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Technical Paper

The Effects of Impurities on the Corrosion Behavior of Iron in Methanolic Solutions

1993-10-01
932342
The electrochemical and corrosion behavior of metals in aqueous environments has received substantial attention. However, relatively little work has been devoted to the electrochemistry and corrosion of metals in non-aqueous environments. Now, with greater pressures to increase fuel efficiencies and decrease exhaust emissions, alternatives and additives to gasoline (including methanol and ethanol) are receiving increased attention from government agencies and automobile manufacturers. Unfortunately, fundamental studies of the corrosion behavior of metals in these solutions are scarce. The objective of the present work is to investigate the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of iron in methanolic solutions containing Cl, H+, SO42-, and H2O. To accomplish this, a full factorial design test matrix was developed to systematically evaluate the effects of these impurities on the corrosion behavior of iron.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-use Road Simulator

1993-11-01
931912
A multi-use road simulator for reproducing various road loads on motorcycles and buggies has been developed on a test bench by using computer-controlled hydraulic actuators. The device is controlled by a low-priced personal computer and an interface system with custom software. An unique feature is the capability to simulate loads related to such phenomena as the bottoming of suspension and the movement of a telescopic type front fork on the road.
Technical Paper

Application of Image Converter Camera to Measure Flame Propagation in S.I. Engine

1989-02-01
890322
A combustion flame visualization system, for use as an engine diagnostics tool, was developed in order to evaluate combustion chamber shapes in the development stage of mass-produced spark ignition (S.I.) engines. The system consists of an image converter camera and a computer-aided image processing system. The system is capable of high speed photography (10,000 fps) at low intensity light (1,000 cd/m2), and of real-time display of the raw images of combustion flames. By using this system, flame structure estimated from the brightness level on a photograph and direction of flame propagation in a mass-produced 4-valve engine were measured. It was observed that the difference in the structure and the propagation of the flame in the cases of 4-valve and quasi-2-valve combustion chambers, which had the same in the pressure diagram, were detected. The quasi-2-valve configuration was adopted in order to improve swirl intensity.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2018-04-03
2018-01-1063
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Technical Paper

Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Simulations and In-Situ Measurements with X-ray CT Imaging on Liquid Water Transport in PEFCs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1347
Water management is one of the key factors to ensure high performance, cold start and durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), and it is important to understand the behavior of liquid water in PEFCs. X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) imaging and the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (two-phase LBM) are applied to analyze the mechanism of water transport in the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the gas channels in generating PEFCs. The results of the two-phase LBM are compared with those of X-ray CT imaging, and are found to agree qualitatively in that water is discharged along the hydrophilic channel wall and accumulated in the GDL, especially under the rib. The effects of the wettability of the GDLs, and of the gas channels, the diameter of the carbon fibers, and the porosity of the GDLs on water discharge from the GDLs and gas channels are also investigated.
Technical Paper

3D-PIV Measurement and Visualization of Streamlines Around a Standard SAE Vehicle Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0161
In CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) verification of vehicle aerodynamics, detailed velocity measurements are required. The conventional 2D-PIV (Two Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry) needs at least twice the number of operations to measure the three components of velocity ( u,v,w ), thus it is difficult to set up precise measurement positions. Furthermore, there are some areas where measurements are rendered impossible due to the relative position of the object and the optical system. That is why the acquisition of detailed velocity data around a vehicle has not yet been attained. In this study, a detailed velocity measurement was conducted using a 3D-PIV measurement system. The measurement target was a quarter scale SAE standard vehicle model. The wind tunnel system which was also designed for a quarter scale car model was utilized. It consisted of a moving belt and a boundary suction system.
Technical Paper

Study of Piston Pin Noise of Semi-Floating System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0889
This paper summarizes the piston pin noise mechanism and show the way to reduce noise level of semi-floating system. A mechanism of piston pin noise of semi-floating system was clarified by measurement of piston and piston pin behavior and visualization of engine oil mist around piston and piston pin. Piston and piston pin behavior was measured by accelerometer and eddy current type gap sensor with linkage system at the actual engine running condition. Engine oil behavior was visualized and measured its flow vector by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). For PTV, engine oil mist particle image was taken by high speed camera with fiber scope attached to linkage system. From themeasurement, it was cleared that engine oil doesn't reach to piston hole from undersurface of piston land and come rushing out from piston broach via groove. The result shows that lacking of engine oil between piston and piston pin makes noise larger.
Technical Paper

Effect of Unsteady Lift Force on Vehicle Dynamics in Heave and Pitch Motion

2014-04-01
2014-01-0576
The change in the aerodynamic lift force (henceforth CL) by heave motion is discussed in this paper in order to clarify the effect of aerodynamic characteristics on the vehicle dynamic performance. We considered that phenomenon in actual car running at 160km/h and 1Hz heave frequency. Using a towing tank to change its water from the air to the working fluid to more easily observe this phenomenon. That makes possible to observe the same phenomenon with reduced velocity and small models under same Strouhal number condition. This method can be reducing vehicle speed to 3m/s (1/15 actual) and frequency to 0.2Hz (1/5 actual) in case using 40% scaled model. The results of these tests showed that unsteady CL is proportional to heave motion. These results showed the proportional relationship between unsteady CL and heave motion. The formularization of unsteady CL made it possible to introduce shape coefficients to vehicle dynamics simulations as functions of heave velocity.
Technical Paper

Study of Knocking Damage Indexing Based on Optical Measurement

2015-04-14
2015-01-0762
Attempts were made to measure knocking phenomenon by an optical method, which is free from influences of mechanical noises and is allowing an easy installation to an engine. Using a newly developed high durability optical probe, the light intensity of hydroxyl radical component, which is diffracted from the emitted light from combustion, was measured. The intensity of this emission component was measured at each crank angle and the maximum intensity in a cycle was identified. After that, the angular range in which the measured intensity exceeded 85% of this maximum intensity was defined as “CA85”. When a knocking was purposely induced by changing the conditions of the engine operation, there appeared the engine cycles that included CA85 less than a crank angle of 4 degrees. The frequency of occurrence of CA85 equal to or less than 4 degrees within a predetermined number of engine cycles, which can be interpreted as a knocking occurrence ratio, was denoted as “CA85-4”.
Technical Paper

The Development of Brake Feel with Variable Servo Ratio Control

2015-09-27
2015-01-2696
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
Technical Paper

Liquid Phase Thermometry of Common Rail Diesel Sprays Impinging on a Heated Wall

2007-07-23
2007-01-1891
An experimental study was carried out on visualization of liquid phase temperature distributions in high-pressure diesel sprays impinging on a heated wall. Naphthalene/TMPD-exciplex fluorescence method and pyrene-excimer fluorescence method were utilized for the thermometry. The sprays were injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature gaseous environment. The nozzle hole diameter was 0.100 mm or 0.139 mm. The results showed that cool pockets were formed at the tip and in the impinging part of the sprays. The spray for the nozzle with 0.100 mm hole was heated up faster near the nozzle than for the nozzle with 0.139 mm hole.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model for a Pedestrian Pelvis and Lower Limb

2006-04-03
2006-01-0683
A finite element (FE) model that can predict impact response and injuries to a human pelvis and lower limb was developed in PAM-CRASH™ by accurately representing human anatomical structures. In our previous study, three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the thigh, leg and knee joint was developed based on MRI scans from a human volunteer. 3D geometry of a bony pelvis created in this study was based on CT scans from a Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). The model was validated using published quasi-static and dynamic test results with human pelves and lower limbs. The thigh and leg models were validated against recently published dynamic 3-point bending test results with off-center loading. The validation results showed that this model can reproduce force-deflection and moment-deflection responses of a human thigh and leg in various loading conditions along with average force and moment at fracture.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Fuel Concentration Measurement Near Spark Plug by 3.392 μm Infrared Absorption Method-Application to a Port Injected Lean-Burn Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1353
In this study, a spark plug sensor for in-situ fuel concentration measurement was applied to a port injected lean-burn engine. Laser infrared absorption method was employed and a 3.392 μm He-Ne laser that coincides with the absorption line of hydrocarbons was used as a light source. In this engine, the secondary valve lift height of intake system was controlled to obtain appropriate swirl and tumble flow in order to achieve lean-burn with the characteristics of intake flow. For such in-cylinder stratified mixture distribution, the fuel concentration near the spark plug is very important factor that affects the combustion characteristics. Therefore, the mixture formation process near the spark plug was investigated with changing fuel injection timing. Under the intake stroke, the timing that fuel passed through near the spark plug depended largely on the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Body Type on Pedestrian Injury Distribution

2005-04-11
2005-01-1876
Pedestrian impact protection has been a growing area of research over the past twenty or more years. The results from many studies have shown the importance of providing protection to vulnerable road users as a means of reducing roadway fatalities. Most of this research has focused on the vehicle fleet as a whole in datasets that are dominated by passenger cars (cars). Historically, the influence of vehicle body type on injury distribution patterns for pedestrians has not been a primary research focus. In this study we used the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database of detailed pedestrian crash investigations to identify how injury patterns differ for pedestrians struck by light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles (LTVs) from those struck by cars. AIS 2+ and 3+ injuries for each segment of vehicles were mapped back to both the body region of the pedestrian injured and the vehicle source linked to that injury in the PCDS database.
Technical Paper

Research of Atomization Phenomena in HPDC-Step 1 Feature of Gas Porosity Dispersion and Photography of Atomized Flow

2018-04-03
2018-01-1392
In recent years, studies have been conducted on the relationship between the J factor, which indicates flow of molten aluminum at the time of injection, and the quality of HPDC products. The flow of molten metal at a high J factor is referred to as “Atomized Flow.” The authors and others conducted studies on the relationship between the J factor and the strength of HPDC products. An area exceeding 300MPa was found in the product produced at a high J factor corresponding to the “Atomized Flow.” The defect was less in the above-mentioned position because the gas porosity was finely dispersed. Considering that the fine dispersion of gas porosity is related to the “Atomized Flow”, pictures were taken to analyze “Atomized Flow.” The molten aluminum was ejected into an open space at a high speed and the splashed conditions were photographed. From the images taken by the pulse laser permeation, the conditions of microscopic atomized flow were observed precisely.
Journal Article

Fracture Prediction for Automotive Bodies Using a Ductile Fracture Criterion and a Strain-Dependent Anisotropy Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-0567
In order to reduce automobile body weight and improve crashworthiness, the use of high-strength steels has increased greatly in recent years. An optimal combination of both crash safety performance and lightweight structure has been a major challenge in automobile body engineering. In this study, the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion was applied to predict the fracture of high-strength steels. Marciniak-type biaxial stretching tests for high-strength steels were performed to measure the material constant of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Furthermore, in order to improve the simulation accuracy, local anisotropic parameters based on the plastic strain (strain dependent model of anisotropy) were measured using the digital image grid method and were incorporated into Hill's anisotropic yield condition by the authors. In order to confirm the validity of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion, uniaxial tensile tests were performed.
Technical Paper

Life Estimation of Rolling Bearings Based on the Colors on Sliding Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-0180
It is experimentally known that the surface color of bearing balls gradually becomes brown during long term operation of the bearings under appropriate lubrication conditions. That exhibits the possibility of an estimation method for residual life of ball bearings without any abnormal wear on the surfaces by precise color measurements. Therefore, we examined what set colors on bearing balls by surface observation using scanning electron microscopy and subsurface analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that an amorphous carbon layer had gradually covered ball surfaces during operation of the bearings. The layer not only changed ball color but also made overall ball shapes closer to a complete sphere. The report also introduces a uniquely developed color analyzer which enabled color measurements on metallic surfaces, such as the above-mentioned balls.
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