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Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

2011-11-01
A new index for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U* , which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Presenter Tadashi Naito, Honda R&D Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Computer simulation process for pedestrian protection structures

2000-06-12
2000-05-0222
Research into pedestrian protection has been carried out since the 1960s, in recent years there have been proposals in Europe to legislate requirements in this area and therefore the research is becoming more focused. In the draft regulation, impactor tests have been proposed as a method for evaluating the impact caused by vehicles'' body for pedestrians. This paper introduces impactor model and actual vehicle analysis as a means for simulating impactor testing. Three types of impactors for vehicle tests are presented. It is necessary that the models are first matched with the results of the calibration tests, then matched with the results of the tests on actual vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Programmed-Fuel Injection for Two-Stroke Cycle Racer Engine

1991-11-01
911224
An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy in Motorcycles Using One-Way Clutch

1989-11-01
891352
The one-way clutch mechanism seen on bicycles, etc. greatly ease the load of riders at times of coasting or descending downhill. Their use on motor vehicles are restricted to some automatic drive four-wheeled vehicles with torque converters. There are neither any example of mass-produced motorcycle with one-way clutch between the engine and the drive system nor any reports of quantitative study on its impact on the performance of the vehicle including fuel economy. The present paper reports the results of experimental research on one-way clutch employed in the drive system, obtained for motorcycles having five kinds of two-cycle engines of different displacements. The test on fuel economy showed an improvement of 4 - 9%.
Technical Paper

Modification of Vehicle Handling Performance by Four-Wheel Steering System

1985-01-01
856039
At past ESV conferences, we have reported on a series of studies on how the driver's control performance is affected by vehicle steering response. These studies showed that a four-wheel steering system can reduce the delay in lateral acceleration response to steering action, which may result in better control performance of the driver. The present report examines the handling performance of an experimental vehicle fitted with a four-wheel steering system under a wider range of operating conditions. The studies were conducted using mathematical models and simulation of the driver-vehicle system, plus road tests. The findings indicate that the four-wheel steering system may provide better vehicle handling performance than a conventional two-wheel steering system. A vehicle incorporating this steering system may exhibit improved accident avoidance capabilities.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy in a Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine for a Small Motorcycle

1985-11-11
852238
For the purpose of reducing the fuel consumption of a motorcycle with a small-displacement, four-stroke spark-ignition engine, a compact combustion chamber was tried and the weight of the moving parts of the engine was reduced. As a result, the gas mileage under 30 km/h cruising condition was increased to 110 km/l with an improvement of 50% over a conventional motorcycle.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Is Toluene a Suitable LIF Tracer for Fuel Film Measurements?

2004-03-08
2004-01-1355
Quantitative LIF measurements of liquid fuel films on the piston of direct-injected gasoline engines are difficult to achieve because generally these films are thin and the signal strength is low. Additionally, interference from scattered laser light or background signal can be substantial. The selection of a suitable fluorescence tracer and excitation wavelength plays an important role in the success of such measurements. We have investigated the possibility of using toluene as a tracer for fuel film measurements and compare it to the use of 3-pentanone. The fuel film dynamics in a motored engine at different engine speeds, temperatures and in-cylinder swirl levels is characterized and discussed.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for HEV & EV

2010-04-12
2010-01-1252
This paper proposes a new motor design procedure for reducing motor loss in hybrid vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). To find an optimum design in a short time, a non-linear magnetic circuit model was developed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Speed-torque curves and motor losses were calculated based on this model. Combined with Energy Management Simulation, this model makes it possible to find an optimum motor design with minimum loss.
Technical Paper

Friction Measurement in the Valve Train with a Roller Follower

1994-03-01
940589
The valve train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod forces, and cam speed. Results are presented for one exhaust valve of a motored Cummins L-10 engine. The instantaneous cam/roller friction force was determined from the instantaneous roller speed and the pin friction torque. The pushrod force and displacement were also measured. Friction work loss was determined for both cam and roller interface as well as the upper valve train which includes the valve pushrod, rocker arm, valve guide, and valve. Roller follower slippage on the cam was also determined. A kinematic analysis with the measured data provided the normal force and contact stress at cam/roller interface.(1) Finally, the valve train friction was found to be in the mixed lubrication regime.(2) Further efforts will address the theoretical analysis of valve train friction to predict roller slippage.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1538
This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Journal Article

Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

2011-04-12
2011-01-0061
A new index U* for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U*, which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure. U* enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Different loading conditions are applied to a body structure, and the similarity of the U* distributions is evaluated using the direction cosine and U* 2-dimensional correlation diagrams. It is shown as a result that body structures can be macroscopically grasped by using the U* distribution rather than using the stress distribution. In addition, as an example, the U* distribution of torsion loading condition is shown to comprehensively include characteristics of the U* distribution of other loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Study of Effect of CVT Pulleys on Strength and Transmission Efficiency of Metal Pushing V-belts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1426
In designing CVT pulleys, the effect of the fit clearance of the movable pulleys and their stiffness on the transmission efficiency and strength of the metal pushing V-belt is not necessarily clear. The research discussed in this paper introduced a pulley model that defined the pulleys as elastic bodies to a previously developed technology for the prediction of the transmission efficiency of the belts. As a result, it was found that when the fit clearance is reduced, the transmission efficiency of the belt is increased, and the amplitude of stress on the innermost rings and the element neck section is reduced. In addition, it was found that if pulley stiffness was reduced transmission efficiency was also reduced, and the amplitude of stress on the element neck section increased. This indicated that the fit clearance and the pulley stiffness changed the degree of deflection of the pulleys in the axial direction.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Transient Body Deformation During Handling Maneuvers

2010-04-12
2010-01-0945
A multi-body dynamics model that considers elastic deformation of the body was formulated in order to predict transient body deformation, a factor that affects handling. A comparative analysis with body deformation during handling maneuvers identified using a modal forced response method was conducted, and a good correlation was obtained between vehicle dynamic performance, transient body deformation, and the body modal contribution factor.
Journal Article

Development of the Methodology for FCV Post-crash Fuel Leakage Testing Incorporated into SAE J2578

2010-04-12
2010-01-0133
This paper explains the new methodology for post-crash fuel leakage testing of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) and other hydrogen vehicles utilizing compressed hydrogen storage systems. This methodology was incorporated into SAE J2578 that was revised and published in January, 2009. The new methodology is based on the concept in FMVSS 303 that specifies post-crash fuel leakage test method and criteria for CNG vehicle and adopted some modifications. Specifically, the following items are addressed: (1) Allowable leakage can be accurately evaluated in test even with large size tank that obtains only small pressure drop when a given amount of leakage occurs. A new method to deal with the influence of measurement errors was devised. (2) Even though only one option of test gas and initial filling pressure is accepted in FMVSS 303, new methodology for hydrogen system allows helium and hydrogen at reduced pressure as alternatives in addition to hydrogen at service pressure.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0008
In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Journal Article

Prediction of Fatigue Strength of Motorcycle Exhaust System Considering Vibrating and Thermal Stresses

2015-11-17
2015-32-0739
A method applicable in the design stage to predict fatigue strength of a motorcycle exhaust system was developed. In this prediction method, a vibrating stress, thermal stresses, stresses resulting from the assembling of the exhaust system components and a deterioration of fatigue strength of materials originated from high temperature were simultaneously taken into account. For the prediction of the vibrating stress, flexible multibody dynamics was applied to get modeling accuracy for vibration characteristics of the entire motorcycle and the exciting force delivered from engine vibrations. The thermal conduction analysis and the thermal deformation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) were applied for the prediction of thermal stresses in the exhaust system components. The temperature distribution on the surfaces of the exhaust system components is required for calculations of the thermal stresses.
Journal Article

Incoming Wave Estimation Characteristics by MUSIC Method Using a Virtual Array Antenna in Urban Reception Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0077
We developed “Two-Stage Method” that makes it possible to evaluate the automotive suitability of FM receivers by generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC. The major technological challenge for the Two-Stage Method was reproducing an actual radio wave environment on PC. It was necessary to estimate the characteristics of the FM radio wave environment in tests using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method. However, when the MUSIC method is applied to FM reception, restrictions in factors including the number of array antenna elements and the occupied bandwidth result in issues of separation performance in relation to multipath waves in urban environments. We therefore developed a MUSIC Method using a virtual array antenna, making it possible to create combinations of numbers of array and sub-array elements as desired, thus boosting multipath wave separation performance. This development was reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Journal Article

Positioning Simulation Using a 3D Map and Verification of Positional Estimation Accuracy in Urban Areas Using Actual Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-0083
Positional accuracy of GPS measurement has been based on simulation and actual measurement due to the difficulty of conducting 24-hour actual running tests. However, the conventional measurement is only based on brief evaluation; hence variability of positional accuracy which varies depending on measurement time and location had been an issue. Thus, it is significant to show the validity by the estimation of positional accuracy, and actual measurement using of lengthy simulation. In this study, actual measurement data in an urban area was obtained for long hours, and a simulation using 3D maps was implemented. A high precision positional measurement system was equipped on a vehicle in order to collect actual measurements and positional data at each measurement time. The data obtained by the measurement system was used as the reference coordinate for both the simulation and the actual measurements.
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