel economy, lean burn is being investigated at various research organizations and automobile manufacturers and a number of studies on lean-burn technology have been reported to this date. This paper describes the development of a four-valve lean-burn engine; especially the improvement of the combustion, the development of an engine management system, and the achievement of vehicle test results. Major themes discussed in this paper are (1) the improvement of brake-specific fuel consumption under partial load conditions and the achievement of high output power by adopting an optimized swirl ratio and a variable-swirl system with a specially designed variable valve timing and lift mechanism, (2) the development of an air-fuel ratio control system, (3) the improvement of fuel economy as a vehicle and (4) an approach to satisfy the NOx emission standard.
Technical Paper

High Porosity Substrates for Fast-Light-Off Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1009
Regulations that limit emissions of pollutants from gasoline-powered cars and trucks continue to tighten. More than 75% of emissions through an FTP-75 regulatory test are released in the first few seconds after cold-start. A factor that controls the time to catalytic light-off is the heat capacity of the catalytic converter substrate. Historically, substrates with thinner walls and lower heat capacity have been developed to improve cold-start performance. Another approach is to increase porosity of the substrate. A new material and process technology has been developed to significantly raise the porosity of thin wall substrates (2-3 mil) from 27-35% to 55% while maintaining strength. The heat capacity of the material is 30-38% lower than existing substrates. The reduction in substrate heat capacity enables faster thermal response and lower tailpipe emissions. The reliance on costly precious metals in the washcoat is demonstrated to be lessened.
Technical Paper

Development of Pd-Only Catalyst for LEV III and SULEV30

2015-04-14
2015-01-1003
This research is aimed at development of the catalyst for gasoline automobiles which uses only palladium (Pd) among platinum group metals (PGMs). And the conformity emission category aimed at LEV III-SULEV30. For evaluation, the improvement effect was verified for 2013 model year (MY) ACCORD (LEV II-SULEV) as the reference. As compared with Pd-rhodium (Rh) catalyst, a Pd-only catalyst had the low purification performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and there was a problem in the drop in dispersion of Pd by sintering, and phosphorus (P) poisoning.
Technical Paper

Development of a Super-Light Substrate for LEV III/Tier3 Emission Regulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1001
With the increasing number of automobiles, the worldwide problem of air pollution is becoming more serious. The necessity of reducing tail-pipe emissions is as high as ever, and in countries all over the world the regulations are becoming stricter. The emissions at times such as after engine cold start, when the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not warmed up, accounts for the majority of the emissions of these pollutants from vehicles. This is caused by the characteristic of the TWC that if a specific temperature is not exceeded, TWC cannot purify the emissions. In other words, if the catalyst could be warmed up at an early stage after engine start, this would provide a major contribution to reducing the emissions. Therefore, this research is focused on the substrate weight and investigated carrying out major weight reduction by making the porosity of the substrate larger than that of conventional products.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling Study of Catalyst Surface Reactivity and Gas Diffusivity with Lean NOx Catalyst

2015-04-14
2015-01-1058
Catalyst simulation, which can analyze the complicated reaction pathway of exhaust gas purifications and identify the rate-determining step, is an essential tool in the development of catalyst materials. This requires an elementary reaction model which describes the detailed processes, i.e. adsorption, decomposition, and others. In our previous work, the elementary reaction model on Pt/CeO2 catalyst was constructed. In this study, we focused on extending the Zeolite catalyst and including the gas diffusivity through the catalyst layer. The reaction rate of a Zeolite catalyst was expressed by an Arrhenius equation, and the elementary reaction model was composed of 17 reactions. Each Arrhenius parameter was optimized by the catalytic activity measurements. The constructed model was validated with NOx conversion in cyclic experiments which were repeated with Lean phase (NOx adsorption) and Rich phase (NOx reduction).
Technical Paper

A System for the Modal Analysis of Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles

1981-02-01
810297
Devices for use in control of exhaust emissions have become indispensable to motorcycles. In order to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each device, the modal analysis system has to be required. The Modal Analysis System is one that classifies any driving schedule which is used for emissions measurement into four modes: idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration; then measures the emissions continuously using a mini-computer which accumulates the results of the analysis by mode. Instead of CO2 tracer method, we introduced the method of diluted exhaust gas measurement. In order for the system to produce reliable measurements, the accuracy of the total installation must be ensured. This paper describes the improvements of accuracy of analysers, technique on handling delay time and the verifications on the modal analysis system.
Technical Paper

Introduction of a New Method of Solving Wear Problems Caused by the Swing Motion Occurring between the Roller and the Sliding Contact Surface

2010-04-12
2010-01-1055
In an attempt to decrease the amount of CO2 emitted by engines and yet improve engine output power, various approaches to the development of variable valve-lift mechanisms and the application of direct fuel injection and supercharger mechanisms are rapidly gaining popularity. In the case of the swing motion which takes place in variable valve-lift mechanisms, the relative speed between the two components reaches zero at the location where the load is high and the oil film tends to break, thereby leading to wear. Furthermore, the use of a supercharger and a direct injection device generates soot, which promotes further wear. Therefore establishing a reliable method for estimating wear has become a pressing issue. Wear problems caused by the swing motion occur during boundary lubrication, and we have devised a solution for them.
Technical Paper

Research into Optimal Specifications for Flexible Fuel Vehicle Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1097
Various plant-derived alternative fuels have been proposed in recent years as ways to curb the global warming that occurs from the CO2 that is emitted by internal combustion engines. One such fuel is bioethanol. In Brazil, flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) are used that can run on blends from 100% hydrous ethanol (E100) to gasoline containing 22% ethanol (E22). This research addresses the optimal specifications of a FFV engine. FFV engines use E100 and E22 in any ratio. E100 has a very high RON of approximately 110, while that of E22 is low at approximately 95. The researchers considered these characteristics when selecting a compression ratio capable of providing good performance at any ethanol blend ratio. Additionally, ethanol is a single-component fuel without low-boiling-point components, so it has poor combustion at low temperatures. In general, FFV engines are often built with one intake valve to enhance product usability at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-1107
This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Technical Paper

Performance of Motorcycle Engine Oil with Sulfur-Based Additive as Substitute Zn-DTP

2008-09-09
2008-32-0005
Just as CO2 reduction is required of four wheeled vehicles for environmental protection, similar environmental concerns drive the development of motorcycle oil technology. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (Zn-DTP) type additives are widely used for engine oil formulations. However, phosphorus compounds are environmental load materials. The reduction of the quantity of phosphorus compounds in engine oils is required to reduce poisoning of three-way catalysts used to purify exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Mr. Ito and his co-authors1) reported that they developed a sulfur-based additive as a substitute for Zn-DTP. Their non-phosphorus engine oil formulation for four-wheeled vehicles with a sulfur-based additive was examined to evaluate its anti-wear performance using the following test methods:JASO M328 for gasoline engines (KA24E) and JASO M354 for Diesel engine (4D34T4).
Technical Paper

Resource-conserving, Heat-resistant Ni-based Alloy for Exhaust Valves

2009-04-20
2009-01-0259
Conventionally, the Ni-based superalloys NCF3015 (30Ni-15Cr) and the high nickel content NCF440 (70Ni-19Cr) (with its outstanding wear resistance and corrosion resistance), have been used as engine exhaust valve materials. In recent years, automobile exhaust gases have become hotter because of exhaust gas regulations and enhanced fuel consumption efficiency. Resource conservation and cost reductions also factor into global environmental challenges. To meet these requirements, NCF5015 (50Ni-15Cr), a new resource-conserving, low-cost Ni-based heat-resistant alloy with similar high-temperature strength and wear resistance as NCF440, has been developed. NCF5015's ability to simultaneously provide wear resistance, corrosion resistance and strength when NCF5015 is used with diesel engines was verified and the material was then used in exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Development of Highly Efficient Lean NOx Catalyst System in Low Exhaust Gas Temperature

2013-04-08
2013-01-0536
The reduction of NOx in exhaust gas has been a major challenge in diesel engine development. For the NOx reduction issues, a new Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) aftertreatment system has been developed by Honda. A feature of the LNC system is the method that is used to reduce NOx through an NH₃-Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH₃-SCR). In an LNC system NOx is adsorbed at lean conditions, then converted to NH₃ at rich conditions and subsequently reduced in the next lean phase. In recent years, as the efficiency of the diesel engine has improved, the exhaust gas temperatures have been reduced gradually. Therefore, the aftertreatment system needs to be able to purify NOx at lower temperatures. The development of a new LNC which has a high activity at low temperature has been carried out. For the improvement of the LNC three material improvements were developed. The first of these was the development of a NOx adsorbent which is matching the targeted exhaust gas temperatures.
Technical Paper

Estimation of CO2 Reduction Potential in Japan by Traffic-Flow Smoothing and Eco-Driving Promotion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0621
This paper clarifies influence rate of traffic-flow and eco-driving factors that have effect on on-road fuel economy and a case study was conducted to estimate the CO₂ reduction potential due to traffic-flow smoothing and eco-driving promotion by analyzing floating car data from throughout Japan. The data employed in the study was obtained from hybrid vehicles equipped with an Eco Assist system. Previous research has reported that repeated use of these vehicles enhances fuel economy by approximately 10%. First, multiple regression analysis was performed on the subject floating car data to obtain a polynomial with fuel economy as the explained variable and items related to traffic flow and eco-driving as the explanatory variables. Average travel speed was found to have the greatest effect on fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Fast Injection Rate Common Rail Injector for the Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0687
For reduction of NOx and soot emission with conventional diesel diffusion combustion, the authors focused on enhancement of the rate of injection (hereafter referred to as RoI) to improve air availability, thus enhancing the fuel distribution and atomization. In order to increase opening ramp of the RoI (hereafter referred to as fast injection rate), a hydraulic circuit was improved and nozzle geometries were optimized to make the greatest use of the advantages of the hydraulic circuit. Two different common rail injectors were prepared for this research. One is a mass production-type injector with piezo actuator that achieved the EURO-V exhaust gas emission standards, and the other is a prototype injector equipped with the new hydraulic circuit. The nozzle needle of the prototype injector is directly actuated by high-pressure fuel from common rail to improve the RoI.
Technical Paper

Development of a 6-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with New Variable Cylinder Management Technology

2008-04-14
2008-01-0610
Aiming for higher output power, greater fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions, a new V-6 3.5-liter i-VTEC Variable Cylinder Management (VCM) engine has been developed. This engine uses a cylinder-deactivation mechanism with VTEC technology that allows the number of cylinders to be controlled in three modes (three, four or all six cylinders), according to the operating conditions. This adds a four-cylinder mode to the conventional cylinder- deactivation engine. In addition to increasing the number of cylinder- deactivation modes, the new hydraulic circuits, a hydraulic pressure switching mechanism and a switchover control were also developed. These make it possible to instantaneously switch the active cylinders without impairing drivability, in the same manner as a conventional engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0365
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO₃ (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn⁴+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/γ-Al₂O₃ (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO₂).
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