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Technical Paper

Development of Programmed-Fuel Injection for Two-Stroke Cycle Racer Engine

1991-11-01
911224
An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy in a Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine for a Small Motorcycle

1985-11-11
852238
For the purpose of reducing the fuel consumption of a motorcycle with a small-displacement, four-stroke spark-ignition engine, a compact combustion chamber was tried and the weight of the moving parts of the engine was reduced. As a result, the gas mileage under 30 km/h cruising condition was increased to 110 km/l with an improvement of 50% over a conventional motorcycle.
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for HEV & EV

2010-04-12
2010-01-1252
This paper proposes a new motor design procedure for reducing motor loss in hybrid vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). To find an optimum design in a short time, a non-linear magnetic circuit model was developed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Speed-torque curves and motor losses were calculated based on this model. Combined with Energy Management Simulation, this model makes it possible to find an optimum motor design with minimum loss.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-1107
This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Journal Article

Development of Waterborne Conductive Primer for Motorcycles

2012-10-23
2012-32-0089
Most types of paint materials currently used for motorcycles contain large amounts of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). VOCs are environmental load substances, and there is a demand to reduce emissions in recent years. Many of a motorcycle's exterior parts are made of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) plastics (henceforth ABS) or PA (Polyamid) plastics (henceforth PA). These two plastic materials have different film adhesion mechanisms and adhesion strength. Therefore it was necessary to use different conductive primers and that's was one of the factors which made time and material losses in the painting processes. We solved those two issues, the reduction of VOCs and the common use of the same conductive primer for different parts materials, by combining two kinds of resins originally designed as the conductive primers, i.e., urethane resins with carboxylic acid groups and acrylic resins with amide groups, which are different in properties.
Technical Paper

Study of Effect of CVT Pulleys on Strength and Transmission Efficiency of Metal Pushing V-belts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1426
In designing CVT pulleys, the effect of the fit clearance of the movable pulleys and their stiffness on the transmission efficiency and strength of the metal pushing V-belt is not necessarily clear. The research discussed in this paper introduced a pulley model that defined the pulleys as elastic bodies to a previously developed technology for the prediction of the transmission efficiency of the belts. As a result, it was found that when the fit clearance is reduced, the transmission efficiency of the belt is increased, and the amplitude of stress on the innermost rings and the element neck section is reduced. In addition, it was found that if pulley stiffness was reduced transmission efficiency was also reduced, and the amplitude of stress on the element neck section increased. This indicated that the fit clearance and the pulley stiffness changed the degree of deflection of the pulleys in the axial direction.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering System)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0993
With the objective of establishing the ultimate steering operation system for drivers, we developed, based on bioengineering considerations, the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system which mimicks the bi-articular muscles, as shown in Fig. 1 . The bioengineering advantages are as follows: (1) force can be exerted more easily, (2) the steering can be accomplished quickly, (3) the positioning can be done accurately, and (4) the burden on the driver can be reduced (less fatigue). The advantages of the vehicle in terms of its motion are as follows: (1) the line-traceability is improved, (2) the drift control is improved, (3) the lane-change capability is improved, and (4) the lap time and stability are improved. We would like to report on these advantages of the TLS system from a bioengineering standpoint, and also describe the results of some verification test results obtained from vehicles equipped with this new steering system.
Journal Article

Prediction of Fatigue Strength of Motorcycle Exhaust System Considering Vibrating and Thermal Stresses

2015-11-17
2015-32-0739
A method applicable in the design stage to predict fatigue strength of a motorcycle exhaust system was developed. In this prediction method, a vibrating stress, thermal stresses, stresses resulting from the assembling of the exhaust system components and a deterioration of fatigue strength of materials originated from high temperature were simultaneously taken into account. For the prediction of the vibrating stress, flexible multibody dynamics was applied to get modeling accuracy for vibration characteristics of the entire motorcycle and the exciting force delivered from engine vibrations. The thermal conduction analysis and the thermal deformation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) were applied for the prediction of thermal stresses in the exhaust system components. The temperature distribution on the surfaces of the exhaust system components is required for calculations of the thermal stresses.
Journal Article

Positioning Simulation Using a 3D Map and Verification of Positional Estimation Accuracy in Urban Areas Using Actual Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-0083
Positional accuracy of GPS measurement has been based on simulation and actual measurement due to the difficulty of conducting 24-hour actual running tests. However, the conventional measurement is only based on brief evaluation; hence variability of positional accuracy which varies depending on measurement time and location had been an issue. Thus, it is significant to show the validity by the estimation of positional accuracy, and actual measurement using of lengthy simulation. In this study, actual measurement data in an urban area was obtained for long hours, and a simulation using 3D maps was implemented. A high precision positional measurement system was equipped on a vehicle in order to collect actual measurements and positional data at each measurement time. The data obtained by the measurement system was used as the reference coordinate for both the simulation and the actual measurements.
Technical Paper

Engine Seizure Monitoring System Using Wear Debris Analysis and Particle Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-0888
Several attempts have been reported in the past decade or so which measured the sizes of particles in lubricant oil in order to monitor sliding conditions (1). Laser light extinction is typically used for the measurement. It would be an ideal if only wear debris particles in lubricant oil could be measured. However, in addition to wear debris, particles such as air bubbles, sludge and foreign contaminants in lubricant oil are also measured. The wear debris particles couldn't have been separated from other particles, and therefore this method couldn't have been applied to measurement devices for detection when maintenance service is required and how the wear state goes on. It is not possible to grasp the abnormal wear in real time by the conventional techniques such as intermittent Ferro graphic analysis. In addition, it is no way to detect which particle size to be measured by the particle counter alone.
Technical Paper

Robust Design on Adhesive Material and Bonding Process for Automotive Battery Pack

2019-04-02
2019-01-0160
Adhesive bonding is a key technology for the lighter weight of battery pack trays using aluminum material. A robust design method of adhesive bonding with the required strength for battery pack structure after degradation was developed to minimize variability of strength under various noise conditions. The parameter design based on Taguchi methods determined the optimum adhesive condition of the bonding process. To guarantee strength after degradation, it is essential to select a robust adhesive material and to minimize the strength variation derived from the adhesive material. The functional evaluation, which includes experimental design method, determined adhesive material with the minimum strength variation among material candidates. Then, robustness of the adhesive material itself has been evaluated as the result of collaboration with the adhesive material supplier. This analysis was able to regulate the compound ratio of raw materials without reducing the adhesive strength.
Technical Paper

Atomization in High-Pressure Die Casting - Step 2 Simulation of Atomized Flow of Molten Aluminum by LES-VOF Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1393
The atomization of molten aluminum when injected during high-pressure die casting is analyzed to determine its effect in enhancing the strength of the product being cast. In the previously reported first step of this study, molten aluminum was injected into open space and its atomization was observed photographically. Now in the second step of the study, a simulation is conducted to determine how the molten aluminum becomes atomized at the injection nozzle (gate) and how this atomized material flows and fills the cavity. A new simulation method is developed based on large-eddy simulation coupled with the volume-of-fluid method. The simulation system is verified by comparing its output with photographs taken in the first step of the study. Simulations are then conducted using an approximation of a real cavity to visualize how it is filled by the atomized molten aluminum.
Technical Paper

Research of Atomization Phenomena in HPDC-Step 1 Feature of Gas Porosity Dispersion and Photography of Atomized Flow

2018-04-03
2018-01-1392
In recent years, studies have been conducted on the relationship between the J factor, which indicates flow of molten aluminum at the time of injection, and the quality of HPDC products. The flow of molten metal at a high J factor is referred to as “Atomized Flow.” The authors and others conducted studies on the relationship between the J factor and the strength of HPDC products. An area exceeding 300MPa was found in the product produced at a high J factor corresponding to the “Atomized Flow.” The defect was less in the above-mentioned position because the gas porosity was finely dispersed. Considering that the fine dispersion of gas porosity is related to the “Atomized Flow”, pictures were taken to analyze “Atomized Flow.” The molten aluminum was ejected into an open space at a high speed and the splashed conditions were photographed. From the images taken by the pulse laser permeation, the conditions of microscopic atomized flow were observed precisely.
Technical Paper

Development of High Appearance Water Born Primer Surfacer Coating for Short Process Body Paint

2019-04-02
2019-01-0189
4C3B (4 coat 3 bake) painting system (see Figure 1) which needs a bake process after the primer surfacer paint was very general and common process for the automotive body painting system. In the beginning of the 2000s, 4C2B painting system (Reference 1) was developed which changed the oven after the primer surfacer paint to a pre heat area, so it can reduce the carbon dioxide (Figure 1, and Figure 2). But unfortunately in this 4C2B painting system, the base coat will be painted on the primer surfacer paint wet-on-wet. By that reason, the appearance deterioration will occur often. The authors used a low temperature crosslinking agent “Polycarbodiimide” to a water born primer surfacer paint, to control the viscosity of primer surfacer paint at the pre heat area. Controlling the viscosity is important to avoid the layer mixing of the primer surfacer paint and the base coat which makes appearance deterioration.
Technical Paper

Life Estimation of Rolling Bearings Based on the Colors on Sliding Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-0180
It is experimentally known that the surface color of bearing balls gradually becomes brown during long term operation of the bearings under appropriate lubrication conditions. That exhibits the possibility of an estimation method for residual life of ball bearings without any abnormal wear on the surfaces by precise color measurements. Therefore, we examined what set colors on bearing balls by surface observation using scanning electron microscopy and subsurface analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that an amorphous carbon layer had gradually covered ball surfaces during operation of the bearings. The layer not only changed ball color but also made overall ball shapes closer to a complete sphere. The report also introduces a uniquely developed color analyzer which enabled color measurements on metallic surfaces, such as the above-mentioned balls.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Piston Skirt Scuffing via 3D Piston Motion Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1044
This paper describes the establishment of a new method for predicting piston skirt scuffing in the internal combustion engine of a passenger car. The authors previously constructed and reported a method that uses 3D piston motion simulation to predict piston slap noise and piston skirt friction. However, that simulation did not have a clear index for evaluation of scuffing that involves piston skirt erosion, and it impressed shortage of the predictive accuracy of a scuffing. Therefore, the authors derived a new evaluation index for piston skirt scuffing by actually operating an internal combustion engine using multiple types of pistons to reproduce the conditions under which scuffing occurs, and comparing with the results of calculating the same conditions by piston motion simulation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shock Absorber Friction on Vehicle Ride-Comfort Studied by Numerical Simulation Using Classical Single Wheel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0692
Along with the suspension improvement in these two decades, it is well known that the suspension friction force became one of major parameters to affect ride comfort performance. However, it was difficult to carry out quantitative prediction on ride comfort improvement against friction force change with high correlation. It was difficult to analyze correlation between actual vehicle performance and simulation since there were difficulties in controlling damping force and friction individually. On the other hand, magneto-rheological shock absorber (MR Shock) has had several applications and widely spread to passenger vehicles. The large variation and high response of damping force especially in slow piston speed region contributes to achieve an excellent vehicle dynamics performance. However, MR Shock shows the high friction characteristics, due to the unique sliding regime of internal parts. It is said that this high friction characteristic is causing obstacles in ride-comfort.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ductility Ingredients of Structural Adhesives on Fracture Energy under Static Mixed-Mode Loading

2017-03-28
2017-01-0473
In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Leakage Suppression of DLC Coating on Piston Ring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0457
Piston ring wear in gasoline engine induces deterioration of emissions performance due to leakage of blow-by gas, instability of idling caused by reduced compression in combustion chamber, and to generate early degeneration of engine oil. We examined anti-wear performance of DLC coating on piston ring, which had been recently reported as an effective method for improving the abrasion resistance. As a result, wear rate remained low under the condition of DLC existence on sliding surface, but once DLC was worn out completely, wear of the piston ring was accelerated and its life became shorter than piston ring without DLC. In this research, we designed reciprocating test apparatus that operates at much higher velocity range, and characterized the frictional materials of the piston ring and sleeve and the DLC as a protective film, a vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) was actively used as a means to form certain level of convex and concave shape on its surface.
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