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A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2012-06-18
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
Technical Paper

Development of Programmed-Fuel Injection for Two-Stroke Cycle Racer Engine

1991-11-01
911224
An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy in Motorcycles Using One-Way Clutch

1989-11-01
891352
The one-way clutch mechanism seen on bicycles, etc. greatly ease the load of riders at times of coasting or descending downhill. Their use on motor vehicles are restricted to some automatic drive four-wheeled vehicles with torque converters. There are neither any example of mass-produced motorcycle with one-way clutch between the engine and the drive system nor any reports of quantitative study on its impact on the performance of the vehicle including fuel economy. The present paper reports the results of experimental research on one-way clutch employed in the drive system, obtained for motorcycles having five kinds of two-cycle engines of different displacements. The test on fuel economy showed an improvement of 4 - 9%.
Technical Paper

Concept for Developing Vehicle Handling Evaluation Procedure Suitable for Active Control Technology

1989-11-01
891200
The recent development of electronics has led to increased research efforts to put the active control technique to practical use in various fields of automotive technology. This report tries to identify the goals likely to be achieved by the active control technology and the subjects of study involved in research activities for this end. As a promising approach to the solution of these subjects, the report discusses the problem areas of the existing evaluation method for vehicle handling performance and then proposes feasible ideas in this field. Finally the report gives a few examples of the research methods we have successfully applied to the development of a four wheel steering system.
Technical Paper

Modification of Vehicle Handling Performance by Four-Wheel Steering System

1985-01-01
856039
At past ESV conferences, we have reported on a series of studies on how the driver's control performance is affected by vehicle steering response. These studies showed that a four-wheel steering system can reduce the delay in lateral acceleration response to steering action, which may result in better control performance of the driver. The present report examines the handling performance of an experimental vehicle fitted with a four-wheel steering system under a wider range of operating conditions. The studies were conducted using mathematical models and simulation of the driver-vehicle system, plus road tests. The findings indicate that the four-wheel steering system may provide better vehicle handling performance than a conventional two-wheel steering system. A vehicle incorporating this steering system may exhibit improved accident avoidance capabilities.
Journal Article

Development of Rare Earth-saving Magnet Using Localized Diffusion Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-1757
Nd₂Fe₁₄B sintered magnets are used in the drive motors of hybrid, electric and other vehicles. A magnet in which rare earth content is reduced by means of a localized diffusion method has been developed in order to reduce the volume of dysprosium. The distribution of the demagnetization fields in a motor is not uniform, so the necessary coercivity distribution for the magnets was quantified using Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE). Then material specifications of the localized dysprosium diffusion satisfied with this coercivity distribution was determined, and optimal manufacturing conditions including the position of dysprosium diffusion were set. The coercivity distribution in every position of the magnet using localized diffusion method was inspected. As a result, the magnet was satisfied with coercivity distribution demanded by CAE.
Journal Article

Development of Transverse Flux Motor with Improved Material and Manufacturing Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-1765
Honda has been proposing and developing a Transverse Flux Motor (T.F. motor) in order to shorten axial length of the motor for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In contrast to conventional motors that are composed of a stator core (made from magnetic steel sheet) and winding wires, the T.F. motor is a new type of three-dimensional magnetic circuit motor composed of a soft magnetic composites (SMC) core and a coil. While reducing axial length and achieving a simple stator architecture comprised of just five parts, the new motor raises issues including the need to improve motor efficiency and the development of techniques for the manufacture of rectangular wave-shaped coils. To improve motor efficiency, we conducted a parameter study of the SMC core material and manufacturing conditions to establish the optimum required specifications for reducing iron loss.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for HEV & EV

2010-04-12
2010-01-1252
This paper proposes a new motor design procedure for reducing motor loss in hybrid vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). To find an optimum design in a short time, a non-linear magnetic circuit model was developed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Speed-torque curves and motor losses were calculated based on this model. Combined with Energy Management Simulation, this model makes it possible to find an optimum motor design with minimum loss.
Journal Article

Development of Waterborne Conductive Primer for Motorcycles

2012-10-23
2012-32-0089
Most types of paint materials currently used for motorcycles contain large amounts of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). VOCs are environmental load substances, and there is a demand to reduce emissions in recent years. Many of a motorcycle's exterior parts are made of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) plastics (henceforth ABS) or PA (Polyamid) plastics (henceforth PA). These two plastic materials have different film adhesion mechanisms and adhesion strength. Therefore it was necessary to use different conductive primers and that's was one of the factors which made time and material losses in the painting processes. We solved those two issues, the reduction of VOCs and the common use of the same conductive primer for different parts materials, by combining two kinds of resins originally designed as the conductive primers, i.e., urethane resins with carboxylic acid groups and acrylic resins with amide groups, which are different in properties.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Power Performance Prediction in Outboard Motors for High-Speed Planing Boats using CFD Simulation

2012-10-23
2012-32-0099
Predicting fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor for a high speed small planing boat are numerically challenging. The propeller is one of the most popular propulsion systems used for outboard motors. We focused our attention on the fact that the thrust performance of a propeller has a major impact on cruising fuel consumption and performance. We believe that we can numerically predict cruising fuel consumption, which has conventionally been estimated through experiential means, using accurate thrust performance measurements via CFD simulation without cavitations model. This study aims to develop a simulator that could quantitatively predict cruising fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor used for a high speed small planing boat. After comparing the CFD simulation of propellers against the results of model tests, the simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Journal Article

Application of Electric Servo Brake System to Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0697
An electric servo brake system applied for use on electric vehicles was applied for use on plug-in hybrid vehicles in order to achieve fuel-savings together with good brake feel and enhanced operability for plug-in hybrid vehicles. The electric servo brake system is made up of highly accurate braking pressure control that functions cooperatively with regenerative brakes together with a structure in which pedal force is not influenced by braking pressure control. The configuration of these components enabled good braking feel even when the power train was being switched from one drive mode to another. Automated pressurization functions that are intended for plug-in hybrid vehicles and that operate with electric servo brake systems were also developed. These developed functions include stall cooperative control that functions cooperatively with the power train, regenerative coordinate adaptive cruise control, and hill-start assist.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the impact of 10% ethanol blended fuels on performances of sold gasoline vehicles in the Japanese market already on the road in Japan

2011-08-30
2011-01-1987
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
Technical Paper

Development of Lithium-Ion-Battery System for Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-1372
A battery module structure and a battery management system that is optimal for the structure were developed, in order to facilitate the work of equipping hybrid cars with lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that are expected to improve vehicle performance. This paper describes the structure of the LIB and the battery management system that is optimal for it. The battery module structure has cells with a sturdy holding structure and a highly efficient cooling system. The structure has enabled the improvement of battery pack system power output by 80% per unit weight and by 20% per unit volume compared to the previous model. The optimal management system prevents battery overcharge by detecting and controlling the state of charge (SOC) of each cell with a high degree of accuracy.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Transient Body Deformation During Handling Maneuvers

2010-04-12
2010-01-0945
A multi-body dynamics model that considers elastic deformation of the body was formulated in order to predict transient body deformation, a factor that affects handling. A comparative analysis with body deformation during handling maneuvers identified using a modal forced response method was conducted, and a good correlation was obtained between vehicle dynamic performance, transient body deformation, and the body modal contribution factor.
Journal Article

Development of the Methodology for FCV Post-crash Fuel Leakage Testing Incorporated into SAE J2578

2010-04-12
2010-01-0133
This paper explains the new methodology for post-crash fuel leakage testing of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) and other hydrogen vehicles utilizing compressed hydrogen storage systems. This methodology was incorporated into SAE J2578 that was revised and published in January, 2009. The new methodology is based on the concept in FMVSS 303 that specifies post-crash fuel leakage test method and criteria for CNG vehicle and adopted some modifications. Specifically, the following items are addressed: (1) Allowable leakage can be accurately evaluated in test even with large size tank that obtains only small pressure drop when a given amount of leakage occurs. A new method to deal with the influence of measurement errors was devised. (2) Even though only one option of test gas and initial filling pressure is accepted in FMVSS 303, new methodology for hydrogen system allows helium and hydrogen at reduced pressure as alternatives in addition to hydrogen at service pressure.
Technical Paper

Control Technology of Brake-by-Wire System for Super-Sport Motorcycles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0080
Super-sport motorcycles have shorter wheelbases than other category motorcycles. Due to this, strong braking occasionally causes large pitching motions to occur, including rear-wheel-lift. In order to reduce such pitching motions and achieve an effective braking force, the authors have developed a brake-by-wire system that uses a pressure sensor to detect the braking input pressure and an electric actuator to variably control the hydraulic pressure. This system makes it possible to precisely control the braking force compared with the previous ABS. Large pitching control was performed by the distribution of a front wheel and a rear-wheel braking forces, CBS (Combined Brake System), by using electronic control, and Brake-by-Wire has been suitable for sport riding. As a result, stable braking performance could be obtained without spoiling the handling characteristics of super-sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0008
In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Journal Article

Positioning Simulation Using a 3D Map and Verification of Positional Estimation Accuracy in Urban Areas Using Actual Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-0083
Positional accuracy of GPS measurement has been based on simulation and actual measurement due to the difficulty of conducting 24-hour actual running tests. However, the conventional measurement is only based on brief evaluation; hence variability of positional accuracy which varies depending on measurement time and location had been an issue. Thus, it is significant to show the validity by the estimation of positional accuracy, and actual measurement using of lengthy simulation. In this study, actual measurement data in an urban area was obtained for long hours, and a simulation using 3D maps was implemented. A high precision positional measurement system was equipped on a vehicle in order to collect actual measurements and positional data at each measurement time. The data obtained by the measurement system was used as the reference coordinate for both the simulation and the actual measurements.
Journal Article

Development of a New Two-Motor Plug-In Hybrid System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1476
A highly efficient two-motor plug-in hybrid system is developed to satisfy the global demands of CO2 reduction. This system switches three operation modes, what is called “EV Drive”, “Hybrid Drive” and “Engine Drive”, to maximize fuel efficiency according to the driving condition of the vehicle. Practical plug-in EV (Electric Vehicle) capability is also realized by adding a high-power on-board charger and a high capacity Li-ion battery to the original system. The outlines of the system components including a newly developed Atkinson cycle engine, a highly efficient electric coupled CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with built-in motor and generator, an integrated PCU (Power Control Unit) and an exclusive battery for plug-in HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) are described in this paper. In addition to the switching of three driving modes and the efficiency improvement of each device, cooperative control of the hybrid system is introduced.
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