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Technical Paper

Development Procedure for Interior Noise Performance by Virtual Vehicle Refinement, Combining Experimental and Numerical Component Models

This paper summarizes the development of a predictive vibro-acoustic full vehicle model of a mid-size sedan and focuses on the engineering analysis procedures used to evaluate the design performance related to engine induced noise and vibration. The vehicle model is build up from a mixture of test-based and finite element component models. FRF Based Substructuring is used for their assembly. The virtual car model is loaded by engine forces resulting from indirect force identification. This force-set includes combustion, inertia, piston slap and crank bearing forces, for engine harmonics from 0.5 to 10th order. Such forced response analysis yields vibration levels at every component, at every interface between components, and interior noise predictions. The target is to provide the vehicle NVH manager with the insight required to identify major causes for peak noise levels and to set targets and develop an action plan for every component design team.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vaporizing Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Sprays in a Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engine

Vaporization models for continuous multi-component liquid sprays and liquid wall films are presented using a continuous thermodynamics formulation. The models were implemented in the KIVA3V-Release 2.0 code. The models are first applied to clarify the characteristics of vaporizing continuous multi-component liquid wall films and liquid drops, and then applied to numerically analyze a practical continuous multi-component fuel - gasoline behavior in a 4-valve port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine under warm conditions. Corresponding computations with single-component fuels are also performed and presented for comparison purposes. As compared to the results of its single-component counterpart, the vaporizing continuous multi-component fuel drop displays a larger vaporization rate initially and a smaller vaporization rate as it becomes more and more dominated by heavy species.
Technical Paper

Improving the Exhaust Emissions of Two-Stroke Engines by Applying the Activated Radical Combustion

The improvement of the exhaust emission and fuel consumption in the conventional two-stroke engines would be urgent. Our previous papers have suggested that the timing controlled auto-ignition, namely Activated Radical Combustion(AR combustion) could be a solution for that. In this time, the AR combustion was applied to a 250 cm3 motorcycle for the intention of commercialization of the AR engine. The alternating phases between AR combustion and SI combustion were analyzed and successfully improved the typical pinking noise. The AR combustion finally decreased the HC emission by approximately 60% in the EC 40 emission evaluation mode. As the power units for the small motorcycles or outboards, two-stroke engines are yet majority. That is because they have advantages such as higher power output, simpleness and compactness of the structure, at the same time, their drawbacks in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are also pointed out in the issues of preserving the environment.
Technical Paper

Development of Programmed-Fuel Injection for Two-Stroke Cycle Racer Engine

An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
Technical Paper

Spark Plug Voltage Analysis for Monitoring Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine

The idea to monitor the combustion in an internal combustion engine and using the obtained data to control combustion in the engine has been around for some time now. There are two well-known methods, although in the capacity of lab experiments, which had been developed under this principle. One features the analysis of combustion pressure and the other features the analysis of ionic currents detected in the combustion gas. Although highly precise analysis can be achieved by the former, there are problems in the installation of sensors for detecting combustion pressure, also in the durability and cost of such sensors. As for the latter, there are also problems in installing sensors for detecting the ionic currents and the reliability of obtained data from such sensors is still questionable.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Equipped with Non-Throttling S.I. Engine with Early Intake Valve Closing Mechanism

To enable non-throttling operation of gasoline S.I. engine, we have manufactured engines equipped with a newly developed Hydraulic Variable-valve Train (HVT), which can vary its intake-valve closing-timing freely. The air-intake control ability of HVT engine is equivalent to conventional throttling engines. Combustion becomes unstable, however, under non-throttling operation at idling. For the countermeasure, newly designed combustion chamber has been developed. The reduction of pumping loss by the HVT depends on engine speed rather than load, and amounts to about 80 % maximum. A conventional engine-management system is not applicable for non-throttling operation. Therefore, new management system has been developed for load control.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four-Valve Lean Burn Engine

The reduction of fuel consumption is of great importance to automobile manufacturers. As a prospective means to achieve fuel economy, lean burn is being investigated at various research organizations and automobile manufacturers and a number of studies on lean-burn technology have been reported to this date. This paper describes the development of a four-valve lean-burn engine; especially the improvement of the combustion, the development of an engine management system, and the achievement of vehicle test results. Major themes discussed in this paper are (1) the improvement of brake-specific fuel consumption under partial load conditions and the achievement of high output power by adopting an optimized swirl ratio and a variable-swirl system with a specially designed variable valve timing and lift mechanism, (2) the development of an air-fuel ratio control system, (3) the improvement of fuel economy as a vehicle and (4) an approach to satisfy the NOx emission standard.
Technical Paper

A High Power, Wide Torque Range, Efficient Engine with a Newly Developed Variablea-Valve-Lift and -Timing Mechanism

A variable valving system was developed. This system has two cam profiles, one for low speed and one for high speed. A 1.2-litre DOHC experimental engine using this system was made and mounted in the body of a 2-1itre class passenger car. Test results of this car were compared to those of the same car with its original engine. The test car showed better results in every area of driving performance, in mode-fuel-econorny and in noise tests. This paper presents the mechanism, operation and test results of this variable valving system, the 1.2-litre experimental engine and this passenger car. THE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY of the passenger car gasoline engine have been greatly improved: primarily as a response to exhaust-gas emission regulations and the oil crises. These improvements have been achieved mainly through the development of control technologies to optimize many parameters such as ignition timing and air fuel ratio precisely according to driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Pre-Ignition Phenomena of Methanol Fuel (M85) by the Post-Ignition Technique

Pre-ignition phenomena of methanol fuel (M85) and unleaded premium gasoline were studied with use of the post-ignition technique. The combustion pressure as well as a signal from the pre-ignition detector were analyzed. It was found that methanol fuel is more susceptible to pre-ignition compared to gasoline fuel. Large cycle-by-cycle variations are present with combustion by surface ignition at the time of pre-ignition. This was caused by wide variations in the 0% mass fraction burned point. Since ionization signals from the pre-ignition detector prior to spark ignition indicate the 0% mass fraction burned point by surface ignition, prediction of pre-ignition is possible with use of the post-ignition technique. Platinum tipped spark plugs were found to be highly susceptible to pre-ignition with methanol fuel.
Technical Paper

Application of Image Converter Camera to Measure Flame Propagation in S.I. Engine

A combustion flame visualization system, for use as an engine diagnostics tool, was developed in order to evaluate combustion chamber shapes in the development stage of mass-produced spark ignition (S.I.) engines. The system consists of an image converter camera and a computer-aided image processing system. The system is capable of high speed photography (10,000 fps) at low intensity light (1,000 cd/m2), and of real-time display of the raw images of combustion flames. By using this system, flame structure estimated from the brightness level on a photograph and direction of flame propagation in a mass-produced 4-valve engine were measured. It was observed that the difference in the structure and the propagation of the flame in the cases of 4-valve and quasi-2-valve combustion chambers, which had the same in the pressure diagram, were detected. The quasi-2-valve configuration was adopted in order to improve swirl intensity.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Practical Application of a TBW System for Large Motorcycle with Improved Driving Feel, Sound Quality, and Layout Flexibility

Honda R&D has developed a throttle-by-wire (TBW) system that meets the needs of motorcycles where the attitude of the vehicle body is controlled by operation of the throttle. To gain high response and following for the throttle valve, we employed a new adaptive control algorithm. The newly developed system has an idling combustion stabilization function and a three-dimensional control function for the throttle-opening map based on running gear and engine speed. With those functions, we improved the controllability of the motorcycle, especially for small throttle openings. Furthermore, we improved the feeling of the limiter control used in maximum-speed limitation. For the overall system, intake system related devices are consolidated to improve the layout flexibility and expand the mounting options on the motorcycle.
Technical Paper

Research into Optimal Specifications for Flexible Fuel Vehicle Engines

Various plant-derived alternative fuels have been proposed in recent years as ways to curb the global warming that occurs from the CO2 that is emitted by internal combustion engines. One such fuel is bioethanol. In Brazil, flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) are used that can run on blends from 100% hydrous ethanol (E100) to gasoline containing 22% ethanol (E22). This research addresses the optimal specifications of a FFV engine. FFV engines use E100 and E22 in any ratio. E100 has a very high RON of approximately 110, while that of E22 is low at approximately 95. The researchers considered these characteristics when selecting a compression ratio capable of providing good performance at any ethanol blend ratio. Additionally, ethanol is a single-component fuel without low-boiling-point components, so it has poor combustion at low temperatures. In general, FFV engines are often built with one intake valve to enhance product usability at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Addition to Intake Mixture on Cyclic Variation of Diesel Engine

The present study experimentally investigated cyclic variation of combustion characteristics of a diesel engine with hydrogen added to the intake air in detail. As the result, there were three ignition modes: (1) hydrogen ignition mode, (2) hydrogen-assisted ignition mode, and (3) diesel-fuel ignition mode. Ignition timing fluctuated from cycle to cycle in each ignition mode and between one ignition mode and another mode. As the coolant temperature was increased, the number of cycles in diesel-fuel ignition mode decreased, and indicated thermal efficiency and cyclic variation was improved. In the case with the blow-by gas introduced to intake port, preflame reaction of blow-by gas first occurred, ignited hydrogen, and then diesel-fuel was ignited by hydrogen combustion in hydrogen ignition mode and hydrogen-assisted ignition mode.
Technical Paper

Development of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Small Motorcycle Engines

A single cylinder gasoline engine of displacement 125 cm3 for prototype was developed, and the fuel economy of this engine was improved by reducing friction and improving combustion. For reducing friction, various methods were innovated; enhancement of the oil film retention by modifying the striation finish on piston skirt, adding the needle bearing to the rocker arm shaft, press-fitting the bush into the small end of connecting rod, reducing contact pressure with the piston ring, and spray coating molybdenum disulfide onto the shift fork. By innovating these friction reduction methods, the friction of the engine was reduced by 6% compared to the previous model which was already employed the roller rocker arm and the offset cylinder. For improving combustion, the swirl control valve (SCV) was installed into the intake port. By the effect of SCV, both improvement of engine power and improving combustion under low load was achieved.
Technical Paper

Performance of Motorcycle Engine Oil with Sulfur-Based Additive as Substitute Zn-DTP

Just as CO2 reduction is required of four wheeled vehicles for environmental protection, similar environmental concerns drive the development of motorcycle oil technology. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (Zn-DTP) type additives are widely used for engine oil formulations. However, phosphorus compounds are environmental load materials. The reduction of the quantity of phosphorus compounds in engine oils is required to reduce poisoning of three-way catalysts used to purify exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Mr. Ito and his co-authors1) reported that they developed a sulfur-based additive as a substitute for Zn-DTP. Their non-phosphorus engine oil formulation for four-wheeled vehicles with a sulfur-based additive was examined to evaluate its anti-wear performance using the following test methods:JASO M328 for gasoline engines (KA24E) and JASO M354 for Diesel engine (4D34T4).
Technical Paper

Development of Gasoline Combustion Reaction Model

Gasoline includes various kinds of chemical species. Thus, the reaction model of gasoline components that includes the low-temperature oxidation and ignition reaction is necessary to investigate the method to control the combustion process of the gasoline engine. In this study, a gasoline combustion reaction model including n-paraffin, iso-paraffin, olefin, naphthene, alcohol, ether, and aromatic compound was developed. KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems) [1] was modified to produce paraffin, olefin, naphthene, alcohol automatically. Also, the toluene reactions of gasoline surrogate model developed by Sakai et al. [2] including toluene, PRF (Primary Reference Fuel), ethanol, and ETBE (Ethyl-tert-butyl-ether) were modified. The universal rule of the reaction mechanisms and rate constants were clarified by using quantum chemical calculation.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Fast Injection Rate Common Rail Injector for the Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Engine

For reduction of NOx and soot emission with conventional diesel diffusion combustion, the authors focused on enhancement of the rate of injection (hereafter referred to as RoI) to improve air availability, thus enhancing the fuel distribution and atomization. In order to increase opening ramp of the RoI (hereafter referred to as fast injection rate), a hydraulic circuit was improved and nozzle geometries were optimized to make the greatest use of the advantages of the hydraulic circuit. Two different common rail injectors were prepared for this research. One is a mass production-type injector with piezo actuator that achieved the EURO-V exhaust gas emission standards, and the other is a prototype injector equipped with the new hydraulic circuit. The nozzle needle of the prototype injector is directly actuated by high-pressure fuel from common rail to improve the RoI.
Technical Paper

Inhibition Effect of Ethanol on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Heptane

It is important in the application of bio-ethanol in homogeneous-charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines to investigate the HCCI combustion characteristics of ethanol. As the inhibitory mechanism of ethanol on HCCI combustion is a key factor, simulated chemical reactions are necessary. In this study, chemical reaction simulations in the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine (RCM) were performed in order to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of ethanol on the HCCI combustion of heptane. The sensitivity analysis results suggested that the OH radical consumption reaction by ethanol that occurs would inhibit the cool flame reaction of heptane. Furthermore, visualization of HCCI combustion with the RCM was conducted using a quartz glass combustion chamber head and ICCD camera. As a result, the cool flame luminescence intensity of heptane was reduced by the addition of ethanol.
Technical Paper

Development of Intake Air Pressure Sensorless Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

A new control system using O₂ feedback control has been developed as an alternative to intake air pressure sensors. This control method uses the operational condition compensation coefficient Kbu. This coefficient encompasses the state of the engine and environmental conditions such as atmospheric pressure, and corrects fuel injection in response to changes in these factors. Kbu makes it possible to control the amount of fuel injection without depending on an intake air pressure sensor. It also makes it possible to carry out the appropriate air-fuel ratio correction even at times when O₂ feedback control is not operating, such as the cold period, when the engine is first started, or during transient operation, by using Kbu values recorded in the Engine Control Unit (henceforth ECU).