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Technical Paper

Computer simulation process for pedestrian protection structures

2000-06-12
2000-05-0222
Research into pedestrian protection has been carried out since the 1960s, in recent years there have been proposals in Europe to legislate requirements in this area and therefore the research is becoming more focused. In the draft regulation, impactor tests have been proposed as a method for evaluating the impact caused by vehicles'' body for pedestrians. This paper introduces impactor model and actual vehicle analysis as a means for simulating impactor testing. Three types of impactors for vehicle tests are presented. It is necessary that the models are first matched with the results of the calibration tests, then matched with the results of the tests on actual vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC22
An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC12
It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
Technical Paper

Modification of Vehicle Handling Performance by Four-Wheel Steering System

1985-01-01
856039
At past ESV conferences, we have reported on a series of studies on how the driver's control performance is affected by vehicle steering response. These studies showed that a four-wheel steering system can reduce the delay in lateral acceleration response to steering action, which may result in better control performance of the driver. The present report examines the handling performance of an experimental vehicle fitted with a four-wheel steering system under a wider range of operating conditions. The studies were conducted using mathematical models and simulation of the driver-vehicle system, plus road tests. The findings indicate that the four-wheel steering system may provide better vehicle handling performance than a conventional two-wheel steering system. A vehicle incorporating this steering system may exhibit improved accident avoidance capabilities.
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Liquid Phase Thermometry of Common Rail Diesel Sprays Impinging on a Heated Wall

2007-07-23
2007-01-1891
An experimental study was carried out on visualization of liquid phase temperature distributions in high-pressure diesel sprays impinging on a heated wall. Naphthalene/TMPD-exciplex fluorescence method and pyrene-excimer fluorescence method were utilized for the thermometry. The sprays were injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature gaseous environment. The nozzle hole diameter was 0.100 mm or 0.139 mm. The results showed that cool pockets were formed at the tip and in the impinging part of the sprays. The spray for the nozzle with 0.100 mm hole was heated up faster near the nozzle than for the nozzle with 0.139 mm hole.
Technical Paper

Establishment of Engine Lubrication Oil Pressure and Flow Rate Distribution Prediction Technology Using 3D-CFD and Multi Body Dynamics

2009-04-20
2009-01-1349
To develop ideal oil circuits, it was necessary to establish technology that would accurately predict lubrication oil pressure and flow rates. Therefore, the oil flow rate was predicted by applying load fluctuations, calculated using multi body dynamics, to an oil film model. In addition, the pressure loss of complex oil passages was obtained using 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, “3D-CFD”). Furthermore, the pressure loss of the oil pressure switching valves and other parts that are difficult to predict using 3D-CFD were measured as single parts, and these results were linked with one-dimensional internal flow analysis to develop a prediction method for lubrication oil pressure and flow rate distributions. Verification tests were ultimately performed using a completed engine, and the results confirmed that this simulation method accurately reproduces the oil pressure and oil flow rate in each part.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for HEV & EV

2010-04-12
2010-01-1252
This paper proposes a new motor design procedure for reducing motor loss in hybrid vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). To find an optimum design in a short time, a non-linear magnetic circuit model was developed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Speed-torque curves and motor losses were calculated based on this model. Combined with Energy Management Simulation, this model makes it possible to find an optimum motor design with minimum loss.
Technical Paper

Development of Lithium-Ion-Battery System for Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-1372
A battery module structure and a battery management system that is optimal for the structure were developed, in order to facilitate the work of equipping hybrid cars with lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that are expected to improve vehicle performance. This paper describes the structure of the LIB and the battery management system that is optimal for it. The battery module structure has cells with a sturdy holding structure and a highly efficient cooling system. The structure has enabled the improvement of battery pack system power output by 80% per unit weight and by 20% per unit volume compared to the previous model. The optimal management system prevents battery overcharge by detecting and controlling the state of charge (SOC) of each cell with a high degree of accuracy.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Transient Body Deformation During Handling Maneuvers

2010-04-12
2010-01-0945
A multi-body dynamics model that considers elastic deformation of the body was formulated in order to predict transient body deformation, a factor that affects handling. A comparative analysis with body deformation during handling maneuvers identified using a modal forced response method was conducted, and a good correlation was obtained between vehicle dynamic performance, transient body deformation, and the body modal contribution factor.
Journal Article

Detect the Imperceptible Drowsiness

2010-04-12
2010-01-0746
Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations, in which human error may cause fatal accidents. Recently, we focused on the pupil which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, easily and non-invasively observable from the outside of the body. Prior to the large low frequency pupil-diameter fluctuation, which is known to associate with drowsiness, a Gradual Miosis was observed in most subjects. During this miosis period, the subjects were not yet aware of their drowsiness. We have developed a software system which automatically detects the Gradual Miosis in real time.
Journal Article

Development of the Methodology for FCV Post-crash Fuel Leakage Testing Incorporated into SAE J2578

2010-04-12
2010-01-0133
This paper explains the new methodology for post-crash fuel leakage testing of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) and other hydrogen vehicles utilizing compressed hydrogen storage systems. This methodology was incorporated into SAE J2578 that was revised and published in January, 2009. The new methodology is based on the concept in FMVSS 303 that specifies post-crash fuel leakage test method and criteria for CNG vehicle and adopted some modifications. Specifically, the following items are addressed: (1) Allowable leakage can be accurately evaluated in test even with large size tank that obtains only small pressure drop when a given amount of leakage occurs. A new method to deal with the influence of measurement errors was devised. (2) Even though only one option of test gas and initial filling pressure is accepted in FMVSS 303, new methodology for hydrogen system allows helium and hydrogen at reduced pressure as alternatives in addition to hydrogen at service pressure.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0008
In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1063
A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Journal Article

Incoming Wave Estimation Characteristics by MUSIC Method Using a Virtual Array Antenna in Urban Reception Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0077
We developed “Two-Stage Method” that makes it possible to evaluate the automotive suitability of FM receivers by generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC. The major technological challenge for the Two-Stage Method was reproducing an actual radio wave environment on PC. It was necessary to estimate the characteristics of the FM radio wave environment in tests using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method. However, when the MUSIC method is applied to FM reception, restrictions in factors including the number of array antenna elements and the occupied bandwidth result in issues of separation performance in relation to multipath waves in urban environments. We therefore developed a MUSIC Method using a virtual array antenna, making it possible to create combinations of numbers of array and sub-array elements as desired, thus boosting multipath wave separation performance. This development was reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Journal Article

Development and Application of FM Multipath Distortion Rate Measurement System Using a Fading Emulator Based on Two-Stage Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0082
The suitability of FM radio receivers for automobiles has conventionally been rated by evaluating reception characteristics for broadcast waves in repeated driving tests in specific test environments. The evaluation of sound quality has relied on the auditory judgment due to difficulties to conduct quantitative evaluations by experiments. Thus the method had issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. To address these issues, a two-stage method generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed. The research further defined the multipath distortion rate, MDr, as an index for the sound quality evaluation of FM receivers, and the findings concerning the suitability of the evaluation of FM terminals for automobiles were reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Journal Article

Positioning Simulation Using a 3D Map and Verification of Positional Estimation Accuracy in Urban Areas Using Actual Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-0083
Positional accuracy of GPS measurement has been based on simulation and actual measurement due to the difficulty of conducting 24-hour actual running tests. However, the conventional measurement is only based on brief evaluation; hence variability of positional accuracy which varies depending on measurement time and location had been an issue. Thus, it is significant to show the validity by the estimation of positional accuracy, and actual measurement using of lengthy simulation. In this study, actual measurement data in an urban area was obtained for long hours, and a simulation using 3D maps was implemented. A high precision positional measurement system was equipped on a vehicle in order to collect actual measurements and positional data at each measurement time. The data obtained by the measurement system was used as the reference coordinate for both the simulation and the actual measurements.
Journal Article

Development of Estimation for Strain in Damages of Motorcycle Engine Parts When Tipped Over from Stationary State

2013-10-15
2013-32-9096
In this research, a simulation method was developed in which it was able to estimate, in the early stage of design, the strains that potentially lead to damages to motorcycle engine parts when tipped over from a stationary state. Splitting a series of phenomena from the start of tilting of motorcycle from the upright position up to the end of collision of engine parts after the contact on the ground to two groups by before and after the contact of engine parts on the ground, we applied the multi body dynamics analysis to the first group, and the elastro-plastic FEM analysis to the latter one. In the computer simulation of collision using the elastro-plastic FEM analysis, we minimized the FEM models from the entire motorcycle models and treated others as a solid model to shorten the computation period. It is also realized that the strains occurring in the engine parts can be simulated by considering only the mass of the parts which are rigidly mounted on the engine.
Journal Article

Field Validation of the MC Default Fill Hydrogen Fueling Protocol

2015-04-14
2015-01-1177
Appendix H of the SAE J2601 standard defines a development hydrogen fueling protocol named the MC Default Fill, which builds upon the foundation of the table based protocol, utilizing the same assumptions, boundary conditions, and process limits as the current standard. The MC Default Fill facilitates the following beyond the table based protocol: 1) the potential to provide faster, more consistent fueling times for fuel cell electric vehicle customers, and 2) the ability to continuously and dynamically adjust to a wide range of dispenser fuel delivery temperatures, allowing for more flexibility in station design. Computer simulations and laboratory bench tests were previously conducted and documented, validating the function and operation of the protocol.
Journal Article

Study of Reproducibility of Pedal Tracking and Detection Response Task to Assess Driver Distraction

2015-04-14
2015-01-1388
We have developed a bench test method to assess driver distraction caused by the load of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that this method can be used to assess the task loads of both visual-manual tasks and auditory-vocal tasks. The task loads are assessed using the performances of both pedal tracking task (PT) and detection response task (DRT) while performing secondary tasks. We can perform this method using simple equipment such as game pedals and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted in three test environments in which test regions, experimenters and participants differed from each other in the US, and the test procedures were almost the same. We set two types of visual-manual tasks and two types of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two difficulties for each task type to vary the level of task load.
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