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A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
Technical Paper

Development of a 6-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with New Variable Cylinder Management Technology

Aiming for higher output power, greater fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions, a new V-6 3.5-liter i-VTEC Variable Cylinder Management (VCM) engine has been developed. This engine uses a cylinder-deactivation mechanism with VTEC technology that allows the number of cylinders to be controlled in three modes (three, four or all six cylinders), according to the operating conditions. This adds a four-cylinder mode to the conventional cylinder- deactivation engine. In addition to increasing the number of cylinder- deactivation modes, the new hydraulic circuits, a hydraulic pressure switching mechanism and a switchover control were also developed. These make it possible to instantaneously switch the active cylinders without impairing drivability, in the same manner as a conventional engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Journal Article

Development of Waterborne Conductive Primer for Motorcycles

Most types of paint materials currently used for motorcycles contain large amounts of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). VOCs are environmental load substances, and there is a demand to reduce emissions in recent years. Many of a motorcycle's exterior parts are made of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) plastics (henceforth ABS) or PA (Polyamid) plastics (henceforth PA). These two plastic materials have different film adhesion mechanisms and adhesion strength. Therefore it was necessary to use different conductive primers and that's was one of the factors which made time and material losses in the painting processes. We solved those two issues, the reduction of VOCs and the common use of the same conductive primer for different parts materials, by combining two kinds of resins originally designed as the conductive primers, i.e., urethane resins with carboxylic acid groups and acrylic resins with amide groups, which are different in properties.
Technical Paper

Engine Seizure Monitoring System Using Wear Debris Analysis and Particle Measurement

Several attempts have been reported in the past decade or so which measured the sizes of particles in lubricant oil in order to monitor sliding conditions (1). Laser light extinction is typically used for the measurement. It would be an ideal if only wear debris particles in lubricant oil could be measured. However, in addition to wear debris, particles such as air bubbles, sludge and foreign contaminants in lubricant oil are also measured. The wear debris particles couldn't have been separated from other particles, and therefore this method couldn't have been applied to measurement devices for detection when maintenance service is required and how the wear state goes on. It is not possible to grasp the abnormal wear in real time by the conventional techniques such as intermittent Ferro graphic analysis. In addition, it is no way to detect which particle size to be measured by the particle counter alone.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ductility Ingredients of Structural Adhesives on Fracture Energy under Static Mixed-Mode Loading

In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
Technical Paper

Design of High Performance Coated GPF with 2D/3D Structure Analysis

In recent years along with stringent the regulations, vehicles equipped with gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have started to launch. Compared to bare GPF, coated GPF (cGPF) requires not only PN filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, but also purification performance. In the wall flow type cGPF having a complicated the pore shape, the pore structure further irregularly changes depending on the coated state of the catalyst, so it is difficult to understand the matter of in-wall. In order to advance of cGPF function, it was researched that revealing the relevance between pore structure change in the wall and GPF function. Therefore, to understand the catalyst coated state difference, cGPF of several coating methods were prepared, and their properties were evaluated by various analyses, and performance was tested.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Journal Article

Ag-Type PM Oxidation Catalyst with Nd Added to Increase Contact Property between PM and Catalyst

Honda diesel engine vehicles that go on the market in 2018 will be equipped with a newly developed silver (Ag)-type catalyzed diesel particulate filter (cDPF). Ag has high particulate matter (PM) oxidation performance, but conventional catalyst-carrying methods cause weak contact property between PM and Ag; therefore, the newly Ag-type cDPF was developed on the concept of enhancing the property of contact between PM and the catalyst to realize contact property enhancement at the macro, meso, and nano scales. As a result, the newly developed catalyst showed an enhancement of T90 performance by a factor of approximately 2 relative to the conventional Ag-type catalyst in fresh condition. Durability in the environment of an automobile in use was examined through hydrothermal aging, lean-rich (L/R) aging, sulfur (S) poisoning, and ash deposition. The results have confirmed that hydrothermal aging is the greatest factor in deterioration.
Technical Paper

Study on Engine Management System Using In-cylinder Pressure Sensor Integrated with Spark Plug

There has been strong public demand for reduced hazardous exhaust gas emissions and improved fuel economy for automobile engines. In recent years, a number of innovative solutions that lead to a reduction in fuel consumption rate have been developed, including in-cylinder direct injection and lean burn combustion technologies, as well as an engine utilizing a large volume of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Furthermore, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is under development for actual application. However, one of the issues common to these technologies is less stable combustion, which causes difficulty in engine management. Additionally, it is now mandatory to provide an onboard diagnosis (OBD) system. This requires manufacturers to develop a technology that allows onboard monitoring and control of the combustion state. This paper reports on an innovative combustion diagnostic method using an in-cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Study on Ignition Timing Control for Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Sensor

As technologies for simultaneously maintaining the current high thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reducing particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, many new combustion concepts have been proposed, including premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and low-temperature combustion[1]. However, it is well known that since such new combustion techniques precisely control combustion temperatures and local air-fuel ratios by varying the amount of air, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and the fuel injection timing, they have the issues of being less stable than conventional combustion techniques and of performance that is subject to variance in the fuel and driving conditions. This study concerns a system that addresses these issues by detecting the ignition timing with in-cylinder pressure sensors and by controlling the fuel injection timing and the amount of EGR for optimum combustion onboard.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four-Valve Lean Burn Engine

The reduction of fuel consumption is of great importance to automobile manufacturers. As a prospective means to achieve fuel economy, lean burn is being investigated at various research organizations and automobile manufacturers and a number of studies on lean-burn technology have been reported to this date. This paper describes the development of a four-valve lean-burn engine; especially the improvement of the combustion, the development of an engine management system, and the achievement of vehicle test results. Major themes discussed in this paper are (1) the improvement of brake-specific fuel consumption under partial load conditions and the achievement of high output power by adopting an optimized swirl ratio and a variable-swirl system with a specially designed variable valve timing and lift mechanism, (2) the development of an air-fuel ratio control system, (3) the improvement of fuel economy as a vehicle and (4) an approach to satisfy the NOx emission standard.
Technical Paper

Study on Emission Reducing Method with New Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For diesel engines, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge.[1],[2],[3],[4]. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows the effective reduction of NOX. However, in order to realize cleaner emission gases, precise engine control in response to the state of the exhaust aftertreatment system is essential.
Technical Paper

Performance of Motorcycle Engine Oil with Sulfur-Based Additive as Substitute Zn-DTP

Just as CO2 reduction is required of four wheeled vehicles for environmental protection, similar environmental concerns drive the development of motorcycle oil technology. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (Zn-DTP) type additives are widely used for engine oil formulations. However, phosphorus compounds are environmental load materials. The reduction of the quantity of phosphorus compounds in engine oils is required to reduce poisoning of three-way catalysts used to purify exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Mr. Ito and his co-authors1) reported that they developed a sulfur-based additive as a substitute for Zn-DTP. Their non-phosphorus engine oil formulation for four-wheeled vehicles with a sulfur-based additive was examined to evaluate its anti-wear performance using the following test methods:JASO M328 for gasoline engines (KA24E) and JASO M354 for Diesel engine (4D34T4).
Technical Paper

Development of Intake Air Pressure Sensorless Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

A new control system using O₂ feedback control has been developed as an alternative to intake air pressure sensors. This control method uses the operational condition compensation coefficient Kbu. This coefficient encompasses the state of the engine and environmental conditions such as atmospheric pressure, and corrects fuel injection in response to changes in these factors. Kbu makes it possible to control the amount of fuel injection without depending on an intake air pressure sensor. It also makes it possible to carry out the appropriate air-fuel ratio correction even at times when O₂ feedback control is not operating, such as the cold period, when the engine is first started, or during transient operation, by using Kbu values recorded in the Engine Control Unit (henceforth ECU).
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metal Composite Material Suitable for Extrusion Process used for Cylinder Sleeves of Internal Combustion Engines

There are a couple of ways to manufacture aluminum cylinder blocks that have a good balance between productivity and abrasion resistance. One of them is the insert-molding of a sleeve made of PMC (Powder Metal Composite) by the HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting) method. However, in this method, cracks are apt to occur on the surface when the PMC sleeve is extruded and that has been a restriction factor against higher extrusion speed. The authors attempted to raise this extrusion temperature by eliminating the Cu additive process from the aluminum alloy powder in order to raise its melting point by approximately 50 °C. This enabled the wall of the extruded sleeve to be thinner and the extrusion speed to be higher compared to those of a conventional production method while avoiding the occurrence of surface cracks.
Technical Paper

NOx Conversion Properties of a Mixed Oxide Type Lean NOx Catalyst

Development is proceeding on catalysts which separate the NOx in lean exhaust gas by adsorption and then reduce the adsorbed NOx in combustion exhaust gas with the stoichiometric or a slightly richer air fuel ratio, as well as exhaust conversion technology that uses these catalysts. Amidst this research it has been found that catalysts containing mixed metal oxides exhibit superior NOx adsorption performance, so the authors prepared a mixed metal oxide catalyst by adding precious metals and promoters, etc. The resulting catalyst has high heat resistance and also offers excellent SOx durability. These properties were presumed to be due to an adsorbent including the mixed metal oxide, and the relation between the physical properties and NOx conversion properties of the catalyst was investigated.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Engine Speed and Injection Pressure Transients on Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Cold Start

Results are presented from an experimental study of the effects of engine speed and injection pressure transients on the cold start performance of a gasoline direct injection engine operating on iso-octane. The experiments are performed in an optically-accessible single-cylinder research engine modified for gasoline direct injection operation. In order to isolate the effects of the engine speed and injection pressure transients, three different cold start simulations are used. In the first cold start simulation the engine speed and injection pressure are constant. In the second cold start simulation the injection pressure is constant while the engine speed transient of an actual cold start is simulated. In the third cold start simulation both the engine speed and the injection pressure transients of an actual cold start are simulated.
Technical Paper

A System for the Modal Analysis of Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles

Devices for use in control of exhaust emissions have become indispensable to motorcycles. In order to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each device, the modal analysis system has to be required. The Modal Analysis System is one that classifies any driving schedule which is used for emissions measurement into four modes: idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration; then measures the emissions continuously using a mini-computer which accumulates the results of the analysis by mode. Instead of CO2 tracer method, we introduced the method of diluted exhaust gas measurement. In order for the system to produce reliable measurements, the accuracy of the total installation must be ensured. This paper describes the improvements of accuracy of analysers, technique on handling delay time and the verifications on the modal analysis system.
Technical Paper

Penn State FutureTruck Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Light-Duty Diesel Exhaust Emission Control System to Meet ULEV Emissions Standard

Two of the goals of the Penn State FutureTruck project were to reduce the emissions of the hybrid electric Ford Explorer to ULEV or lower, and improve the fuel economy by 25% over the stock vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicle system is powered with a 103kW 2.5L Detroit Diesel engine which operates with a fuel blend consisting of ultra-low-sulfur diesel and biodiesel (35%). Lower emissions are inherently achieved by the use of biodiesel. Additionally, the engine was fitted with a series of aftertreatment devices in an effort to achieve the low emissions standards. Vehicle testing has shown a gasoline-equivalent fuel economy improvement of approximately 22%, a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 38%, and meeting or exceeding stock emissions numbers in all other categories through the use of an advanced catalyst and control strategy.