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Technical Paper

Development of Programmed-Fuel Injection for Two-Stroke Cycle Racer Engine

1991-11-01
911224
An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
Technical Paper

Concept for Developing Vehicle Handling Evaluation Procedure Suitable for Active Control Technology

1989-11-01
891200
The recent development of electronics has led to increased research efforts to put the active control technique to practical use in various fields of automotive technology. This report tries to identify the goals likely to be achieved by the active control technology and the subjects of study involved in research activities for this end. As a promising approach to the solution of these subjects, the report discusses the problem areas of the existing evaluation method for vehicle handling performance and then proposes feasible ideas in this field. Finally the report gives a few examples of the research methods we have successfully applied to the development of a four wheel steering system.
Technical Paper

Modification of Vehicle Handling Performance by Four-Wheel Steering System

1985-01-01
856039
At past ESV conferences, we have reported on a series of studies on how the driver's control performance is affected by vehicle steering response. These studies showed that a four-wheel steering system can reduce the delay in lateral acceleration response to steering action, which may result in better control performance of the driver. The present report examines the handling performance of an experimental vehicle fitted with a four-wheel steering system under a wider range of operating conditions. The studies were conducted using mathematical models and simulation of the driver-vehicle system, plus road tests. The findings indicate that the four-wheel steering system may provide better vehicle handling performance than a conventional two-wheel steering system. A vehicle incorporating this steering system may exhibit improved accident avoidance capabilities.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy in a Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine for a Small Motorcycle

1985-11-11
852238
For the purpose of reducing the fuel consumption of a motorcycle with a small-displacement, four-stroke spark-ignition engine, a compact combustion chamber was tried and the weight of the moving parts of the engine was reduced. As a result, the gas mileage under 30 km/h cruising condition was increased to 110 km/l with an improvement of 50% over a conventional motorcycle.
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-1107
This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering System)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0993
With the objective of establishing the ultimate steering operation system for drivers, we developed, based on bioengineering considerations, the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system which mimicks the bi-articular muscles, as shown in Fig. 1 . The bioengineering advantages are as follows: (1) force can be exerted more easily, (2) the steering can be accomplished quickly, (3) the positioning can be done accurately, and (4) the burden on the driver can be reduced (less fatigue). The advantages of the vehicle in terms of its motion are as follows: (1) the line-traceability is improved, (2) the drift control is improved, (3) the lane-change capability is improved, and (4) the lap time and stability are improved. We would like to report on these advantages of the TLS system from a bioengineering standpoint, and also describe the results of some verification test results obtained from vehicles equipped with this new steering system.
Technical Paper

Control Technology of Brake-by-Wire System for Super-Sport Motorcycles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0080
Super-sport motorcycles have shorter wheelbases than other category motorcycles. Due to this, strong braking occasionally causes large pitching motions to occur, including rear-wheel-lift. In order to reduce such pitching motions and achieve an effective braking force, the authors have developed a brake-by-wire system that uses a pressure sensor to detect the braking input pressure and an electric actuator to variably control the hydraulic pressure. This system makes it possible to precisely control the braking force compared with the previous ABS. Large pitching control was performed by the distribution of a front wheel and a rear-wheel braking forces, CBS (Combined Brake System), by using electronic control, and Brake-by-Wire has been suitable for sport riding. As a result, stable braking performance could be obtained without spoiling the handling characteristics of super-sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0008
In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vibration Reducing Effect on Vehicle Dynamics by Hydraulic Damper on Body Structure

2019-04-02
2019-01-0171
This research investigated the mechanism of the effects of hydraulic dampers, which are attached to vehicle body structures and are known by experience to suppress vehicle body vibration and enhance ride comfort and steering stability. In investigating the mechanism, we employed quantitative data from riding tests, and analytical data from simplified vibration models. In our assessment of ride comfort in riding tests using vehicles equipped with hydraulic dampers, we confirmed effects reducing body floor vibration in the low-frequency range. We also confirmed vibration reduction in unsprung suspension parts to be a notable mechanical characteristic which merits close attention in all cases. To investigate the mechanism of the vibration reduction effect in unsprung parts, we considered a simplified vibration model, in which the engine and unsprung parts, which are rigid, are linked to the vehicle body, which is an elastic body equipped with hydraulic dampers.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Piston Skirt Scuffing via 3D Piston Motion Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1044
This paper describes the establishment of a new method for predicting piston skirt scuffing in the internal combustion engine of a passenger car. The authors previously constructed and reported a method that uses 3D piston motion simulation to predict piston slap noise and piston skirt friction. However, that simulation did not have a clear index for evaluation of scuffing that involves piston skirt erosion, and it impressed shortage of the predictive accuracy of a scuffing. Therefore, the authors derived a new evaluation index for piston skirt scuffing by actually operating an internal combustion engine using multiple types of pistons to reproduce the conditions under which scuffing occurs, and comparing with the results of calculating the same conditions by piston motion simulation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shock Absorber Friction on Vehicle Ride-Comfort Studied by Numerical Simulation Using Classical Single Wheel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0692
Along with the suspension improvement in these two decades, it is well known that the suspension friction force became one of major parameters to affect ride comfort performance. However, it was difficult to carry out quantitative prediction on ride comfort improvement against friction force change with high correlation. It was difficult to analyze correlation between actual vehicle performance and simulation since there were difficulties in controlling damping force and friction individually. On the other hand, magneto-rheological shock absorber (MR Shock) has had several applications and widely spread to passenger vehicles. The large variation and high response of damping force especially in slow piston speed region contributes to achieve an excellent vehicle dynamics performance. However, MR Shock shows the high friction characteristics, due to the unique sliding regime of internal parts. It is said that this high friction characteristic is causing obstacles in ride-comfort.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Leakage Suppression of DLC Coating on Piston Ring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0457
Piston ring wear in gasoline engine induces deterioration of emissions performance due to leakage of blow-by gas, instability of idling caused by reduced compression in combustion chamber, and to generate early degeneration of engine oil. We examined anti-wear performance of DLC coating on piston ring, which had been recently reported as an effective method for improving the abrasion resistance. As a result, wear rate remained low under the condition of DLC existence on sliding surface, but once DLC was worn out completely, wear of the piston ring was accelerated and its life became shorter than piston ring without DLC. In this research, we designed reciprocating test apparatus that operates at much higher velocity range, and characterized the frictional materials of the piston ring and sleeve and the DLC as a protective film, a vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) was actively used as a means to form certain level of convex and concave shape on its surface.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Power Transmission Efficiency for Two-Mode Half-Toroidal IVT

2018-04-03
2018-01-1060
Infinitely variable transmission (IVT) is one of the methods used to extend the ratio coverage. In this paper, a dynamic behavior analysis technology was developed for an IVT utilizing a half-toroidal variator as the shifting device. The traction coefficient of traction fluid used for the half-toroidal IVT varies greatly according to contact surface slip rate, contact pressure and fluid temperature. This paper used measurement values from a four-roller machine to identify the coefficient, and then applied it to the dynamic behavior analysis. Use of the identified traction coefficient enabled power transmission characteristic predictions of a half-toroidal variator. To reproduce the elastic deformation in actual operation, the research used the Finite Element Method (FEM) for modeling. This model was also used to visualize the frictional state of traction surfaces during operation.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2018-04-03
2018-01-1063
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Technical Paper

Designing for Turbine Housing Weight Reduction Using Thermal Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0533
Turbine housings in car engine turbochargers, which use costly stainless steel castings, account for nearly 50% of the parts cost of a turbocharger. They are also the component which controls the competitiveness of the turbocharger, in terms of both function and cost. In this research, focusing on thermal fatigue resistance which is one of the main functions demanded of a turbine housing, achieving reduction in wall thickness while securing sufficient thermal fatigue resistance, it is possible to reduce the amount of material used in the turbine housing and aimed for cost reduction. Therefore, we built a method to quantitatively predict, using 3D FEM, the lifespan from the initiation of thermal fatigue cracking to the formation of a penetrating crack which leads to gas leakage.
Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Performance of Antilock Brakes with Simplified Control Technique

1983-02-01
830484
The four-wheel controlling antilock brake system is considered as an effective safety device because of its capability to help a driver to maintain vehicle stability and steerability during panic braking even on a slippery road surface. This report deal with a simplified control technique which simultaneously controls right and left wheels on each front or rear axle. Both front wheels are controlled in response to a signal from the front wheel with the least slip, while both rear wheels are controlled in response to a signal from the rear wheel that has the greatest slip. A series of tests proved that this technique ensures vehicle steering ability even during panic braking. On a gravel and other rough roads, this system provided shorter stopping distance compared to other four-wheel antilock systems. It has been generally assumed that stopping distance extension on such roads is only one disadvantage of the four-wheel antilock brake system.
Technical Paper

Double-Wishbone Suspension for Honda Prelude

1984-09-01
841186
This paper describes the double wishbone suspension used in the Honda Prelude. This system is designed to improve handling and anti-dive performance via the layout of the suspension arms and the springs and dampers. It also allows a low hood line over the transverse mounted engine for this sports-type vehicle.
Technical Paper

Four Wheel Steering System with Rear Wheel Steer Angle Controlled as a Function of Steering Wheel Angle

1986-02-01
860625
This paper discusses the desired steer angle characteristics of rear wheels in the new concept of four wheel steering system in which the rear wheels are controlled as a function of the steering wheel angle in a manner that the rear wheels are steered in the same direction as the front wheels when the steering wheel angle is kept within a small range while the rear wheels are steered in the opposite direction to the front in the case the steering wheel angle is steered over a larger range. This paper also indicates the basic principle of the four wheel steering system and lists items for consideration in determining the function, and then presents a variety of effects the new steering system produces on operating performances based upon a series of proving ground tests.
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