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Technical Paper

Engine Seizure Monitoring System Using Wear Debris Analysis and Particle Measurement

Several attempts have been reported in the past decade or so which measured the sizes of particles in lubricant oil in order to monitor sliding conditions (1). Laser light extinction is typically used for the measurement. It would be an ideal if only wear debris particles in lubricant oil could be measured. However, in addition to wear debris, particles such as air bubbles, sludge and foreign contaminants in lubricant oil are also measured. The wear debris particles couldn't have been separated from other particles, and therefore this method couldn't have been applied to measurement devices for detection when maintenance service is required and how the wear state goes on. It is not possible to grasp the abnormal wear in real time by the conventional techniques such as intermittent Ferro graphic analysis. In addition, it is no way to detect which particle size to be measured by the particle counter alone.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ductility Ingredients of Structural Adhesives on Fracture Energy under Static Mixed-Mode Loading

In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
Technical Paper

Design of High Performance Coated GPF with 2D/3D Structure Analysis

In recent years along with stringent the regulations, vehicles equipped with gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have started to launch. Compared to bare GPF, coated GPF (cGPF) requires not only PN filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, but also purification performance. In the wall flow type cGPF having a complicated the pore shape, the pore structure further irregularly changes depending on the coated state of the catalyst, so it is difficult to understand the matter of in-wall. In order to advance of cGPF function, it was researched that revealing the relevance between pore structure change in the wall and GPF function. Therefore, to understand the catalyst coated state difference, cGPF of several coating methods were prepared, and their properties were evaluated by various analyses, and performance was tested.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Ductile Fracture Propagation of High Strength Steels in Automotive Structures

Initiation and propagation of ductile fractures in crashed automotive components made from high strength steels are investigated in order to understand the mechanism of fracture propagation. Fracture of these components is often prone to occur at the sheet edge in a strain concentration zone under crash deformation. The fracture then extends intricately to the inside of the structure under the influence of the local stress and strain field. In this study, a simple tensile test and a 3-point bending test of high strength steels with tensile strengths of 590 MPa and 1180 MPa are carried out. In the tensile test, a coupon having a hole and a notch is deformed in a uniaxial condition. The effect of the notch type on the strain concentration and fracture behavior are investigated by using a digital imaging strain measurement system.
Journal Article

Ag-Type PM Oxidation Catalyst with Nd Added to Increase Contact Property between PM and Catalyst

Honda diesel engine vehicles that go on the market in 2018 will be equipped with a newly developed silver (Ag)-type catalyzed diesel particulate filter (cDPF). Ag has high particulate matter (PM) oxidation performance, but conventional catalyst-carrying methods cause weak contact property between PM and Ag; therefore, the newly Ag-type cDPF was developed on the concept of enhancing the property of contact between PM and the catalyst to realize contact property enhancement at the macro, meso, and nano scales. As a result, the newly developed catalyst showed an enhancement of T90 performance by a factor of approximately 2 relative to the conventional Ag-type catalyst in fresh condition. Durability in the environment of an automobile in use was examined through hydrothermal aging, lean-rich (L/R) aging, sulfur (S) poisoning, and ash deposition. The results have confirmed that hydrothermal aging is the greatest factor in deterioration.
Technical Paper

Study on Ignition Timing Control for Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Sensor

As technologies for simultaneously maintaining the current high thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reducing particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, many new combustion concepts have been proposed, including premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and low-temperature combustion[1]. However, it is well known that since such new combustion techniques precisely control combustion temperatures and local air-fuel ratios by varying the amount of air, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and the fuel injection timing, they have the issues of being less stable than conventional combustion techniques and of performance that is subject to variance in the fuel and driving conditions. This study concerns a system that addresses these issues by detecting the ignition timing with in-cylinder pressure sensors and by controlling the fuel injection timing and the amount of EGR for optimum combustion onboard.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Heat-Resistant High-Nitrogen Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel for Exhaust Gasket

SUS301-EH is widely used as a material for exhaust system gaskets, however, at temperatures in excess of 400°C, it can not be used as gas-seal ability of the material declines due to its reduced hardness. The following methods were found to be effective in controlling the softening of stainless steel at high temperatures: (1) The addition of a nitrogen component; (2) Stabilization of the austenite structure; (3) The addition of a molybdenum component. The addition of 0.5% nitrogen to austenitic stainless steel containing molybdenum has enabled the speed of softening at high temperatures to be significantly reduced, due to strain aging by solid nitrogen below 600°C and the combined effects of precipitation hardening and control of growth of recrystallized grains through the precipitation of fine Cr2N on the dislocations and the grain boundary above 600°C.
Technical Paper

Structure to Assist in the Prevention of Bimetallic Corrosion of Hybrid Doors

The use of low-density materials in body panels is increasing as a measure to reduce the weight of the vehicle body. Honda has developed an aluminum/steel sheet hybrid door that is more effective in reducing weight than an all-aluminum door. Because aluminum was used in the door skin, bimetallic corrosion at the connection between the aluminum and the steel sheets represented an issue. It was possible that the difference in the electrical potential of the two metals might promote corrosion at the connection between the aluminum door skin and the steel sheet door panel, in particular at the lower edge of the door, where rainwater and other moisture tend to accumulate, with the result that the appeal of the exterior of the door might decline.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metal Composite Material Suitable for Extrusion Process used for Cylinder Sleeves of Internal Combustion Engines

There are a couple of ways to manufacture aluminum cylinder blocks that have a good balance between productivity and abrasion resistance. One of them is the insert-molding of a sleeve made of PMC (Powder Metal Composite) by the HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting) method. However, in this method, cracks are apt to occur on the surface when the PMC sleeve is extruded and that has been a restriction factor against higher extrusion speed. The authors attempted to raise this extrusion temperature by eliminating the Cu additive process from the aluminum alloy powder in order to raise its melting point by approximately 50 °C. This enabled the wall of the extruded sleeve to be thinner and the extrusion speed to be higher compared to those of a conventional production method while avoiding the occurrence of surface cracks.
Technical Paper

Development of 1600 N/mm2 Class Ultra-High Strength Bolts

1 Many different bolts are employed in automobiles for different purposes and uses, and their strength generally ranges from 700 N/mm2 to 1200 N/mm2. Automobiles face the issue of making improvements in fuel economy as an environmental measure, and there is consequently a requirement to lighten component parts. The creationof higher-strength bolts is an important factor in achieving lighter weight. Increasing the strength, however, can also bring about an increased incidence of delayed fracture, and the conventional solution used to require the application of special steels such as expensive maraging steel. The present development addressed this issue by focusing on high carbon steel rod, which had been considered less susceptible to delayed fracture, although heading was also considered to be difficult. Heading techniques were therefore devised that made it possible not only to form bolts from this material, but also to provide satisfactory strength.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburizing Steel for Crankshafts

The purpose of our research is to omit normalizing after hot forging in nitrocarburized crankshafts. Based on fundamental studies about the influence of chemical composition on as-forged and nitrocarburized properties, the authors have developed a new nitrocarburizing steel composed of 0.3% carbon, 0.8% manganese, and 0.02% nitrogen. The newly designed crankshafts for compact cars using the steel can be in use without the normalizing and have equivalent properties to conventional crankshafts, though the treatment is an indispensable process for conventional ones.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

Study of Piston Pin Noise of Semi-Floating System

This paper summarizes the piston pin noise mechanism and show the way to reduce noise level of semi-floating system. A mechanism of piston pin noise of semi-floating system was clarified by measurement of piston and piston pin behavior and visualization of engine oil mist around piston and piston pin. Piston and piston pin behavior was measured by accelerometer and eddy current type gap sensor with linkage system at the actual engine running condition. Engine oil behavior was visualized and measured its flow vector by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). For PTV, engine oil mist particle image was taken by high speed camera with fiber scope attached to linkage system. From themeasurement, it was cleared that engine oil doesn't reach to piston hole from undersurface of piston land and come rushing out from piston broach via groove. The result shows that lacking of engine oil between piston and piston pin makes noise larger.
Technical Paper

Trend of Bolts for Use in Automobiles and Development of Class 10.9 Low Carbon Boron Steel Bolt

There are strong demands for reduced production costs of ordinary bolts, of which a large number are used throughout automobiles. In addition, there are continued demands for higher performance and lower weight in automobiles. For this reason, there is an increasing trend to develop steel for high strength bolts or to adopt the plastic region tightening method. At present, the principal materials used in high strength bolts of class 10.9 are medium carbon alloy steel. When a low carbon boron steel bolt is used as a class 10.9 bolt under high stress, delayed fracture may occur, so that these cannot always be used for the body and chassis applications. The authors have developed a new low carbon boron steel with increased delayed fracture strength on the same order as that of JIS-SCM435 (equivalent to SAE4135) medium carbon alloy steel. Attention was focused principally on decreasing the amounts of phosphorus and sulfur in the steel.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Heat Treatment on Corrosion-Related Failure of the Suspension Spring

In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
Journal Article

Development of γ′-Fe4N Phase Control Technology and Low-Carbon Alloy Steel for High-Strength Nitrided Gear

A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
Journal Article

Development of a New Pressure Measurement Technique and PIV to Validate CFD for the Aerodynamics of Full-scale Vehicles

In the early stages of aerodynamic development of commercial vehicles, the aerodynamic concept is balanced with the design concept using CFD. Since this development determines the aerodynamic potential of the vehicle, CFD with high accuracy is needed. To improve its accuracy, spatial resolution of CFD should be based on flow phenomenon. For this purpose, to compare aerodynamic force, pressure profile and velocity vector map derived from CFD with experimental data is important, but there are some difficulties to obtain pressure profile and velocity vector map for actual vehicles. At the point of pressure measurement for vehicles, installation of pressure taps to the surface of vehicle, i.e., fuel tank and battery, is a problem. A new measurement method developed in this study enables measurement of surface pressure of any desired points. Also, the flexibility of its shape and measuring point makes the installation a lot easier than the conventional pressure measurement method.
Technical Paper

Introduction of a New Method of Solving Wear Problems Caused by the Swing Motion Occurring between the Roller and the Sliding Contact Surface

In an attempt to decrease the amount of CO2 emitted by engines and yet improve engine output power, various approaches to the development of variable valve-lift mechanisms and the application of direct fuel injection and supercharger mechanisms are rapidly gaining popularity. In the case of the swing motion which takes place in variable valve-lift mechanisms, the relative speed between the two components reaches zero at the location where the load is high and the oil film tends to break, thereby leading to wear. Furthermore, the use of a supercharger and a direct injection device generates soot, which promotes further wear. Therefore establishing a reliable method for estimating wear has become a pressing issue. Wear problems caused by the swing motion occur during boundary lubrication, and we have devised a solution for them.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Fast Injection Rate Common Rail Injector for the Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Engine

For reduction of NOx and soot emission with conventional diesel diffusion combustion, the authors focused on enhancement of the rate of injection (hereafter referred to as RoI) to improve air availability, thus enhancing the fuel distribution and atomization. In order to increase opening ramp of the RoI (hereafter referred to as fast injection rate), a hydraulic circuit was improved and nozzle geometries were optimized to make the greatest use of the advantages of the hydraulic circuit. Two different common rail injectors were prepared for this research. One is a mass production-type injector with piezo actuator that achieved the EURO-V exhaust gas emission standards, and the other is a prototype injector equipped with the new hydraulic circuit. The nozzle needle of the prototype injector is directly actuated by high-pressure fuel from common rail to improve the RoI.
Journal Article

Development of GFRTP Crush Box with Consideration of Use Environment and Effect of Fiber Orientation

Regulation of automotive CO2 emissions is becoming increasingly stringent throughout the world in response to global warming. For automakers, this means a focus not only on increasing the fuel economy of powertrains, but also on reducing automotive driving resistance. High expectations are held for thermoplastic fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) for the realization of automotive weight savings while also offering high levels of productivity and recyclability. Thermoplastic FRP crush boxes display a higher level of energy absorption performance than metal (steel, aluminum, etc.) crush boxes. This will contribute to automotive weight savings and improved package design. In the case of automotive front bumper beam systems, it is necessary to realize stable load characteristics irrespective of the use environment. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects of temperature and thermoplastic resin degradation.