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Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0008
In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

2009-11-03
2009-32-0076
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

Research on Dynamic Behavior Simulation Technology for Cam-Drive Mechanism in Single-cylinder Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0089
A theoretical evaluation technology for timing chain systems in single-cylinder engine has been established. Hitherto, there have been almost no theoretical evaluation reports published about drive loss and slapping noise in cam drive systems including timing chains. Thus, tensioner lifter and tensioner guide specifications to satisfy requirements related to slapping noise and friction loss have been determined only by tests with actual engines. In this research, a highly accurate mechanism-simulation model has been constructed that takes into account factors such as dynamic characteristics along with crank sprocket and timing chain contact stiffness and friction coefficient in addition to static characteristics of the timing chain and tensioner guide. Our results have confirmed a high correlation with actual engine tests at an absolute value level.
Technical Paper

Development of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Small Motorcycle Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0083
A single cylinder gasoline engine of displacement 125 cm3 for prototype was developed, and the fuel economy of this engine was improved by reducing friction and improving combustion. For reducing friction, various methods were innovated; enhancement of the oil film retention by modifying the striation finish on piston skirt, adding the needle bearing to the rocker arm shaft, press-fitting the bush into the small end of connecting rod, reducing contact pressure with the piston ring, and spray coating molybdenum disulfide onto the shift fork. By innovating these friction reduction methods, the friction of the engine was reduced by 6% compared to the previous model which was already employed the roller rocker arm and the offset cylinder. For improving combustion, the swirl control valve (SCV) was installed into the intake port. By the effect of SCV, both improvement of engine power and improving combustion under low load was achieved.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-Generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering for Production Vehicle)

2011-04-12
2011-01-0557
Looking back on steering systems in more than a hundred years that have passed since the introduction of the automobile, it can be seen that original method of controlling cars pulled by animals such as horses was by reins, and early automobiles had a single push-pull bar (tiller steering). That became the steering wheel, and an indirect steering mechanism by rotating up and down caught on. While the steering wheel is the main type of steering system in use today, the team have developed the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system controlled mainly by bi-articular muscles, making use of advancements in science and technology and bioengineering to develop based on bioengineering considerations as shown in Fig. 1. The objective of that is to establish the ultimate steering operation system for drivers. In the first report, the authors reported on results found by using race-car prototypes as shown in Fig. 2.
Journal Article

Simulation of Fuel Economy Effectiveness of Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Thermoelectric Generator in a Series Hybrid

2011-04-12
2011-01-1335
Simulation was employed to estimate the fuel economy enhancement from the application of an exhaust heat recovery system using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a series hybrid. The properties of the thermoelectric elements were obtained by self-assessment and set as the conditions for estimating the fuel economy. It was concluded that applying exhaust system insulation and forming the appropriate combination of elements with differing temperature properties inside the TEG could yield an enhancement of about 3% in fuel economy. An actual vehicle was also used to verify the calculation elements in the fuel economy simulation, and their reliability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Study of Low-Viscosity Engine Oil on Fuel Economy and Engine Reliability

2011-04-12
2011-01-1247
An examination was made on the effect of low-viscosity engine oil on fuel efficiency improvements and engine reliability for the purpose of improving fuel efficiency through the use of select engine oils. Fuel efficiency-improving effects were estimated by measuring friction torque using low-viscosity engine oil. The results show that reducing engine oil viscosity is effective for improving fuel efficiency. In examining engine reliability, attention was paid to the following two aspects which are concerns in practical performance that may arise when engine oil viscosity is reduced. Engine oil consumption Sliding wear at high temperatures Tests and analyses were conducted to develop indexes for engine oil properties that are strongly correlated with each of these two concerns. A strong correlation was found between engine oil consumption and the results of a thermogravimetric analysis, and between high-temperature sliding wear and high-temperature, high-shear viscosity (HTHS).
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Power Performance Prediction in Outboard Motors for High-Speed Planing Boats using CFD Simulation

2012-10-23
2012-32-0099
Predicting fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor for a high speed small planing boat are numerically challenging. The propeller is one of the most popular propulsion systems used for outboard motors. We focused our attention on the fact that the thrust performance of a propeller has a major impact on cruising fuel consumption and performance. We believe that we can numerically predict cruising fuel consumption, which has conventionally been estimated through experiential means, using accurate thrust performance measurements via CFD simulation without cavitations model. This study aims to develop a simulator that could quantitatively predict cruising fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor used for a high speed small planing boat. After comparing the CFD simulation of propellers against the results of model tests, the simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Efficiency New CVT for Midsize Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0365
A CVT for midsize vehicles was developed that simultaneously achieves high levels of fuel efficiency performance and driving enjoyment, and marketability enabling deployment to global markets, and support for high-torque direct injection engines. This was done by modifying the CVT for 2.4 L-class vehicles sold in Japan, expanding the ratio range, using CVTF with a high friction-coefficient that simultaneously realizes both high efficiency and a high transmission capacity. This enabled achievement of an overall length of 386.5 mm, total weight of 96.1 kg, and maximum transmission torque of 270 Nm, and also enhanced fuel efficiency by approximately 10% (EAP fuel economy label) compared to the 2008 model year Accord 5AT and approximately 5% (JC08) compared to the 2010 model year STEP WGN CVT. Thus, CVT performance was obtained that can simultaneously realize high levels of both fuel efficiency and driving enjoyment.
Journal Article

Development of a New Two-Motor Plug-In Hybrid System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1476
A highly efficient two-motor plug-in hybrid system is developed to satisfy the global demands of CO2 reduction. This system switches three operation modes, what is called “EV Drive”, “Hybrid Drive” and “Engine Drive”, to maximize fuel efficiency according to the driving condition of the vehicle. Practical plug-in EV (Electric Vehicle) capability is also realized by adding a high-power on-board charger and a high capacity Li-ion battery to the original system. The outlines of the system components including a newly developed Atkinson cycle engine, a highly efficient electric coupled CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with built-in motor and generator, an integrated PCU (Power Control Unit) and an exclusive battery for plug-in HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) are described in this paper. In addition to the switching of three driving modes and the efficiency improvement of each device, cooperative control of the hybrid system is introduced.
Journal Article

Development of New V6 3.5L Gasoline Engine for ACURA RLX

2013-04-08
2013-01-1728
Honda has developed a new next-generation 3.5 L V6 gasoline engine using our latest Earth Dreams Technology. The overall design objective for the engine was to reduce CO₂ emissions and provide driving exhilaration. The Earth Dreams Technology concept is to increase fuel economy while reducing emissions. To achieve this and provide an exhilarating driving experience, 3-stage Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control (VTEC) was combined with the Variable Cylinder Management (VCM) system. This valve train technology in conjunction with Direct Injection (DI), resulted in dramatic improvements in output (a 3.3% increase) and combined mode fuel economy (20% reduction). Helping to achieve Midsize Luxury Sedan level NV, a new mount system was developed to reduce engine vibrations during three-cylinder-mode operation. In this paper, we will explain the 3-stage VTEC with VCM + DI system, friction reducing technology, and the structure and benefit of the new engine mount system.
Technical Paper

Expansion of Motorized Seatbelt Control that Adjusts to Vehicle Behavior and the Effect of that Expansion

2014-04-01
2014-01-0507
Currently, a number of automobile OEMs have been equipped motorized seatbelt systems with volume-production vehicles. Since the current systems are generally initiated by the activation of the automatic collision brakes, or the brake assist systems; the benefit of those systems is limited solely in pre-crash phase. To enhance the effectiveness of the system, we attempted to develop a motorized seatbelt system which enables to control retracing force according to various situations during driving. The present system enables to accomplish both the occupants' comfort and protection performance throughout their driving from when it is buckled to when unbuckled and stored, or during both routine and sport driving, as well as pre-crash phase. Moreover, it was confirmed that lateral occupants' excursion during driving was reduced by up to 50% with the present system.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Simplified Vehicle Model that Can Reproduce Car-Pedestrian Collisions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0514
Japanese accident statistics show that despite the decreasing trend of the overall traffic fatalities, more than 1,000 pedestrians are still killed annually in Japan. One way to develop further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents is to reconstruct a variety of accident scenarios dynamically using computational models. Some of the past studies done by the authors' group have used a simplified vehicle model to investigate pedestrian lower limb injuries. However, loadings to the upper body also need to be reproduced to predict damage to the full body of a pedestrian. As a step toward this goal, this study aimed to develop a simplified vehicle model capable of reproducing pedestrian full-body kinematics and pelvis and lower limb injury measures. The simplified vehicle model was comprised of four parts: windshield, hood, bumper and lower part of the bumper. Several different models were developed using different combinations of geometric and stiffness representation.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Generational Difference of Intracranial Responses Related to Traumatic Brain Injuries Using Age-Specific Human Head/Brain FE Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-0485
The high frequency of fatal head injuries of elderly people in traffic accidents is one of the important issues in Japan. One of the causes may be vulnerability of the aged brain. While a human head/brain FE model is a useful tool to investigate head injury mechanism, there has not been a research result using a model considering the structural and qualitative changes of the brain by aging. The objective of this study was to clarify the generational difference of intracranial responses related to traumatic brain injuries (TBI) under impact loading. In this study, the human head/brain FE models in their twenties (20s) and seventies (70s) were used. They were developed by reflecting the age-specific characteristics, such as shape/size and stiffness of brain matter and blood vessels, to the baseline model developed by Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) LLC.
Journal Article

Detect the Imperceptible Drowsiness

2010-04-12
2010-01-0746
Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations, in which human error may cause fatal accidents. Recently, we focused on the pupil which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, easily and non-invasively observable from the outside of the body. Prior to the large low frequency pupil-diameter fluctuation, which is known to associate with drowsiness, a Gradual Miosis was observed in most subjects. During this miosis period, the subjects were not yet aware of their drowsiness. We have developed a software system which automatically detects the Gradual Miosis in real time.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering System)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0993
With the objective of establishing the ultimate steering operation system for drivers, we developed, based on bioengineering considerations, the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system which mimicks the bi-articular muscles, as shown in Fig. 1 . The bioengineering advantages are as follows: (1) force can be exerted more easily, (2) the steering can be accomplished quickly, (3) the positioning can be done accurately, and (4) the burden on the driver can be reduced (less fatigue). The advantages of the vehicle in terms of its motion are as follows: (1) the line-traceability is improved, (2) the drift control is improved, (3) the lane-change capability is improved, and (4) the lap time and stability are improved. We would like to report on these advantages of the TLS system from a bioengineering standpoint, and also describe the results of some verification test results obtained from vehicles equipped with this new steering system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Contribution of Body Flexibility to the Handling and Ride Comfort Performance of Passenger Cars

2010-04-12
2010-01-0946
Full vehicle multibody models are commonly used to improve the handling and ride comfort performance of passenger cars. When focusing on body, it is difficult to validate the simulation results as the forces at the body/suspension interface cannot be measured. Moreover, body results cannot be easily correlated to the handling perception because it is by nature subjective. In this paper, we present a new methodology based on experimental data to analyze the contribution of the body flexibility to the handling performance of a passenger car. This method, using operational measurements and body measurements, allows in a first step to identify the body forces and in a second step, to analyze the contribution of the body modes during handling maneuvers. The same process can be applied for ride comfort.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency 6-speed Automatic Transmission

2010-04-12
2010-01-0858
A new 6-speed automatic transmission (AT) has been developed with the aim of enhancing fuel economy, raising efficiency, and achieving greater compactness. The unit was built on a parallel-shaft structure similar to the previous Honda AT, which has high torque transmission efficiency. The new AT was given more gear speeds and the ability to handle higher input torque from the engine. On the one hand, bolt structure for shaft tightening was implemented, the forward-reverse shift mechanism was placed on the input shaft and common gear trains are provided. As a result of these and other measures, the total length of the new transmission is 18 mm shorter than the previous model 5-speed AT. A multi-plate lock-up clutch (LC) structure with a separate chamber in the torque converter was also adopted so that the lock-up torque capacity could be increased and the LC control range expanded.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Turbocharger Response Delay Mechanism

2010-04-12
2010-01-1226
Increasing fuel economy is highly demanded because of the GHG reduction today. Turbocharged downsized engines have much attention as one of the effective technology for this demand. Turbocharged boost technology enables to increase thermal efficiency, but this also has a response delay known as turbo lag, which may cause lower engine performance and poor drivability. This issue impedes the broader application of this technology. The research discussed in this paper focused on turbo lag, and adopted a numerical approach to analyzing the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon. The study concluded that turbo lag is a delay in the boost pressure response that originates from a combination of factors. The primary factor in turbo lag is a delay that is due to physical properties of the turbocharger system; the secondary factor is a decreased effective turbine energy caused by a shift in the operating point, resulting from the primary factor.
Technical Paper

Power Train for a New Compact Sporty Hybrid Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-1095
This paper presents a power train developed for a 2011-model compact sporty hybrid vehicle. The power train, developed based on existing mass-produced car components such as an engine, transmission, and Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system, takes advantage of the IMA system to strike a good balance of driving performance, fuel economy, and low exhaust gas emissions. The conventional concept behind a hybrid design was to use motor output to compensate for a power reduction caused by smaller engine displacement. For the development of this power train, a new approach was taken to utilize the motor output to create a better driving feel. Making full use of a good motor response and directness, the power train realized this sporty driving feel, unlike anything offered by conventional cars.
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