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Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

A new index for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U* , which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Presenter Tadashi Naito, Honda R&D Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Computer simulation process for pedestrian protection structures

Research into pedestrian protection has been carried out since the 1960s, in recent years there have been proposals in Europe to legislate requirements in this area and therefore the research is becoming more focused. In the draft regulation, impactor tests have been proposed as a method for evaluating the impact caused by vehicles'' body for pedestrians. This paper introduces impactor model and actual vehicle analysis as a means for simulating impactor testing. Three types of impactors for vehicle tests are presented. It is necessary that the models are first matched with the results of the calibration tests, then matched with the results of the tests on actual vehicles.
Technical Paper

Research on Low-Friction Properties of High Viscosity Index Petroleum Base Stock and Development of Upgraded Engine Oil

High viscosity index(HVI) petroleum base stock, with excellent temperature-viscosity characteristics, oxidation resistance, and low-evaporation properties, offers advantages as the base stock for high fuel economy engine oils, particularly because of its low-friction properties in the boundary and/or “E.H.L (Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication)” area due to its rheological characteristics. This research evaluated HVI base stock's low-friction properties. Upgrading the oil from 5W-30 to 5W-20 was also investigated. The friction properties of the HVI base stock were measured by a unit friction platform. The results show a 28% reduction in friction coefficient compared with the conventional, solvent refined oil, which is attributable to the high-pressure viscosity of the base oil.
Technical Paper

Concept for Developing Vehicle Handling Evaluation Procedure Suitable for Active Control Technology

The recent development of electronics has led to increased research efforts to put the active control technique to practical use in various fields of automotive technology. This report tries to identify the goals likely to be achieved by the active control technology and the subjects of study involved in research activities for this end. As a promising approach to the solution of these subjects, the report discusses the problem areas of the existing evaluation method for vehicle handling performance and then proposes feasible ideas in this field. Finally the report gives a few examples of the research methods we have successfully applied to the development of a four wheel steering system.
Technical Paper

Study of Effect of CVT Pulleys on Strength and Transmission Efficiency of Metal Pushing V-belts

In designing CVT pulleys, the effect of the fit clearance of the movable pulleys and their stiffness on the transmission efficiency and strength of the metal pushing V-belt is not necessarily clear. The research discussed in this paper introduced a pulley model that defined the pulleys as elastic bodies to a previously developed technology for the prediction of the transmission efficiency of the belts. As a result, it was found that when the fit clearance is reduced, the transmission efficiency of the belt is increased, and the amplitude of stress on the innermost rings and the element neck section is reduced. In addition, it was found that if pulley stiffness was reduced transmission efficiency was also reduced, and the amplitude of stress on the element neck section increased. This indicated that the fit clearance and the pulley stiffness changed the degree of deflection of the pulleys in the axial direction.
Technical Paper

Research on Dynamic Behavior Simulation Technology for Cam-Drive Mechanism in Single-cylinder Engines

A theoretical evaluation technology for timing chain systems in single-cylinder engine has been established. Hitherto, there have been almost no theoretical evaluation reports published about drive loss and slapping noise in cam drive systems including timing chains. Thus, tensioner lifter and tensioner guide specifications to satisfy requirements related to slapping noise and friction loss have been determined only by tests with actual engines. In this research, a highly accurate mechanism-simulation model has been constructed that takes into account factors such as dynamic characteristics along with crank sprocket and timing chain contact stiffness and friction coefficient in addition to static characteristics of the timing chain and tensioner guide. Our results have confirmed a high correlation with actual engine tests at an absolute value level.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Semi-Floating Piston Pin Boss Formed by Using Oil-Film Simulations

This paper describes the oil-film bearing analysis simulation was utilized for the optimization of pin boss form which reduces a piston-pin noise. It is clear from the mechanism analysis of the piston-pin noise which is the last research that an oil-film flow inside a pin boss is an important factor for pin noise reduction. So, in this research, the oil-film simulation of the piston-pin-boss bearing part was performed using oil-film bearing analysis tool. After setting up the simulation conditions of the oil-film bearing part so that actual pin behavior and high correlativity might be shown, a parameter, effective hydrodynamic angular velocity, and an oil flow rate of change suitable for evaluation of a pin noise were found out. The pin noise in semi floating piston was reduced to the same level as full floating type by applying pin boss form to which each evaluation parameter becomes the optimal to a piston.
Technical Paper

Detached Eddy Simulation on a Swept Hybrid Model in the IRT

In recent years, there has been a growing desire to incorporate computational methods into aircraft icing certification practices. To improve understanding of ice shapes, a new experimental program in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) will investigate swept hybrid models which are very large relative to the test section and are intended to operate at high lift coefficients. The present computations were conducted to help plan the experiments and to ascertain any effects of flow separation and unsteady forces. As they can be useful in robustly and accurately predicting large separation regions and capturing flow unsteadiness, a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach has been adopted for simulating the flow over these large high-lift wing sections. The DES methodology was first validated using experimental data from an unswept NACA 0012 airfoil with leading-edge ice accretion, showing reasonable performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Real-Time Simulation Tool for Styling Appearance Evaluation

The goal of this research topic is to accurately and rapidly evaluate appearance marketability from the point of view of the customer. 3D data has been broadly used in automobile development in recent times, and utilizing digital models built by this data is effective for quickly and definitively evaluating marketability. Therefore, TOPS was developed, an optimal graphic tool for evaluating appearance marketability that anyone can easily use to portray graphics that are equivalent to the actual product. The development of TOPS increased the precision and efficiency of digital development in design.
Technical Paper

Research on Variable-Speed Brake Control in Multiple-Collision Automatic Braking

According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
Technical Paper

Analysis of FM Multipath Distortion using Two-Stage and MUSIC Methods

Traditionally, the suitability of wireless terminals for automotive use has been evaluated by conducting repeated driving tests in actual environments. However, this method of evaluation has long presented issues, and the implementation of the method itself is today becoming increasingly challenging. A method of evaluating the suitability of terminals for onboard use by generating virtual radio wave environments on a PC has therefore been developed by applying a two-stage method to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-over-the-air(OTA) evaluation. The radio wave propagation characteristics necessary for the generation of these virtual radio wave environments are set using the multiple signal classification method incorporating an RF recorder. The research discussed in this paper used these methods to analyze the effect of the multipath distortion rate on sound quality in the reception of FM broadcasts.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Analyzer for Use on Advanced Low Emission Vehicles

Measuring the real-world performance of emission control technologies is an important aspect in the development of advanced low-emission vehicles. In addition, data acquired from such measurements can be used to improve the accuracy of air quality predictive models. Honda has developed an on-board sampling/analysis system capable of measuring on-road emissions at ULEV levels and below. Ambient air can be analyzed simultaneously. This FTIR-based system can measure several species; this paper will focus on NMHC, NOX, and CO. Techniques were developed to address the challenges associated with acquiring accurate real-time data at concentrations below 1 ppm in an on-road vehicle. Validation studies performed with reference gases and vehicle exhaust indicate a very good correlation between the on-road analyzer system and classic bench methods for all target compounds. Dynamic studies performed by the University of California, Riverside, also show good correlation.
Technical Paper

Research and Analysis of ISG Belt-drive System for Idling Stop System

To enable a belt-driven Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) to be used in an idle-stop system, the belt system must be capable of both driving the accessories and of starting the engine. Conventional belt systems required a higher tension setting to accomplish this, and the associated increase in friction opposed the achievement of better fuel economy. In this research, an auto-tensioner with a contraction suppression function that utilizes the incompressibility of fluid as well as a belt system that enables the auto-tensioner to be optimally located were proposed. The behavior of the belt system was measured in detail by testing, and the cause of the fluctuation of the belt tension was clarified by analysis. A method of controlling the ISG torque to flatten out tension fluctuations was devised, and its effectiveness was confirmed by simulation and testing. From the overall results of the research, a belt system that does not require a high tension setting was realized.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburizing Steel for Crankshafts

The purpose of our research is to omit normalizing after hot forging in nitrocarburized crankshafts. Based on fundamental studies about the influence of chemical composition on as-forged and nitrocarburized properties, the authors have developed a new nitrocarburizing steel composed of 0.3% carbon, 0.8% manganese, and 0.02% nitrogen. The newly designed crankshafts for compact cars using the steel can be in use without the normalizing and have equivalent properties to conventional crankshafts, though the treatment is an indispensable process for conventional ones.
Technical Paper

Development of Metal Pushing V-Belt for Continuously Variable Transmission - Investigation for Clearance Between Elements, Strength of Element and Strength of Ring Material

HONDA completed research and development of the Metal V-Belt for CVTs in-house for the purpose of reducing the minimum pitch radius. The newly developed belt is essential to the compactness of a CVT and increases the speed ratio range. Increase of ring stress caused by reducing the minimum pitch radius is treated by improvement of element shape, optimizing clearance between elements and between element and ring and improving materials.(1) In this paper, the optimization of clearance between elements, heat treatment of elements and optimization of ring material are described in detail. Optimum total clearance between elements for a virgin belt is defined by test results during operation using a specially engraved gap sensor and a telemeter system. Tolerance and conditions of heat treatment for elements are optimized concerning fatigue strength of the element nose.
Technical Paper

Toward Requirements for a Web-based Icing Training Program for Flight Dispatchers

The Icing Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center has funded an exploratory effort to identify requirements for developing a flight dispatcher-centered web-based icing training program that would be available for all airspace users. Through research and discussions with personnel at airlines, target areas were identified as influences on the requirements for the training system: 1 Flight dispatchers' icing related judgments and decision-making; 2 Certification, new hire and recurrent flight dispatcher training with respect to icing; 3 Icing related weather sources and the problems that flight dispatchers may have in their interpretation; 4 Pedagogical strategies (such as flight dispatcher-centered scenario-based approaches) for delivering flight dispatcher training content; and 5 Concerns/constraints with respect to web-based training for flight dispatchers.
Technical Paper

Improvement of visibility for vulnerable parties in traffic accidents

More than half of fatalities in traffic accidents in Japan are the vulnerable parties in such accidents (pedestrians, motorcycles, bicycles). In most of these accidents, the cause is collision involving automobiles. Therefore, reasoning that early detection of such vulnerable parties would lead to a reduction in accidents, we conducted research on the following three systems: - Honda Night Vision System - For night-time detection of pedestrians using infrared cameras. - Active Headlights - For assuring night-time field of vision by directing illumination in the direction of vehicle travel through lights coupled with steering wheel turn and so on. - Inter-Vehicle Motorcycle-Automobile Communication System (IVCS) - Notifies drivers of each other's presence by providing information through communications systems installed on both vehicles. The results from research on these systems show that their use can be expected to have a positive effect in reducing the occurrence of accidents.
Technical Paper

Study of 450-kW Ultra Power Dynamic Charging System

This research sought to develop a dynamic charging system, achieving an unlimited EV cruising range by charging the EV at high power during cruising. This system would help make it possible to finish battery charging in a short time by contact with the EV while cruising and enable drivers to freely cruise their intended routes after charging. A simulation of dynamic charging conditions was conducted for ordinary autonomous cruising (i.e., ordinary EV cruising) when dynamically charging at a high power of 450-kW (DC 750 V, 600 A). This report discusses the study results of a method of building the infrastructure, as well as looking at the cruise test results and future outlook. In particular, the research clarified the conditions for achieving an unlimited vehicle cruising range with a 450-kW dynamic charging system. It also demonstrated that this system would allow battery capacities to be greatly reduced and make it possible to secure the battery supply volume and resources.