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Technical Paper

A Comparative Evaluation of Pedestrian Kinematics and Injury Prediction for Adults and Children upon Impact with a Passenger Car

2004-03-08
2004-01-1606
Studies show that the pedestrian population at high risk of injury consists of both young children and adults. The goal of this study is to gain understanding in the mechanisms that lead to injuries for children and adults. Multi-body pedestrian human models of two specific anthropometries, a 6year-old child and a 50th percentile adult male, are applied. A vehicle model is developed that consists of a detailed rigid finite element mesh, validated stiffness regions, stiff structures underlying the hood and a suspension model. Simulations are performed in a test matrix where anthropometry, impact speed and impact location are variables. Bumper impact occurs with the tibia of the 50th percentile adult male and with the thigh of the 6-year-old child. The head of a 50th percentile male impacts the lower windshield, while the 6-year-old child's head impacts the front part of the hood.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model for a Pedestrian Pelvis and Lower Limb

2006-04-03
2006-01-0683
A finite element (FE) model that can predict impact response and injuries to a human pelvis and lower limb was developed in PAM-CRASH™ by accurately representing human anatomical structures. In our previous study, three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the thigh, leg and knee joint was developed based on MRI scans from a human volunteer. 3D geometry of a bony pelvis created in this study was based on CT scans from a Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). The model was validated using published quasi-static and dynamic test results with human pelves and lower limbs. The thigh and leg models were validated against recently published dynamic 3-point bending test results with off-center loading. The validation results showed that this model can reproduce force-deflection and moment-deflection responses of a human thigh and leg in various loading conditions along with average force and moment at fracture.
Technical Paper

Potential Improvements to Impact Responses of the Flexible Legform Impactor

2014-04-01
2014-01-0520
The validity of evaluating FlexPLI peak injury measures has been shown by the correlation of the peak measures between a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model. However, comparisons of tibia bending moment time histories (BMTHs) between these models show that the FlexPLI model exhibits a higher degree of oscillatory behavior than the human model. The goal of this study was to identify potential improvements to the FlexPLI such that the legform provides more biofidelic tibia BMTHs at the normal standing height. Impact simulations using a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model were conducted against simplified vehicle models to compare tibia BMTHs. The same series of impact simulations were conducted using the FlexPLI models that incorporated potential measures to identify measures effective for further enhancement of the biofidelity. An additional analysis was also conducted to investigate the key factor for minimizing the oscillation of the tibia BMTH.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Simplified Vehicle Model that Can Reproduce Car-Pedestrian Collisions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0514
Japanese accident statistics show that despite the decreasing trend of the overall traffic fatalities, more than 1,000 pedestrians are still killed annually in Japan. One way to develop further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents is to reconstruct a variety of accident scenarios dynamically using computational models. Some of the past studies done by the authors' group have used a simplified vehicle model to investigate pedestrian lower limb injuries. However, loadings to the upper body also need to be reproduced to predict damage to the full body of a pedestrian. As a step toward this goal, this study aimed to develop a simplified vehicle model capable of reproducing pedestrian full-body kinematics and pelvis and lower limb injury measures. The simplified vehicle model was comprised of four parts: windshield, hood, bumper and lower part of the bumper. Several different models were developed using different combinations of geometric and stiffness representation.
Technical Paper

Investigation on an Injury Criterion Related to Traumatic Brain Injury Primarily Induced by Head Rotation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1439
The high frequency of fatal head injuries is one of the important issues in traffic safety, and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) without skull fracture account for approximately half of them in both occupant and pedestrian crashes. In order to evaluate vehicle safety performance for TBIs in these crashes using anthropomorphic test dummies (ATDs), a comprehensive injury criterion calculated from the rotational rigid motion of the head is required. While many studies have been conducted to investigate such an injury criterion with a focus on diffuse brain injuries in occupant crashes, there have been only a limited number of studies focusing on pedestrian impacts. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive injury criterion based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head suitable for both occupant and pedestrian crashes.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC22
An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Journal Article

Development of Injury Probability Functions for the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

2012-04-16
2012-01-0277
The goal of this study was to develop injury probability functions for the leg bending moment and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) elongation of the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) based on human response data available from the literature. Data for the leg bending moment at fracture in dynamic 3-point bending were geometrically scaled to an average male using the standard lengths obtained from the anthropometric study, based on which the dimensions of the Flex-PLI were determined. Both male and female data were included since there was no statistically significant difference in bone material property. Since the data included both right censored and uncensored data, the Weibull Survival Model was used to develop a human leg fracture probability function.
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