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Technical Paper

Combination of Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Combined Brake System (CBS) for Motorcycles

1996-02-01
960960
Basic requirements for a motorcycle brake system include achieving adequate deceleration and improving motorcycle stability during braking by easy operation. To help realize these requirements, Combined Brake System (CBS) and Antilock Brake System (ABS) for motorcycle have been researched and developed. A new brake system which combines CBS with ABS has been recently researched and installed on a test motorcycle. The results of braking tests showed high performance in deceleration and good braking feeling especially during ABS actuation.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Motorcycle Behavior of the Moment of Inertia of the Crankshaft

1997-02-24
971060
The moment of inertia of the crankshaft cannot be ignored when analyzing the dynamics of a motorcycle. In this research, the tire friction force (calculated by drag and tire side force) was used as an index of the drive performance. The ratio of roll rate and steering torque (here after referred to as a roll rate gain) was used as an index of the cornering performance, and it was analyzed as the influence of the moment of inertia of a crankshaft on the drive performance as well as cornering performance. As a result, the influence on drive performance and cornering performance by the moment of inertia has been found.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Composites for Cylinder Liners

1994-03-01
940847
There are several all-aluminum cylinder blocks. A typical example is a mono-block cylinder of alusil alloy produced by low pressure die casting. This material's resistance to abrasion and seizure, however, is not satisfactory for motorcycle; in addition, long processing time is another disadvantage. To cope with these problems, the authors developed a light and highly productive all-aluminum cylinder block with a cast-in liner through die casting. The liner is made from powder metallurgy composite (PMC) with 3 to 5 % alumina and 0.5 to 3 % of graphite additives. The PMC reconciles abrasion resistance and machinability. The hardness deterioration of the composite due to the heat at die casting is avoided by using heat-resistant rapidly-solidified powders, made from an aluminum-silecon-iron alloy, for the matrix.
Technical Paper

Development of Programmed-Fuel Injection for Two-Stroke Cycle Racer Engine

1991-11-01
911224
An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
Technical Paper

Development of Elliptical Piston Engine for Motorcycle

1993-03-01
930224
Honda developed a 750cm3 V-4 engine adopting an elliptical piston, and began selling the “NR” motorcycle with the engine installed in 1992. The adoption of an elliptical piston and cylinder achieved a compact layout of eight valves, which consists of four intake valves and four exhaust valves per cylinder. This paper explains the features of an engine with such a layout, focusing on the following: 1) Multiple valves and short-stroke enable the 750cm3 engine to achieve 15,000rpm. 2) The engine is more compact and lightweight than an engine having the same displacement, and more powerful than one with twice as many cylinders (8 cylinders). Also, this paper describes the techniques giving improved blowby gas and oil consumption characteristics as related to the sealing property of the piston, cylinder and piston ring and achieving performance equivalent to a conventional motorcycle engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-use Road Simulator

1993-11-01
931912
A multi-use road simulator for reproducing various road loads on motorcycles and buggies has been developed on a test bench by using computer-controlled hydraulic actuators. The device is controlled by a low-priced personal computer and an interface system with custom software. An unique feature is the capability to simulate loads related to such phenomena as the bottoming of suspension and the movement of a telescopic type front fork on the road.
Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy in Motorcycles Using One-Way Clutch

1989-11-01
891352
The one-way clutch mechanism seen on bicycles, etc. greatly ease the load of riders at times of coasting or descending downhill. Their use on motor vehicles are restricted to some automatic drive four-wheeled vehicles with torque converters. There are neither any example of mass-produced motorcycle with one-way clutch between the engine and the drive system nor any reports of quantitative study on its impact on the performance of the vehicle including fuel economy. The present paper reports the results of experimental research on one-way clutch employed in the drive system, obtained for motorcycles having five kinds of two-cycle engines of different displacements. The test on fuel economy showed an improvement of 4 - 9%.
Technical Paper

Influence of Antilock Brakes on Motorcycle Braking in a Turn

1989-09-01
891773
A theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of antilock braking (ALB) on motorcycle braking in a turn (BIT) is described. The analyses involved computer simulation of the dynamic interaction among rider, motorcycle, ALB, and roadway during BIT maneuvers; and instrumented full scale BIT tests with expert and novice riders. The analyses and full scale tests used an example all mechanical, independent front and rear ALB system. The results showed that ALB can help maintain motorcycle stability in straightline and gradual turns at high and excessive brake force levels. In more severe turns, the motorcycle can capsize at low brake force levels, below those which are typically needed to trigger ALB operation. As a consequence, from a fundamental standpoint, contemporary conventional ALB systems cannot be considered to influence or improve motorcycle stability during limit braking in moderate or near limit turns.
Technical Paper

Study of Riding Assist Control Enabling Self-standing in Stationary State

2018-04-03
2018-01-0576
In motorcycles traveling at medium to high speed, roll stability is usually maintained by restoration forces generated by a self-steering effect. However, when the vehicle is stationary or traveling in low speed, sufficient restoring force does not occur because some of the forces, such as centrifugal force, become small. In our study, we aimed at prototyping a motorcycle having roll stability when the vehicle is stationary or at low speed with a steering control for self-standing assist, while maintaining stability properties in medium to high speed. A model was built to represent dynamics of roll motion, which is composed of a fixed point mass located above the vehicle’s center of gravity and another movable point mass below that gravity center. According to the model, when steered, the roll moment direction generated by the shift of the movable point mass becomes the same as the direction generated by the ground contact point shift of the front tire.
Technical Paper

A System for the Modal Analysis of Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles

1981-02-01
810297
Devices for use in control of exhaust emissions have become indispensable to motorcycles. In order to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each device, the modal analysis system has to be required. The Modal Analysis System is one that classifies any driving schedule which is used for emissions measurement into four modes: idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration; then measures the emissions continuously using a mini-computer which accumulates the results of the analysis by mode. Instead of CO2 tracer method, we introduced the method of diluted exhaust gas measurement. In order for the system to produce reliable measurements, the accuracy of the total installation must be ensured. This paper describes the improvements of accuracy of analysers, technique on handling delay time and the verifications on the modal analysis system.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Practical Application of a TBW System for Large Motorcycle with Improved Driving Feel, Sound Quality, and Layout Flexibility

2010-04-12
2010-01-1094
Honda R&D has developed a throttle-by-wire (TBW) system that meets the needs of motorcycles where the attitude of the vehicle body is controlled by operation of the throttle. To gain high response and following for the throttle valve, we employed a new adaptive control algorithm. The newly developed system has an idling combustion stabilization function and a three-dimensional control function for the throttle-opening map based on running gear and engine speed. With those functions, we improved the controllability of the motorcycle, especially for small throttle openings. Furthermore, we improved the feeling of the limiter control used in maximum-speed limitation. For the overall system, intake system related devices are consolidated to improve the layout flexibility and expand the mounting options on the motorcycle.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Four-Cycle Motorcycle Engine Oils

2008-09-09
2008-32-0080
The environmental performance of automobiles and automobile engines in particular is the foremost issue in the automotive industry today. In addition, engine durability performance is an essential aspect of engine oil performance. Four-cycle motorcycle engine oils formulated with dialkyl phosphate, a sulfur-free additive developed as an alternative to ZDDP, provide excellent environmental and durability performance in terms of longer drain intervals, cleanliness and low corrosion properties.
Technical Paper

Performance of Motorcycle Engine Oil with Sulfur-Based Additive as Substitute Zn-DTP

2008-09-09
2008-32-0005
Just as CO2 reduction is required of four wheeled vehicles for environmental protection, similar environmental concerns drive the development of motorcycle oil technology. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (Zn-DTP) type additives are widely used for engine oil formulations. However, phosphorus compounds are environmental load materials. The reduction of the quantity of phosphorus compounds in engine oils is required to reduce poisoning of three-way catalysts used to purify exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Mr. Ito and his co-authors1) reported that they developed a sulfur-based additive as a substitute for Zn-DTP. Their non-phosphorus engine oil formulation for four-wheeled vehicles with a sulfur-based additive was examined to evaluate its anti-wear performance using the following test methods:JASO M328 for gasoline engines (KA24E) and JASO M354 for Diesel engine (4D34T4).
Technical Paper

Control Technology of Brake-by-Wire System for Super-Sport Motorcycles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0080
Super-sport motorcycles have shorter wheelbases than other category motorcycles. Due to this, strong braking occasionally causes large pitching motions to occur, including rear-wheel-lift. In order to reduce such pitching motions and achieve an effective braking force, the authors have developed a brake-by-wire system that uses a pressure sensor to detect the braking input pressure and an electric actuator to variably control the hydraulic pressure. This system makes it possible to precisely control the braking force compared with the previous ABS. Large pitching control was performed by the distribution of a front wheel and a rear-wheel braking forces, CBS (Combined Brake System), by using electronic control, and Brake-by-Wire has been suitable for sport riding. As a result, stable braking performance could be obtained without spoiling the handling characteristics of super-sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Flexible-Fuel System for Small Motorcycles

2009-11-03
2009-32-0044
A flexible-fuel system for small motorcycles has been developed that can utilize both gasoline, and ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuel. For practicality, we aimed to develop a system that uses a minimum of additional parts. As a method to make both ethanol and gasoline available with the system, a control algorithm that estimates the ethanol concentration by utilizing the output voltage of an OXYGEN SENSOR and selects the appropriate injection quantity is employed. Usually, in automotive flexible-fuel vehicles (FFV), sub-tanks are mounted to ensure engine startability in cold temperatures. However, in small motorcycles, limitations of mounting space must be addressed. In this system, by clarifying the control logic and determining the difficult cases for cold temperature starts due to high ethanol concentration, configuring the indicator to promote gasoline mixture when the start is difficult enabled the elimination of the sub-tanks.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Fuel Pump Module for Motorcycles

2008-09-09
2008-32-0039
A compact, low-cost fuel pump module has been developed for use in motorcycles with a small-displacement engine. Various considerations are given to make the module as compact as possible. The pump motor, which is one of the major component parts, is down-sized specifically for applications to small-displacement engines. The pressure regulator uses a simple construction consisting only of a ball and a spring without a diaphragm. Especially noteworthy is that with the volume reduced by approximately 40% from the conventional pressure regulator while using the construction that reduces self-excited vibrations caused by fuel pressure pulsations, the pressure regulator contributes significantly to the down-sizing and cost reduction of the module. Furthermore, the down-sized module remarkably reduces the size of fuel pump mount surface, allowing a modification from the flat-surface sealing to the radial sealing.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small-Sized Multilayer Fuel Tank for Motorcycles and ATVs Complying with EPA Gasoline Permeation Controls

2008-09-09
2008-32-0041
As a result of recent EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) gasoline permeation control regulations, the fuel tanks on motorcycles and ATVs (All-Terrain Vehicles) are required to change to lower gasoline permeation performance on 2008 models. Therefore, we determined to use a multilayer plastic fuel tank. There are some molding issues that are peculiar to motorcycle and ATV fuel tanks. First, when the insert is blow molded, there is a reduction in welding strength. Second, peeling of the adhesion occurs on impact in the inserted parts. Third, saddle shapes with large ductility deformation are easy to be punctured during molding. Finally, the appearance of the fuel tank is not acceptable. In order to address the first issue, the welding performance, the drawdown of parison and the melting damage of insert parts were balanced, focusing attention to the temperatures of the parison and the insert.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Motorcycle for Business Use

2011-11-08
2011-32-0556
In recent years, the reduction of CO₂ emissions is under way, and the expectancy for electrical power is getting bigger for motorcycles as well. This time, an electric motorcycle with good driving performance, adequate range and quick charging performances for business use has been developed using a small battery. The travel modes have been investigated for business applications of delivery services to classify the traveling patterns and the objectives have been settled based on them. The energy efficiency has been improved by the application of the smallest amount of battery and by the integrated power unit configuration. With this achievement, the range of 34 km (at a constant speed of 30 km/h) has been realized while maintaining the 12-degree hill-climbing departure performance when loaded with a rider and a 30 kg load, which is the requirement of performance for business use.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Motor for Electric Motorcycle for Business Use

2011-11-08
2011-32-0560
A new DC brushless motor, which has an almost equivalent driving performance to a 50 cm₃ scooter engine, has been developed to be used in a new electric motorcycle for business. The traction motor is compact enough to be mounted close to the driveshaft of the transmission, which helps reduce friction in the drive train. Consequently, in the downsized motor, by mounting the drive train unit with the PDU (Power Drive Unit) on the wheel side by applying reduction gears, it enables the reduction of maximum motor torque requirement. It also enables other parts of the drive system to be integrated into one unit. In this motor, IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) structure has been implemented to cope with the high rotation of the motor, and the concentrated winding stator coil has been implemented for downsizing. As for the rotor, the magnets were placed in sections and the yoke shapes were improved to achieve higher rotation speeds that provide the higher power.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure Using Crankshaft Angular Velocity Variation

2011-11-08
2011-32-0510
We have successfully developed a system to estimate Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (hereafter "IMEP") by detecting the crankshaft angular velocity variation during one cycle of a four-stroke single-cylinder gasoline engine. The system has been commercially applied to the spark-ignition timing control system for small-displacement motorcycle engines. The determined amplitude of crankshaft angular velocity variation during one cycle is defined as "delta omega (Δω)." The relationship between Δω and IMEP has been experimentally examined using engine unit bench tests and actual motorcycles. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that Δω represents IMEP. This paper discusses the experimental study on the estimation of IMEP using crankshaft angular velocity variation.
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