Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Study on Emission Reducing Method with New Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-07-23
2007-01-1933
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For diesel engines, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge.[1],[2],[3],[4]. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows the effective reduction of NOX. However, in order to realize cleaner emission gases, precise engine control in response to the state of the exhaust aftertreatment system is essential.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

2006-10-16
2006-01-3381
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

Study on Ignition Timing Control for Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Sensor

2006-04-03
2006-01-0180
As technologies for simultaneously maintaining the current high thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reducing particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, many new combustion concepts have been proposed, including premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and low-temperature combustion[1]. However, it is well known that since such new combustion techniques precisely control combustion temperatures and local air-fuel ratios by varying the amount of air, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and the fuel injection timing, they have the issues of being less stable than conventional combustion techniques and of performance that is subject to variance in the fuel and driving conditions. This study concerns a system that addresses these issues by detecting the ignition timing with in-cylinder pressure sensors and by controlling the fuel injection timing and the amount of EGR for optimum combustion onboard.
Technical Paper

Study of CNG Fueled Two-Wheeled Vehicle with Electronically Controlled Gas Injection System

2005-10-12
2005-32-0034
Owing to its combustion characteristics and chemical composition, natural gas features cleaner emissions and lower CO2 compared to gasoline under equal thermal efficiency. Natural gas can be a promising alternative energy source to respond to crude oil exhaustion and global warming issues. Focusing on the utility of natural gas, a feasibility study on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) -fueled two-wheeled vehicles has been conducted. A proto-type two-wheeled vehicle was made based on a 125 cm3 class gasoline-fueled scooter. To adapt the engine to the use of CNG fuel, an electronically controlled gas injection system was applied to the fuel supply system. To provide abrasion resistance of engine valves and valve seats, the specific matter of gas-fuel was improved. Furthermore, a lubricant circulation passage was added to maintain the temperature of the pressure reducing valve.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Lean NOx Catalyst

2004-03-08
2004-01-1495
When the alkali metal-supported catalyst was treated at 830°C, the NOx conversion decreased because the alkali metals in the catalyst layer gradually moved to the cordierite honeycomb layer and reacted with the cordierite elements. This phenomena decreased to be added the basic metal oxide (α) in the catalyst layer. The improved catalyst with α 2 showed higher performance than the conventional catalyst in the model gas test. Moreover, the emission values of NOx, HC, and CO were 50% or less than Japanese domestic regulation values even after 830°C×60h heat treatment in a vehicle test.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Fast Injection Rate Common Rail Injector for the Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0687
For reduction of NOx and soot emission with conventional diesel diffusion combustion, the authors focused on enhancement of the rate of injection (hereafter referred to as RoI) to improve air availability, thus enhancing the fuel distribution and atomization. In order to increase opening ramp of the RoI (hereafter referred to as fast injection rate), a hydraulic circuit was improved and nozzle geometries were optimized to make the greatest use of the advantages of the hydraulic circuit. Two different common rail injectors were prepared for this research. One is a mass production-type injector with piezo actuator that achieved the EURO-V exhaust gas emission standards, and the other is a prototype injector equipped with the new hydraulic circuit. The nozzle needle of the prototype injector is directly actuated by high-pressure fuel from common rail to improve the RoI.
Technical Paper

Research on Measurement and Simulation Technology of Valve Behavior during Engine Firing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0743
A measurement method for valve behavior during engine firing is established. In order to grasp valve behavior accurately, it has been required to develop a measurement method for valve behavior that takes in account for the condition during engine firing. However, behaviors of a valve train have generally been analyzed during engine motoring because it is difficult to measure them during engine firing. In this study, valve behavior during engine firing can be measured accurately by attaching a gap sensor to the valve guide. Furthermore, the simulation system for valve behavior that treated the valve train as three-dimensional flexible body is built. Under engine motoring condition, high correlation between measurement and simulation is confirmed for valve behavior and spring stress.
Technical Paper

Study on Homogeneous Lean Charge Spark Ignition Combustion

2013-10-14
2013-01-2562
In practical lean burn engines used to date, the use of a stratified air-fuel configuration, with a comparatively rich mixture in the vicinity of the spark plugs, has resulted in the stable combustion of an overall lean mixture. However, because a comparatively rich mixture is burned during the first half of combustion, NOx emissions are not reduced sufficiently. This research focused on a form of lean burn with homogeneous premixture that would be able to balance low NOx emissions with combustion controllability. It is widely known that homogeneous lean premixed gas has poor flame propagation characteristics. To determine the dominant cause of this, this study investigated the combustion properties of a single-cylinder engine while changing the compression ratio and intake temperature. As a result, the primary cause of combustion fluctuation, the abnormal cycle has a low TDC temperature compared to that of other cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Powertrain for Subcompact Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1478
Honda has developed a powertrain for 2013 subcompact class EVs. This powertrain has both high power and low loss in order to provide the EV with better marketability than existing EVs, with the world-best energy efficiency and class-exceeding dynamic performance. To achieve the energy efficiency, this powertrain also has a function of cooperative control with a newly developed electrically operated servo brake system. To achieve the high dynamic performance, a new rotor shape has been introduced to the electric motor, and the power control unit (PCU) is equipped with a high thermal conductivity heat sink. The battery system allows high output power in a compact structure because of a triple parallel module group configuration and an air-cooling system. As a result of these innovations in the powertrain, the vehicle attains 82 miles of driving range while achieving world-leading energy efficiency of 29kWh/100 miles.
Technical Paper

Study on Low NOX Emission Control Using Newly Developed Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0239
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For lean-burn diesel engines, since it is not possible to use three-way catalytic converters, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows more efficient reduction of NOX than its conventional counterparts. However, an appropriate switching control between lean and rich mixture conditions along with compensation for catalyst deterioration was necessary.
Technical Paper

Study of an Aftertreatment System for HLSI Lean-burn Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0945
Lean-burn is an effective means of reducing CO2 emissions. To date, Homogenous Lean Charge Spark Ignition (HLSI) combustion, which lowers emissions of both CO2 and NOx, has been studied. Although HLSI realizes lower emission, it is a major challenge for lean-burn engines to meet SULEV regulations, so we have developed a new aftertreatment system for HLSI engines. It consists of three types of catalysts that have different functions, as well as special engine control methods. As the first stage in achieving SULEV emissions, this study focused on enhancing performance under lean conditions. HLSI engine exhaust gases contain high concentrations of hydrocarbons, including a large amount of paraffin, which are difficult to purify, rather than low concentrations of NOx. Therefore, the key point in low emissions is to purify not only NOx, but also high concentrations of paraffin at the same time.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling Study of Detailed Gas Diffusivity into Catalyst Washcoat for Lean NOx Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-0993
To evaluate the relationship between the exhaust gas purification performance and the catalyst pore properties related to gas diffusion, an elementary reaction model was combined with gas diffusion into catalyst pores, referred to as the pseudo-2D gas diffusion/reaction model. It was constructed for Pt/Al2O3 + CeO2 catalyst as lean NOx catalyst. The gas diffusion was described as macro pore diffusion between the catalyst particles and meso pore diffusion within the particle. The kinetic model was composed of 26 reactions of NO/CO/O2 chemistry including 17 Pt/Al2O3 catalyst reactions and 9 CeO2 reactions. Arrhenius parameters were optimized using activity measurement results from various catalysts with various pore properties, meso pore volume and diameter, macro pore volume and diameter, particle size, and washcoat thickness. Good agreement was achieved between the measured and calculated values.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0981
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Journal Article

Prediction of Wear Loss of Exhaust Valve Seat of Gasoline Engine Based on Rig Test Result

2018-04-03
2018-01-0984
The purpose of this research was to predict the amount of wear on exhaust valve seats in durability testing of gasoline engines. Through the rig wear test, a prediction formula was constructed with multiple factors as variables. In the rig test, the wear rate was measured in some cases where a number of factors of valve seat wear were within a certain range. Through these tests, sensitivity for each factor was determined from the measured wear data, and then a prediction formula for calculating the amount of wear was constructed with high sensitivity factors. Combining the wear amount calculation formula with the operation mode of the actual engine, the wear amount in that mode can be calculated. The calculated wear amount showed a high correlation with the wear amount measured in bench tests and the wear amount measured in vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

NOx Conversion Properties of a Mixed Oxide Type Lean NOx Catalyst

2000-03-06
2000-01-1197
Development is proceeding on catalysts which separate the NOx in lean exhaust gas by adsorption and then reduce the adsorbed NOx in combustion exhaust gas with the stoichiometric or a slightly richer air fuel ratio, as well as exhaust conversion technology that uses these catalysts. Amidst this research it has been found that catalysts containing mixed metal oxides exhibit superior NOx adsorption performance, so the authors prepared a mixed metal oxide catalyst by adding precious metals and promoters, etc. The resulting catalyst has high heat resistance and also offers excellent SOx durability. These properties were presumed to be due to an adsorbent including the mixed metal oxide, and the relation between the physical properties and NOx conversion properties of the catalyst was investigated.
Technical Paper

Secondary O2 Feedback Using Prediction and Identification Type Sliding Mode Control

2000-03-06
2000-01-0936
Recently, much research has been carried out on secondary O2 feedback which performs control based on the output from a secondary O2 sensor (HEGO sensor). In this research it has been found that, regardless of catalyst aging conditions, the HEGO sensor output indicates 0.6 V when the catalyst reduction rate is maintained at the optimum level. Therefore, based on this relationship, we designed an accurate secondary O2 feedback with the aim of reducing emissions by stabilizing the HEGO sensor output to 0.6 V. In order to realize this control, it was necessary to solve the three problems of nonlinear catalyst characteristics, dead time characteristics, and changes in dynamic characteristics due to catalyst aging conditions. Therefore, these problems were solved using the modeling approach of robust control and a new robust adaptive control named Prediction and Identification Type Sliding Mode Control.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight and Compact 1kVA-Class Portable Generator

1999-09-28
1999-01-3304
The development of the lightweight and compact EU1000i generator with a maximum output of 1kVA is presented. The technology applied to achieve the required levels of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and noise, and to provide a stable electrical power supply with low waveform distortion is described. The technology comprises of four elements: a high-speed, multi-pole, external rotor type alternator, a microcomputer-controlled sine wave inverter, a compact high-speed 4-stroke engine with electronic speed governing, and a lightweight frame with a two-level noise-damping system. Combination of these four elements of technology has achieved 50% less weight, 25-30% lower fuel consumption, and 7-9dB(A) less noise than the previous model. The emission levels of CO and of NOx + HC are also 30% and 65% lower than the 2000 CARB regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of the Directly Actuated Variable Valve Control System

1999-09-28
1999-01-3319
New valve control system (HYPER VTEC:Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control System) having valve inactive mechanism which engine power is made to be united to the environment conservation was developed for motorcycle engines of sport type having higher engine speed. Mass increase in the valve operating system of this system is kept to a minimum with a compact, simple mechanism. The system enables high engine speed up to 13,500 rpm without abnormal motion of valves, having high reliability and durability. In addition, the valve control system has the enhancement of fuel economy and the effect of decreasing the intake and exhaust system sound during 2-valve operation. The switching mechanism part of the operating valve number was manufactured by cold forging, and has decreased costs. This system has been adopted to the sport type motorcycle CB400SF for domestic model in 1999.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mixture Stratification and Fuel Reactivity on Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition Combustion Process for SI-Based Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2304
Compression ignition combustion with a lean mixture has high potential in terms of high theoretical thermal efficiency and low NOx emission characteristics due to low combustion temperatures. In particular, a Dual-Fuel concept is proposed to achieve high ignition timing controllability and an extended operation range. This concept controls ignition timing by adjusting the fraction of two fuels with different ignition characteristics. However, a rapid combustion process after initial ignition cannot be avoided due to the homogenous nature of the fuel mixture, because the combustion process depends entirely on the high reaction rate of thermal ignition. In this study, the effect of mixture stratification in the cylinder on the combustion process after ignition based on the Dual-Fuel concept was investigated. Port injection of one fuel creates the homogeneous mixture, while direct injection of the other fuel prepares a stratified mixture in the cylinder at the compression stroke.
X