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A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2012-06-18
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Liquid Phase Thermometry of Common Rail Diesel Sprays Impinging on a Heated Wall

2007-07-23
2007-01-1891
An experimental study was carried out on visualization of liquid phase temperature distributions in high-pressure diesel sprays impinging on a heated wall. Naphthalene/TMPD-exciplex fluorescence method and pyrene-excimer fluorescence method were utilized for the thermometry. The sprays were injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature gaseous environment. The nozzle hole diameter was 0.100 mm or 0.139 mm. The results showed that cool pockets were formed at the tip and in the impinging part of the sprays. The spray for the nozzle with 0.100 mm hole was heated up faster near the nozzle than for the nozzle with 0.139 mm hole.
Technical Paper

Study on Emission Reducing Method with New Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-07-23
2007-01-1933
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For diesel engines, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge.[1],[2],[3],[4]. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows the effective reduction of NOX. However, in order to realize cleaner emission gases, precise engine control in response to the state of the exhaust aftertreatment system is essential.
Technical Paper

Study on HCCI-SI Combustion Using Fuels Ethanol Containing

2007-10-29
2007-01-4051
Bio-ethanol is one of the candidates for automotive alternative fuels. For reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, it is important to investigate its optimum combustion procedure. This study has explored effect of ethanol fuels on HCCI-SI hybrid combustion using dual fuel injection (DFI). Steady and transient characteristics of the HCCI-SI hybrid combustion were evaluated using a single cylinder engine and a four-cylinder engine equipped with two port injectors and a direct injector. The experimental results indicated that DFI has the potential for optimizing ignition timing of HCCI combustion and for suppressing knock in SI combustion under fixed compression ratio. The HCCI-SI hybrid combustion using DFI achieved increasing efficiency compared to conventional SI combustion.
Technical Paper

Improvement of visibility for vulnerable parties in traffic accidents

2001-06-04
2001-06-0142
More than half of fatalities in traffic accidents in Japan are the vulnerable parties in such accidents (pedestrians, motorcycles, bicycles). In most of these accidents, the cause is collision involving automobiles. Therefore, reasoning that early detection of such vulnerable parties would lead to a reduction in accidents, we conducted research on the following three systems: - Honda Night Vision System - For night-time detection of pedestrians using infrared cameras. - Active Headlights - For assuring night-time field of vision by directing illumination in the direction of vehicle travel through lights coupled with steering wheel turn and so on. - Inter-Vehicle Motorcycle-Automobile Communication System (IVCS) - Notifies drivers of each other's presence by providing information through communications systems installed on both vehicles. The results from research on these systems show that their use can be expected to have a positive effect in reducing the occurrence of accidents.
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

2002-10-29
2002-32-1818
Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.
Technical Paper

Development of the Motor-Assist System for the Hybrid Automobile--The Insight Development of the Motor-Assist System for a Hybrid Car--Insight

2000-11-01
2000-01-C079
A motor-assist system has been developed and employed for the "Insight' hybrid car. The system consists of an internal combustion engine as the primary power source, with an electric motor placed around the engine's crankshaft. Such construction reduces the system's volume significantly and offers more flexibility for the power plant layout. The system's functions include regeneration during braking, an idle stop mechanism, driving power assistance, and power supply for the 12V electrical system. A proper energy management method for various driving modes has been established by combining these functions, and fuel economy is significantly improved as a result. As another control feature, an active motor vibration control system compensates the idling vibration that is unique to three-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

On-board Diagnostic Expert System via an Enhanced Fault Tree Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-1567
We propose to enhance reliability based diagnosis by enhancing the fault tree model with a sensor layer for capturing evidence. We recognized the need for an automated diagnostic process that can predict and report component failure in vehicles prior to total failure of any system in the vehicle. We also want to take advantage of evidence that can be derived from sensors to reduce the amount of tests required to identify failed components.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Simulation in HCCI Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1522
Combustion simulation is an effective tool in overcoming the issues associated with gasoline HCCI engines, controlling ignition timing and extending the operating range. The research discussed in this paper commenced by optimizing the reaction mechanism from the perspective of ignition delay using the genetic algorithm (GA) method. Simulations employing the optimized reaction mechanism were then able to more accurately reproduce the ignition timing of iso-octane and primary reference fuels (PRF). Ignition times obtained from simulations showed excellent correlation with ignition times measured using these fuels in shock tube experiments, and in engines with both homogeneous and non-homogeneous fuel distributions. The use of the PRF mechanism for gasoline with an equivalent octane number enables excellent reproduction of ignition timing even when EGR is employed.
Technical Paper

Research and Analysis of ISG Belt-drive System for Idling Stop System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1501
To enable a belt-driven Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) to be used in an idle-stop system, the belt system must be capable of both driving the accessories and of starting the engine. Conventional belt systems required a higher tension setting to accomplish this, and the associated increase in friction opposed the achievement of better fuel economy. In this research, an auto-tensioner with a contraction suppression function that utilizes the incompressibility of fluid as well as a belt system that enables the auto-tensioner to be optimally located were proposed. The behavior of the belt system was measured in detail by testing, and the cause of the fluctuation of the belt tension was clarified by analysis. A method of controlling the ISG torque to flatten out tension fluctuations was devised, and its effectiveness was confirmed by simulation and testing. From the overall results of the research, a belt system that does not require a high tension setting was realized.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for 2006 Compact Sedan

2006-04-03
2006-01-1503
An Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system for the 2006 Civic Hybrid has been developed, with the goal of having class leading fuel economy among compact vehicles and enhanced driving performance. The IMA system has been enhanced for greater power and efficiency. Combining the 3-stage i-VTEC engine with a higher power, higher efficiency electric motor assist mechanism enables an increase in deceleration regeneration energy and a drive mode powered by the electric motor alone. The engine is a newly developed 3-stage i-VTEC, based on the 1.3L SOHC i-DSI engine. The new 3-stage i-VTEC engine incorporates both a VTEC mechanism that switches cam profiles in low and high engine speed ranges, and a cylinder deactivation mechanism. The CVT has both an expanded ratio range and a higher final gear ratio. Through these technological enhancements, we have achieved the highest levels of fuel economy in the compact class and enhanced acceleration performance.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

2006-10-16
2006-01-3381
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

R&D and Analysis of Energy Consumption Improvement Factor for Advanced Clean Energy HEVs

2005-10-24
2005-01-3828
Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
Technical Paper

Study on Ignition Timing Control for Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Sensor

2006-04-03
2006-01-0180
As technologies for simultaneously maintaining the current high thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reducing particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, many new combustion concepts have been proposed, including premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and low-temperature combustion[1]. However, it is well known that since such new combustion techniques precisely control combustion temperatures and local air-fuel ratios by varying the amount of air, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and the fuel injection timing, they have the issues of being less stable than conventional combustion techniques and of performance that is subject to variance in the fuel and driving conditions. This study concerns a system that addresses these issues by detecting the ignition timing with in-cylinder pressure sensors and by controlling the fuel injection timing and the amount of EGR for optimum combustion onboard.
Technical Paper

Development of Electronically Controlled Belt-type CVT for Motorcycles

2005-10-12
2005-32-0024
An electronically controlled belt-type CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) has been developed for scooter type two-wheeled vehicles. Related to two-wheeled vehicles, the electronically controlled belt-type CVT has advantages over the conventional belt-type CVT, such as more compact and lighter weight. This was achieved by developing a new rubber belt-type. The new rubber belt-type CVT uses a rubber belt with high friction coefficient and pulleys made of aluminum. To obtain good shifting characteristics, the desired speed ratio related to throttle opening and drive speed is calculated. When moving, the actual speed ratio automatically adjusts to the desired value. For the shift modes, three shift modes, two automatic modes and one manual mode with six-speeds were prepared. The electronically controlled CVT increased the range of usable engine speeds compared to the conventional belt-type CVT. Therefore good drivability is maintained.
Technical Paper

Electric Power Control System for a Fuel Cell Vehicle Employing Electric Double-Layer Capacitor

2004-03-08
2004-01-1006
A fuel-cell-vehicle has been provided with an electric-double-layer-capacitor system (capacitor) to act as a back-up power source. The fuel cells and the capacitor have different voltages when the system is started, and for this reason the system could not be reconnected by relays. A VCU (Voltage and current Control Unit) has been positioned in the path of electrical connection between the fuel cells and the capacitor as a method of dealing with this issue. The VCU enables the charging of the capacitor to be controlled in order to equalize the voltage of the two power sources and allow a connection.
Technical Paper

Control Device of Electronically Controlled Fuel Injection System of Air-cooled Engines for Small Motorcycles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0901
In conventional electronically controlled fuel injection systems, when the battery is inadequately charged, the small amount of electric power generated from the alternator by the kick starter operation is consumed by all electrical loads including the battery. This causes a voltage drop, hence the fuel injection system does not function due to a power shortage. To eliminate the power shortage, an installed relay circuit opens all electric loads other than the fuel injection system. This allows the fuel injection system to use all the electric power generated by the kick starter operation aided through using an additionally incorporated condenser. This type of electric power control system has been incorporated into the ECU. Thus, the control system has been realized that permits starting of an engine by using the kick-starter even when the battery is completely discharged.
Technical Paper

Development of the IMA Motor for the V6 Hybrid Midsize Sedan

2005-04-11
2005-01-0276
The Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology used in Civic Hybrid or Insight is developed originally by Honda, and is mounted in a V6 Accord with the aim of enhancing fuel economy of a mid-size passenger car. The development goal was to realize a mid-size passenger car that provides acceleration performance superior to a V6 Accord and the fuel economy of a compact class vehicle. Various means are employed to achieve high torque and high efficiency simultaneously, including an Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) type rotor, low-loss electrical steel sheets as the stator material, and high maximum energy product magnets. These technologies increase the maximum power of the newly developed motor by approximately 20%, the maximum torque by 26% and motor efficiency over all ranges by approximately 1% to 3% compared to the current Civic Hybrid motor. Consequently, the maximum motor power of 14 kW and maximum motor torque of 136 Nm are achieved.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Lean NOx Catalyst

2004-03-08
2004-01-1495
When the alkali metal-supported catalyst was treated at 830°C, the NOx conversion decreased because the alkali metals in the catalyst layer gradually moved to the cordierite honeycomb layer and reacted with the cordierite elements. This phenomena decreased to be added the basic metal oxide (α) in the catalyst layer. The improved catalyst with α 2 showed higher performance than the conventional catalyst in the model gas test. Moreover, the emission values of NOx, HC, and CO were 50% or less than Japanese domestic regulation values even after 830°C×60h heat treatment in a vehicle test.
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