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Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0008
In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Journal Article

Prediction of Fatigue Strength of Motorcycle Exhaust System Considering Vibrating and Thermal Stresses

2015-11-17
2015-32-0739
A method applicable in the design stage to predict fatigue strength of a motorcycle exhaust system was developed. In this prediction method, a vibrating stress, thermal stresses, stresses resulting from the assembling of the exhaust system components and a deterioration of fatigue strength of materials originated from high temperature were simultaneously taken into account. For the prediction of the vibrating stress, flexible multibody dynamics was applied to get modeling accuracy for vibration characteristics of the entire motorcycle and the exciting force delivered from engine vibrations. The thermal conduction analysis and the thermal deformation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) were applied for the prediction of thermal stresses in the exhaust system components. The temperature distribution on the surfaces of the exhaust system components is required for calculations of the thermal stresses.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shock Absorber Friction on Vehicle Ride-Comfort Studied by Numerical Simulation Using Classical Single Wheel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0692
Along with the suspension improvement in these two decades, it is well known that the suspension friction force became one of major parameters to affect ride comfort performance. However, it was difficult to carry out quantitative prediction on ride comfort improvement against friction force change with high correlation. It was difficult to analyze correlation between actual vehicle performance and simulation since there were difficulties in controlling damping force and friction individually. On the other hand, magneto-rheological shock absorber (MR Shock) has had several applications and widely spread to passenger vehicles. The large variation and high response of damping force especially in slow piston speed region contributes to achieve an excellent vehicle dynamics performance. However, MR Shock shows the high friction characteristics, due to the unique sliding regime of internal parts. It is said that this high friction characteristic is causing obstacles in ride-comfort.
Technical Paper

Designing for Turbine Housing Weight Reduction Using Thermal Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0533
Turbine housings in car engine turbochargers, which use costly stainless steel castings, account for nearly 50% of the parts cost of a turbocharger. They are also the component which controls the competitiveness of the turbocharger, in terms of both function and cost. In this research, focusing on thermal fatigue resistance which is one of the main functions demanded of a turbine housing, achieving reduction in wall thickness while securing sufficient thermal fatigue resistance, it is possible to reduce the amount of material used in the turbine housing and aimed for cost reduction. Therefore, we built a method to quantitatively predict, using 3D FEM, the lifespan from the initiation of thermal fatigue cracking to the formation of a penetrating crack which leads to gas leakage.
Technical Paper

Development of Motor with Heavy Rare Earth-Free Magnet for Two-Motor Hybrid System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0600
Conventional HEV motors use neodymium magnets with added heavy rare earths, to realize high output and size reduction. However, deposits of heavy rare earths such as Dysprosium (Dy) and Terbium (Tb) are unevenly distributed, so it is important to reduce the amount used, because of supply issue and material cost. In this paper, the application of a heavy rare earth-free magnet is considered on the new motor for a two-motor hybrid system. Compared to conventional neodymium magnets, heavy rare earth free magnets tend to have low coercivity. Also, heavy rare earth-free magnet have low thermal durability, so it is not easy to apply them to motors for a two-motor hybrid system, which requires high output and small size. The motor requires twice as much torque and six times output than one-motor hybrid system. Increase demagnetization resistance and magnet cooling performance is studied by development of the new motor.
Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for Road Load Simulation Using a Tire Model and an Applied Example

2006-04-03
2006-01-1256
A multi-body simulation coupled with a tire model enables the prediction of forces generated on a vehicle when driven over a rough road profile. As the durability of a vehicle depends on these generated forces, the accuracy of the predicted forces is a crucial factor in assessing durability. A new test setup has been used to evaluate the accuracy of the simulation. Due to good reproducibility, the results from physical testing and simulation can be compared in the time domain. This time domain comparison makes it possible to detect any problems associated with the simulation which need to be improved. This new evaluation method is very suitable to full vehicle simulations involving rough road profiles. It was also confirmed that the suspension model with tire model evaluated in this project had an adequate capability for curb strike simulation by a full vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-use Road Simulator

1993-11-01
931912
A multi-use road simulator for reproducing various road loads on motorcycles and buggies has been developed on a test bench by using computer-controlled hydraulic actuators. The device is controlled by a low-priced personal computer and an interface system with custom software. An unique feature is the capability to simulate loads related to such phenomena as the bottoming of suspension and the movement of a telescopic type front fork on the road.
Technical Paper

Research Into Surface Improvement for Low Friction Pistons

2005-04-11
2005-01-1647
1 A new surface modification heat treatment technology called Wonder Process Craft which is different from plating and coating, was applied to the skirt section, which is the sliding surface of the piston in an internal combustion engine. This was intended to improve fuel economy and mechanical characteristics by reducing sliding resistance. In the application of solid lubrication, this treatment does not require the usage of binder, which was necessary for conventional coating, leading to the highest level achievable for the low sliding resistance effect inherent of solid lubrication. Since this treatment does not involve any change in significant dimensions, shapes, surface roughness, and so on, applying this treatment is easy. The persistence of the effect, productivity and recyclability of waste and emissions during treatment were also taken into account.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydraulic Servo Brake System for Cooperative Control with Regenerative Brake

2007-04-16
2007-01-0868
A new brake system, able to make efficient use of regenerative braking while maintaining excellent brake feel, has been developed to increase the fuel economy of hybrid vehicles. A hydraulic servo was used as a base to enable mechanical operation of the service brakes; solenoid valves and brake fluid pressure sensors were added to this base to make it possible to control brake line pressure as demanded. The use of a stroke simulator in the hydraulic servo prevents brake feel from being affected by the control of the brake pressure. In addition, high-accuracy brake pressure control that functions cooperatively with the regenerative brakes is enabled, resulting in stable braking effectiveness.
Journal Article

Advanced Transient Simulation on Hybrid Vehicle Using Rankine Cycle System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0310
A hybrid simulation model in the transient bench was developed to realize the characteristics of the transient behavior and the fuel economy equivalent to that of a real vehicle. The motors and the batteries that were main components of the hybrid vehicle system were simulated as constructive modules, the functions of which have the integrated control and the input/output (I/O) function with real components. This model enabled us to accommodate a variety of auxiliary (AUX) I/O flexibly. The accuracy of the model was verified by the transient characteristics of the engine and the fuel economy result through correlation with a mass-produced vehicle. Furthermore, the flexibility of the model to a variety of AUX I/O was examined from the simulation test of the vehicle equipped with the waste heat recovery (WHR) system.
Technical Paper

Resource-conserving, Heat-resistant Ni-based Alloy for Exhaust Valves

2009-04-20
2009-01-0259
Conventionally, the Ni-based superalloys NCF3015 (30Ni-15Cr) and the high nickel content NCF440 (70Ni-19Cr) (with its outstanding wear resistance and corrosion resistance), have been used as engine exhaust valve materials. In recent years, automobile exhaust gases have become hotter because of exhaust gas regulations and enhanced fuel consumption efficiency. Resource conservation and cost reductions also factor into global environmental challenges. To meet these requirements, NCF5015 (50Ni-15Cr), a new resource-conserving, low-cost Ni-based heat-resistant alloy with similar high-temperature strength and wear resistance as NCF440, has been developed. NCF5015's ability to simultaneously provide wear resistance, corrosion resistance and strength when NCF5015 is used with diesel engines was verified and the material was then used in exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Analysis on In-Cylinder Flow by Means of LDA, PIV and Numerical Simulation under Steady State Flow Condition

2008-04-14
2008-01-1063
This paper describes the evaluation of flow characteristics inside a model engine cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and numerical simulation by Partial Cells in Cartesian coordinate (PCC) method. The main goal of the study is to clarify the differences in the velocity characteristics obtained by these methods. The model engine head has a four-valve system. Single- and dual- valve opening conditions of the model engine head were tested by a steady flow test rig. The flow structures were completely different for these valve opening conditions. The mean velocities and their distributions obtained by the three methods show satisfactory agreement. However, there were differences in the turbulence intensities under several conditions and measuring positions. Taylor's hypothesis in the integral length scale of turbulence was also compared with single LDA and PIV measurements.
Technical Paper

Research on Low-Friction Properties of High Viscosity Index Petroleum Base Stock and Development of Upgraded Engine Oil

1995-02-01
951036
High viscosity index(HVI) petroleum base stock, with excellent temperature-viscosity characteristics, oxidation resistance, and low-evaporation properties, offers advantages as the base stock for high fuel economy engine oils, particularly because of its low-friction properties in the boundary and/or “E.H.L (Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication)” area due to its rheological characteristics. This research evaluated HVI base stock's low-friction properties. Upgrading the oil from 5W-30 to 5W-20 was also investigated. The friction properties of the HVI base stock were measured by a unit friction platform. The results show a 28% reduction in friction coefficient compared with the conventional, solvent refined oil, which is attributable to the high-pressure viscosity of the base oil.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Composites for Cylinder Liners

1994-03-01
940847
There are several all-aluminum cylinder blocks. A typical example is a mono-block cylinder of alusil alloy produced by low pressure die casting. This material's resistance to abrasion and seizure, however, is not satisfactory for motorcycle; in addition, long processing time is another disadvantage. To cope with these problems, the authors developed a light and highly productive all-aluminum cylinder block with a cast-in liner through die casting. The liner is made from powder metallurgy composite (PMC) with 3 to 5 % alumina and 0.5 to 3 % of graphite additives. The PMC reconciles abrasion resistance and machinability. The hardness deterioration of the composite due to the heat at die casting is avoided by using heat-resistant rapidly-solidified powders, made from an aluminum-silecon-iron alloy, for the matrix.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welds with E-coat

1997-02-24
971008
Gas shielded metal arc welding is generally applied to automobile chassis parts. However, the weld parts with the E-coat show poor corrosion resistance. Therefore, the corrosion mechanism of the weld parts was investigated. The results found two reasons why the weld parts corroded faster than the non weld parts:(1)inadequate phosphating (2)defects in the E-coat. After detailed investigation, it was clarified that the major cause of poor corrosion resistance was the defects in the E-coat caused by slags formed on the surface of the weld bead. Therefore the amount of slag has to be decreased to improve the corrosion resistance. The effect of shielding gas composition on the amount of slag was then investigated. In the case of Ar and oxidizing gas mixture, the corrosion resistance improved as the oxidizing gas content decreased. This was due to the reduction of slags.
Technical Paper

Application of HIL Simulations for the Development of Vehicle Stability Assist System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0816
The Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) system can generate sufficient forces to rapidly change the vehicle's motion. We can use this capability to effectively control the vehicle's behavior, but we must pay careful attention to ensure its reliability. The VSA system should be precisely tuned for each vehicle's characteristics in order to satisfactorily control performance without any unnecessary intervention or any excessive warnings. Usually extensive field tests are necessary to precisely tune the VSA system. This paper presents a practical method to tune the VSA system with Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations in the final stage of its development. Due to the application of this procedure, both high control capabilities and reliability of the VSA system can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Resistance for Lean NOx Catalyst

2003-03-03
2003-01-1166
A new type of lean NOx catalyst has been developed with improved thermal resistance. This lean NOx catalyst contains precious metals and NO2 adsorbents. The precious metals are used mainly for the oxidation reaction of NO, and the NO2 adsorbents are for the adsorption removal of generated NO2. The thermal resistance of the catalyst was raised by paying attention to the following points. 1) Improvement of thermal resistance for the NO oxidation activity by addition of a different precious metal element. 2) Prevention of thermal degradation of the NO2 adsorbent by addition of a new metal oxide. For item 1, Pd was added to the catalyst which had already included Pt. By having Pd coexist with Pt, the precious metal dispersion was kept high even after heat treatment, so the NO oxidizing ability was improved. For item 2, thermal degradation of NO2 adsorbent was prevented by addition of the new metal oxide (B) to the adsorbent.
Technical Paper

Influences of Turbulence Scale on Development of Spherically Propagating Flame under High EGR Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1868
EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) can reduce the pumping loss and improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines. The techniques for combustion enhancement under high EGR rate condition has been required for further improvement of the thermal efficiency. In order to develop the technique of combustion enhancement by turbulence, the influences of turbulence scale on combustion properties, such as probability of flame propagation, EGR limit of flame propagation, flame quenching and combustion duration were investigated under the condition of same turbulence intensity. Experiments were carried out for stoichiometric spherically propagating turbulent i-C8H18/Air/N2 flames using a constant volume vessel. It was clarified that all of these combustion properties were affected by the turbulence scale. The development of spherically propagating turbulent flame during flame propagation was affected by the turbulence scale.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Heat Treatment on Corrosion-Related Failure of the Suspension Spring

2015-04-14
2015-01-0518
In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
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