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Technical Paper

Development of Electric Power Steering

A new electric power steering (EPS) was developed which uses an electric motor to provide assistance. It is a system combinning the latest in power electronics and high power motor technologies. The development was aimed at enhancing the existing hydraulic power steering's energy efficiency, driver comfort as well as increasing active stability. This paper describies the overall concept of EPS and outlines the components and control strategies using electronics. The EPS was tested on a front wheel drive vehicle weighing 1000kg in front axle load. The results showed a 5.5% improvement in fuel economy. The EPS has also achieved returnability that gives the driver more moderate feelings matching the vehicle in action as well as the active stability control strategy for high speed driving.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-use Road Simulator

A multi-use road simulator for reproducing various road loads on motorcycles and buggies has been developed on a test bench by using computer-controlled hydraulic actuators. The device is controlled by a low-priced personal computer and an interface system with custom software. An unique feature is the capability to simulate loads related to such phenomena as the bottoming of suspension and the movement of a telescopic type front fork on the road.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Motorcycle for Business Use

In recent years, the reduction of CO₂ emissions is under way, and the expectancy for electrical power is getting bigger for motorcycles as well. This time, an electric motorcycle with good driving performance, adequate range and quick charging performances for business use has been developed using a small battery. The travel modes have been investigated for business applications of delivery services to classify the traveling patterns and the objectives have been settled based on them. The energy efficiency has been improved by the application of the smallest amount of battery and by the integrated power unit configuration. With this achievement, the range of 34 km (at a constant speed of 30 km/h) has been realized while maintaining the 12-degree hill-climbing departure performance when loaded with a rider and a 30 kg load, which is the requirement of performance for business use.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Power Performance Prediction in Outboard Motors for High-Speed Planing Boats using CFD Simulation

Predicting fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor for a high speed small planing boat are numerically challenging. The propeller is one of the most popular propulsion systems used for outboard motors. We focused our attention on the fact that the thrust performance of a propeller has a major impact on cruising fuel consumption and performance. We believe that we can numerically predict cruising fuel consumption, which has conventionally been estimated through experiential means, using accurate thrust performance measurements via CFD simulation without cavitations model. This study aims to develop a simulator that could quantitatively predict cruising fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor used for a high speed small planing boat. After comparing the CFD simulation of propellers against the results of model tests, the simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Unsteady Lift Force on Vehicle Dynamics in Heave and Pitch Motion

The change in the aerodynamic lift force (henceforth CL) by heave motion is discussed in this paper in order to clarify the effect of aerodynamic characteristics on the vehicle dynamic performance. We considered that phenomenon in actual car running at 160km/h and 1Hz heave frequency. Using a towing tank to change its water from the air to the working fluid to more easily observe this phenomenon. That makes possible to observe the same phenomenon with reduced velocity and small models under same Strouhal number condition. This method can be reducing vehicle speed to 3m/s (1/15 actual) and frequency to 0.2Hz (1/5 actual) in case using 40% scaled model. The results of these tests showed that unsteady CL is proportional to heave motion. These results showed the proportional relationship between unsteady CL and heave motion. The formularization of unsteady CL made it possible to introduce shape coefficients to vehicle dynamics simulations as functions of heave velocity.
Technical Paper

Application of Road Load Prediction Technique for Suspension Durability Input Condition

The aim discussed in this paper is to show a technique to predict loads input to the wheels, essential to determining input conditions for evaluation of suspension durability, by means of full vehicle simulations using multi body analysis software Adams/Car. In this process, model environments were built to enable reproduction of driving modes, and a method of reproducing the set-up conditions of a durability test vehicle was developed. As the result of verification of the accuracy of the simulations in the target driving modes, good correlation for waveforms can be confirmed. And also confirm a good correlation in relation to changes of input load due to changes in suspension specifications.
Technical Paper

Development of Motor Emulator Provided with HIL Simulator for Simulation of HEV Power Control Unit Current during Vehicle Operation

Conventionally, it has not been possible to evaluate current and temperature in power control units (PCU) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) during vehicle operation without using an actual permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The research discussed in this paper developed a motor emulator to take the place of an actual motor, making it possible to conduct tests for the evaluation of current and temperature in PCU during vehicle operation without the need to use a motor. The motor emulator is provided with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator that calculates motor models at high speed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The developed system models the motor in detail via the HIL simulator, while a 3-phase current generator accurately reproduces the transient current in the PCU during vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Research on Variable-Speed Brake Control in Multiple-Collision Automatic Braking

According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Drive System for New Model Super Sports Hybrid Vehicle

A three-motor hybrid system suitable for a super sports car was developed. This system features high power, light weight and high response, and has high cooling performance for high-load operation such as circuit driving. The power plant drives the rear wheels using the combination of a midship-mounted V6 twin-turbo engine, the direct drive motor of a hybrid system mounted directly on the engine, and a 9-speed dual-clutch transmission (DCT). The front wheels are driven by a twin-motor unit (TMU), and the size and weight of the Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) that supplies electric power to the TMU has been reduced to enable mounting behind the seats inside the cabin. In addition, the IPU uses air-conditioner cooperative cooling to enhance the cooling performance. As a result, assist is performed even during high-load operation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight and Compact 1kVA-Class Portable Generator

The development of the lightweight and compact EU1000i generator with a maximum output of 1kVA is presented. The technology applied to achieve the required levels of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and noise, and to provide a stable electrical power supply with low waveform distortion is described. The technology comprises of four elements: a high-speed, multi-pole, external rotor type alternator, a microcomputer-controlled sine wave inverter, a compact high-speed 4-stroke engine with electronic speed governing, and a lightweight frame with a two-level noise-damping system. Combination of these four elements of technology has achieved 50% less weight, 25-30% lower fuel consumption, and 7-9dB(A) less noise than the previous model. The emission levels of CO and of NOx + HC are also 30% and 65% lower than the 2000 CARB regulations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for Road Load Simulation Using a Tire Model and an Applied Example

A multi-body simulation coupled with a tire model enables the prediction of forces generated on a vehicle when driven over a rough road profile. As the durability of a vehicle depends on these generated forces, the accuracy of the predicted forces is a crucial factor in assessing durability. A new test setup has been used to evaluate the accuracy of the simulation. Due to good reproducibility, the results from physical testing and simulation can be compared in the time domain. This time domain comparison makes it possible to detect any problems associated with the simulation which need to be improved. This new evaluation method is very suitable to full vehicle simulations involving rough road profiles. It was also confirmed that the suspension model with tire model evaluated in this project had an adequate capability for curb strike simulation by a full vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydraulic Servo Brake System for Cooperative Control with Regenerative Brake

A new brake system, able to make efficient use of regenerative braking while maintaining excellent brake feel, has been developed to increase the fuel economy of hybrid vehicles. A hydraulic servo was used as a base to enable mechanical operation of the service brakes; solenoid valves and brake fluid pressure sensors were added to this base to make it possible to control brake line pressure as demanded. The use of a stroke simulator in the hydraulic servo prevents brake feel from being affected by the control of the brake pressure. In addition, high-accuracy brake pressure control that functions cooperatively with the regenerative brakes is enabled, resulting in stable braking effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Interconnection Technology for Engine Generators

The development of the 1 kW-class inverter unit with a small engine generator that conforms to “Guideline for the interconnection technology requirements” has succeeded. To connect distributed electrical sources such as wind power generation, photovoltaic generation, or cogeneration to the utility grid, it is necessary to detect demand-side problems including the distributed sources (short circuit, ground fault, troubles in generated voltage or frequency) and to detect problems in the grid (power failure and troubles of voltage or frequency). It is also necessary to protect electric power systems, distributed sources, and electrical appliances. The inverter unit uses both passive and active islanding detection methods. Total distortion factor is reduced to less than 1% by applying two kinds of input current to the power supply unit. Efficiency of the interconnection inverter unit has achieved 91% and total efficiency of power generation of the cogeneration unit has achieved 20%.
Technical Paper

Control Device of Electronically Controlled Fuel Injection System of Air-cooled Engines for Small Motorcycles

In conventional electronically controlled fuel injection systems, when the battery is inadequately charged, the small amount of electric power generated from the alternator by the kick starter operation is consumed by all electrical loads including the battery. This causes a voltage drop, hence the fuel injection system does not function due to a power shortage. To eliminate the power shortage, an installed relay circuit opens all electric loads other than the fuel injection system. This allows the fuel injection system to use all the electric power generated by the kick starter operation aided through using an additionally incorporated condenser. This type of electric power control system has been incorporated into the ECU. Thus, the control system has been realized that permits starting of an engine by using the kick-starter even when the battery is completely discharged.
Technical Paper

Electric Power Control System for a Fuel Cell Vehicle Employing Electric Double-Layer Capacitor

A fuel-cell-vehicle has been provided with an electric-double-layer-capacitor system (capacitor) to act as a back-up power source. The fuel cells and the capacitor have different voltages when the system is started, and for this reason the system could not be reconnected by relays. A VCU (Voltage and current Control Unit) has been positioned in the path of electrical connection between the fuel cells and the capacitor as a method of dealing with this issue. The VCU enables the charging of the capacitor to be controlled in order to equalize the voltage of the two power sources and allow a connection.
Technical Paper

Application of HIL Simulations for the Development of Vehicle Stability Assist System

The Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) system can generate sufficient forces to rapidly change the vehicle's motion. We can use this capability to effectively control the vehicle's behavior, but we must pay careful attention to ensure its reliability. The VSA system should be precisely tuned for each vehicle's characteristics in order to satisfactorily control performance without any unnecessary intervention or any excessive warnings. Usually extensive field tests are necessary to precisely tune the VSA system. This paper presents a practical method to tune the VSA system with Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations in the final stage of its development. Due to the application of this procedure, both high control capabilities and reliability of the VSA system can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Technical Paper

Research of Steering Grasping to Take over Driver from System

Lane departure prevention systems are able to detect imminent departure from the road, allowing the driver to apply control to prevent lane departure. These systems possess enormous potential to reduce the number of accidents resulting from road departure, but their effectiveness is highly reliant on their level of acceptance by drivers. The effectiveness of the systems will depend on when they are providing driving assistance, what level of laxness in terms of maintaining contact with the steering wheel is allowed on the part of the driver, and what level of assistance the system provides. This paper will discuss research on the minimum necessary contact and contact strength with the steering wheel on the part of the driver when a lane departure prevention system is in operation.
Journal Article

Durability Design Method of New Stopper Bush Using New Theory (Friction and Spring) for Electric Power Steering

In the automobile industries, weight reduction has been investigated to improve fuel efficiency together with reduction of CO2 emission. In such circumstance, it becomes necessity to make an electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight. In this study, we aimed to have a smaller and lighter EPS gear size by focusing on an impact load caused at steering end. In order to increase the shock absorption energy without increase of stopper bush size, we propose new theory of impact energy absorption by not only spring function but also friction, and a new stopper bush was designed on the basis of the theory. The profile of the new stopper bush is cylinder form with wedge-shaped grooves, and when the new stopper bush is compressed by the end of rack and the gear housing at steering end, it enables to expand the external diameter and produce friction. In this study, we considered the durability in the proposed profile.