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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Payload Measurement System on Off-Highway Trucks for Mine Applications

The need to accurately measure and record the payload of large off-highway mining trucks was identified by The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd. (BHP). In response. Caterpillar designed and developed a system to fufill that need. The payload carried by mine haul trucks has a strong influence on production rates and costs. The system developed should enable payloads to be much better controlled than has been previously possible. The system also provides a number of mine management features. The development of the system is described from the concept stage to the production stage. Final production capabilities of the microprocessor based system are described. Payload measurement capabilities, diagnostic capabilities, data storage, and data extraction methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Aging of Diesel Particulate Filters

The effects of thermal and chemical aging on the performance of cordierite-based and high-porosity mullite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs), were quantified, particularly their filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and regeneration capability. Both catalyzed and uncatalyzed core-size samples were tested in the lab using a diesel fuel burner and a chemical reactor. The diesel fuel burner generated carbonaceous particulate matter with a pre-specified particle-size distribution, which was loaded in the DPF cores. As the particulate loading evolved, measurements were made for the filtration efficiency and pressure drop across the filter using, respectively, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a pressure transducer. In a subsequent process and on a different bench system, the regeneration capability was tested by measuring the concentration of CO plus CO2 evolved during the controlled oxidation of the carbonaceous species previously deposited on the DPF samples.
Technical Paper

Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and DPF Regeneration Behavior Measurements for Two Different Regeneration Systems

Three distinct types of diesel particulate matter (PM) are generated in selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The three types of PM are trapped using typical Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different washcoat formulations and a commercial Silicon-Carbide DPF. Two systems, an external electric furnace and an in-situ burner, were used for regeneration. Furnace regeneration experiments allow the collected PM to be classified into two categories depending on oxidation mechanism: PM that is affected by the catalyst and PM that is oxidized by a purely thermal mechanism. The two PM categories prove to contribute differently to pressure drop and transient filtration efficiency during in-situ regeneration.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

A Transient Heat Transfer System for Research Engines

An ongoing goal of the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has been to expand and improve the ability of the single cylinder internal combustion research engine to represent its multi-cylinder engine counterpart. To date, the PCRL single cylinder engine test system is able to replicate both the rotational dynamics (SAE #2004-01-0305) and intake manifold dynamics (SAE #2006-01-1074) of a multi cylinder engine using a single cylinder research engine. Another area of interest is the replication of multi-cylinder engine cold start emissions data with a single-cylinder engine test system. For this replication to occur, the single-cylinder engine must experience heat transfer to the engine coolant as if it were part of a multi-cylinder engine, in addition to the other multi-cylinder engine transient effects.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Technical Paper

Dyno Test Investigations of Gasoline Engine Fueled with Butanol-Gasoline Blends

As the issue of oil shortage and air pollution caused by automotive engine emissions become more and more serious day by day, researchers and engineers from all over the world are seeking for alternative fuels of lower pollution and renewable nature. This paper discusses in detail the feasibility of fueling gasoline engines with Butanol-gasoline blends. Besides the production, transportation, storage, physical and chemical properties of Butanol-gasoline blends, the combustion characteristics were analyzed as well. As the result Butanol was considered an excellent alternative fuel for gasoline engines, with many unique advantages superior to Natural Gas, LPG, Carbinol and Ethanol, the latter are widely studied at present time. In order to validate the above conclusions in engine application, engine dyno tests were conducted for a gasoline engine fueled with different concentrations of Butanol blend ranging from 10% to up to 35%.
Technical Paper

Analysis of In-Cylinder RGF and Other Operating Parameters of an Automotive Gasoline Engine under Transient Operations

A hybrid approach utilizing the measured intake/exhaust port pressure traces and gas dynamics simulation was developed to process the instant fresh charge and RGF (Residual Gas Fraction) trapped in cylinder. The real time RGF, pumping losses and indicated thermal efficiency of an automotive gasoline engine under vehicle driving conditions are analyzed, cycle by cycle, and associated to the engine operating parameters including engine load, speed, VVT positions, manifold pressure and temperatures, as well as spark timing. In this way the inter-relationship among those parameters are established. The derived relationship could be used to determine the in-cylinder process for more accurate prediction of engine performance at the stage of concept simulation study, and applied to narrow the range of parameter tests in the engine calibration stage.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Evaporation Model with an Improved G-Equation Combustion and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Model with Application to GDI Engines

A continuous multi-component fuel evaporation model has been integrated with an improved G-equation combustion and detailed chemical kinetics model. The integrated code has been successfully used to simulate a gasoline direct injection engine. In the multi-component fuel model, the theory of continuous thermodynamics is used to model the properties and composition of multi-component fuels such as gasoline. In the improved G-equation combustion model a flamelet approach based on the G-equation is used that considers multi-component fuel effects. To precisely calculate the local and instantaneous residual which has a great effect on the laminar flame speed, a “transport equation residual” model is used. A Damkohler number criterion is used to determine the combustion mode in flame containing cells.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Property Characterization of a Self-Damped Pneumatic Suspension System

This study investigates the fundamental stiffness and damping properties of a self-damped pneumatic suspension system, based on both the experimental and analytical analyses. The pneumatic suspension system consists of a pneumatic cylinder and an accumulator that are connected by an orifice, where damping is realized by the gas flow resistance through the orifice. The nonlinear suspension system model is derived and also linearized for facilitating the properties characterization. An experimental setup is also developed for validating both the formulated nonlinear and linearized models. The comparisons between the measured data and simulation results demonstrate the validity of the models under the operating conditions considered. Two suspension property measures, namely equivalent stiffness coefficient and loss factor, are further formulated.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design Accelerates the Development of Mechanical Locomotive Controls

Smaller locomotives often use mechanical transmissions instead of diesel-electric drive systems typically used in larger locomotives. This paper discusses how Model Based Design was used to develop the complete drive train control system for a 24 ton sugar cane locomotive. A complete MATLAB Simulink machine model was built to fully test and verify the shift control logic, traction control, vehicle speed limiting, and braking control for this locomotive application before it was commissioned. The model included the engine, torque converter, planetary transmission, drive line, and steel on steel driving surface. Simulation was used to debug all control code and test and refine control strategies so that the initial field commissioning in remote Australia was executed very quickly with minimal engineering support required.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 2: Prediction and Optimization

Today's engine and combustion process development is closely related to the intake port layout. Combustion, performance and emissions are coupled to the intensity of turbulence, the quality of mixture formation and the distribution of residual gas, all of which depend on the in-cylinder charge motion, which is mainly determined by the intake port and cylinder head design. Additionally, an increasing level of volumetric efficiency is demanded for a high power output. Most optimization efforts on typical homogeneous charge spark ignition (HCSI) engines have been at low loads because that is all that is required for a vehicle to make it through the FTP cycle. However, due to pumping losses, this is where such engines are least efficient, so it would be good to find strategies to allow the engine to operate at higher loads.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 1: Development and Validation

Hybrid vehicle engines modified for high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are a good choice for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. Such operation can result in an HEV when a downsized engine is used at high load for a large fraction of its run time to recharge the battery or provide acceleration assist. However, high EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause serious performance problems such as incomplete combustion, torque fluctuation, and engine misfire. An efficient way to overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to increased turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR. It is accepted that the detailed experimental characterization of flow field near top dead center (TDC) in an engine environment is no longer practical and cost effective.
Journal Article

Influencing Factors Research on Vehicle Path Planning Based on Elastic Bands for Collision Avoidance

This paper presents the different influence factors to vehicle's path planning, including the guide-potential shape and its parameters, the guild-potential influence scale factor, the stiffness of the elastic bands and the speed of the host vehicle. The assessment of emergency path is based on the dynamic performance of the host vehicle, the lateral acceleration and yaw rate, and its mean-square values accesses the stability of the host vehicle when following the path. In order to take evasion maneuvers more steadily, a guide-potential affecting the moving vehicles behind the obstacle is built, which encourages the host vehicle to change lane appropriately. Three different shape guide-potential models, namely half-circle-like, half-ellipse-like and parabola-like, are proposed and compared in this paper. Meanwhile, hazard map of the road environment which includes the lanes, borders and obstacles is generated.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Effect on High Pressure Diesel Injection

Studies of transient diesel spray characteristics at high injection pressures were conducted in a constant volume chamber by utilizing a high speed photography and light extinction optical diagnostic technique. Two different types of nozzle hole entrances were investigated: a sharp-edged and a round-edged nozzle. The experimental results show that for the same injection delivery, the sharp-edged inlet injector needed a higher injection pressure to overcome the higher friction loss, but it produced longer spray tip penetration length, larger spray angle, smaller droplet sizes, and also lower particulate emission from a parallel engine test. For the round-edged and smooth edged tips at the same injection pressure, the sharp-edged inlet tip took a longer injection duration to deliver a fixed mass of fuel and produced larger overall average Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) droplets.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.