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Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Research on Compression Release Engine Brake Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-1382
A 3D grid model of engine brake is established for an automobile engine. The dynamic compression release braking process is simulated by using this model. In the process of engine braking, the movement of valve and piston causes changes of the internal flow field of the engine. In this paper, the movement of valve and piston were defined by using the dynamic grid technology, so that the numerical simulation is closer to the actual situation via the updating of grid. Based on the relevant parameters of compression release engine brake (including the opening of the exhaust valve, the engine speed and the exhaust back pressure), the pressure and power of the compression release braking system were simulated under the conditions of multiple operating conditions and experimental verification was carried out. The results showed that the braking works of the compression release engine brake are mainly from the compression stroke and the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Aspects of a Modified Hypocycloid Engine

1992-02-01
920380
The modified hypocycloid (MH) mechanism, which uses gears to produce straight line motion, has been proposed as an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion (IC) engines. Advantages of the MH mechanism over the slider-crank for an IC engine include the capability of perfect balancing with any number of cylinders and the absence of piston side loads. The elimination of piston side load has the potential for lower piston friction, reduced piston slap, and less susceptibility to cylinder liner cavitation. To evaluate the concept, an experimental single cylinder four-stroke engine which utilizes the MH mechanism is currently being built at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The MH engine has an increased number of friction interfaces compared to a conventional slider-crank engine due to additional bearings and the gear meshes. Thus, the lubrication of these components is an important issue in total MH engine friction.
Technical Paper

Intake and Cylinder Flow Modeling with a Dual-Valve Port

1993-03-01
930069
Intake port and cylinder flow have been modeled for a dual intake valve diesel engine. A block structured grid was used to represent the complex geometry of the intake port, valves, and cylinder. The calculations were made using a pre-release version of the KIVA-3 code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Both steady flow-bench and unsteady intake calculations were made. In the flow bench configuration, the valves were stationary in a fully open position and pressure boundary conditions were implemented at the domain inlet and outlet. Detailed structure of the in-cylinder flow field set up by the intake flow was studied. Three dimensional particle trace streamlines reveal a complex flow structure that is not readily described by global parameters such as swirl or tumble. Streamlines constrained to lie in planes normal to the cylinder axis show dual vortical structures, which originated at the valves, merging into a single structure downstream.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Combustion Visualization of Single and Split Injections in a Single-Cylinder Heavy-Duty D.I. Diesel Engine Using an Endoscope-Based Imaging System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1112
An experimental study of luminous combustion in a modern diesel engine was performed to investigate the effect of injection parameters on NOX and soot formation via flame temperature and soot KL factor measurements. The two-color technique was applied to 2-D soot luminosity images and area-averaged soot radiation signals to obtain spatially and temporally resolved flame temperature and soot KL factor. The imaging system used for this study was based on a wide-angle endoscope that was mounted in the cylinder head and allowed different views of the combustion chamber. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.4 liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled common-rail injection system. Operating conditions were 1600 rpm and 75% load. The two-color results confirm that retarding the injection timing causes lower flame temperatures and NOX emissions but increased soot formation, independent of injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hydraulic Wheel Pump/Motor for a Hydrostatic Automobile

2002-03-19
2002-01-1349
Using a low-speed high-torque (LSHT) pump/motor to provide the speed range and torque for a hydrostatic automobile offers a number of advantages over using a high-speed low-torque pump/motor, combined with a gear reducer. However, there appear to be no LSHT units commercially available that have true variable displacement capability. Because of this void, a variable displacement pump/motor has been designed and built that could provide a direct drive for each wheel of a hydrostatic automobile. The unit uses some components such as the cylinder block, piston and modified rotating case from a commercially available radial piston pump/motor. Initial preliminary testing of the pump/motor indicates that it has good efficiency and performance characteristics, and, with further development should be very attractive for automotive use. This paper focuses on the design and kinematics of the device.
Technical Paper

Intake Air Velocity Measurements for a Motored Direct Injection Spark Ignited Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0499
Velocity measurements have been made in a motored engine intended for direct injection spark ignited (DISI) operation. Previous experiments showed the effect of intake gas velocities on direct injection spray plumes in this engine, without directly quantifying the gas velocities involved. This work documents the intake velocities in the vicinity of the spray plume, although the spray was not present in these experiments. The measurements were made using an LDV system. Two velocity components were measured, though not simultaneously, through two orthogonal windows in the cylinder of an optical engine equipped with a head designed for DISI engine use. This engine had 4-valves and a pent-roof; the injector (when installed) was positioned slightly off-center in the head, with the spark plug located near by.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1177
A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Use of Air-Injection for Emissions Reduction in a Direct-Injected Diesel Engine

1995-10-01
952359
This study investigates the effect of air-injection during the late combustion period produced by an air-cell on emissions from a direct injected diesel engine. The engine considered is a Caterpillar 3401 test engine which was modeled with an air-cell included as part of the piston geometry. A version of the KIVA-II code with updated submodels for diesel combustion and emissions was modified to allow for geometries with walls interior to the domain. This modified version of KIVA-II was then used to model an air-cell equipped diesel engine for four different air-cell configurations. Of the four air-cell configurations simulated, one proved successful in reducing the predicted engine emissions by more than a factor of two while simultaneously reducing NOx by a slight amount, thus moving the engine off its particulate-NOx tradeoff curve defined by varying the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper

Control and Monitoring of Environmental Parameters in the ASTROCULTURE™ Flight Experiment

1995-07-01
951627
The ASTROCULTURE™ (ASC) middeck flight experiment series was developed to test and integrate subsystems required to grow plants in reduced gravity, with the goal of developing a plant growth unit suitable for conducting quality biological research in microgravity. Flights on the Space Shuttle have demonstrated control of water movement through a particulate rooting material, growth chamber temperature and humidity control, LED lighting systems and control, recycling of recovered condensate, ethylene scrubbing, and carbon dioxide control. A complete plant growth unit was tested on STS-63 in February 1995, the first ASC flight in which plant biology experiments were conducted in microgravity. The methods and objectives used for control of environmental conditions in the ASC unit are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Initial Estimation of the Piston Ring Pack Contribution to Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4014
The contribution to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from fuel that escapes the main combustion event in piston ring crevices was estimated for an air-cooled, V-twin utility engine. The engine was run with a homogeneous pre-vaporized mixture system that avoids the presence of liquid films in the cylinder, and their resulting contribution to the HC emissions. A simplified ring pack gas flow model was used to estimate the ring pack contribution to HC emissions; the model was tested against the experimentally measured blowby. At high load conditions the model shows that the ring pack returns to the cylinder a mass of HC that exceeds that observed in the exhaust, and thus, is the dominant contributor to HC emissions. At light loads, however, the model predicts less HC mass returned from the ring pack than is observed in the exhaust. Time-resolved HC measurements were performed and used to assess the effect of combustion quality on HC emissions.
Journal Article

Detailed Effects of a Diesel Particulate Filter on the Reduction of Chemical Species Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0333
Diesel particulate filters are designed to reduce the mass emissions of diesel particulate matter and have been proven to be effective in this respect. Not much is known, however, about their effects on other unregulated chemical species. This study utilized source dilution sampling techniques to evaluate the effects of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter on a wide spectrum of chemical emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine. The species analyzed included both criteria and unregulated compounds such as particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), inorganic ions, trace metallic compounds, elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other organic compounds. Results showed a significant reduction for the emissions of PM mass, CO, HC, metals, EC, OC, and PAHs.
Journal Article

Ring Pack Crevice Effects on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Air-Cooled Utility Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0004
The effect of the ring pack storage mechanism on the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from an air-cooled utility engine has been studied using a simplified ring pack model. Tests were performed for a range of engine load, two engine speeds, varied air-fuel ratio and with a fixed ignition timing using a homogeneous, pre-vaporized fuel mixture system. The integrated mass of HC leaving the crevices from the end of combustion (the crank angle that the cumulative burn fraction reached 90%) to exhaust valve closing was taken to represent the potential contribution of the ring pack to the overall HC emissions; post-oxidation in the cylinder will consume some of this mass. Time-resolved exhaust HC concentration measurements were also performed, and the instantaneous exhaust HC mass flow rate was determined using the measured exhaust and cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blended Fuels and Multiple Injections on D. I. Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970218
Studies on the effects of methyl soyate (biodiesel) blends with #2 diesel fuel in conjunction with various high pressure injection schemes were conducted on a single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty diesel engine. Engine operating conditions at both high and low loads were investigated. Experiments were performed over a range of injection timings allowing particulate versus NOx trade-off curves to be generated. Phillips 66 certified #2 diesel fuel was used as the baseline; mixtures of 20% and 40% by volume of methyl soyate with the baseline fuel were used as the biodiesel blends. A blend of 20% by volume octadecene (a hydrocarbon fuel that is representative of the biodiesel hydrocarbon's composition but without the oxygen) in #2 diesel fuel was also investigated to help determine the mechanisms of emissions reduction.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Multicomponent Fuels Using Continuous Distributions with Application to Droplet Evaporation and Sprays

1997-10-01
972882
In multidimensional modeling, fuels have been represented predominantly by single components, such as octane for gasoline. Several bicomponent studies have been performed, but these are still limited in their ability to represent real fuels, which are blends of as many as 300 components. This study outlines a method by which the fuel composition is represented by a distribution function of the fuel molecular weight. This allows a much wider range of compositions to be modeled, and only requires including two additional “species” besides the fuel, namely the mean and second moment of the distribution. This approach has been previously presented but is applied here to multidimensional calculations. Results are presented for single component droplet vaporization for comparison with single component fuel predictions, as well as results for a multicomponent gasoline and a diesel droplet.
Technical Paper

Direct Calibration of LIF Measurements of the Oil Film Thickness Using the Capacitance Technique

1997-10-01
972859
A direct calibration has been performed on laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the oil film in a single cylinder air-cooled research engine by simultaneously measuring the minimum oil film thickness by the capacitance technique. At the minimum oil film thickness the capacitance technique provides an accurate measure of the ring-wall distance, and this value is used as a reference for the photomultiplier voltage, giving a calibration coefficient. This calibration coefficient directly accounts for the effect of temperature on the fluorescent properties of the constituents of the oil which are photoactive. The inability to accurately know the temperature of the oil has limited the utility of off-engine calibration techniques. Data are presented for the engine under motoring conditions at speeds from 800 - 2400 rpm and under varying throttle positions.
Technical Paper

Design of a Free-Piston Engine-Pump

1992-09-01
921740
Off-highway mining and construction equipment typically converts all the power output of the engine to hydraulic power, with this power then used to perform the earth-moving operations, and also to propel the vehicle. This equipment presents significant opportunities for a new type of powerplant designed to deliver hydraulic power directly. An alternative to the conventional engine driven pump is a free-piston engine-pump (FPEP). The FPEP incorporates the functions of both an internal combustion engine and a hydraulic pump into a single, less-complex unit. The design presented in this paper utilizes two double-ended, reciprocating, opposed pistons, with combustion at one end of each piston and pumping at the opposite end. The opposed piston layout provides balance and also facilitates uniflow scavenging through intake and exhaust ports in the combustion section of the engine. An important feature of this FPEP design is the rebound accumulator circuit.
Technical Paper

A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

2001-03-05
2001-01-1027
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Engine Combustion Chamber Surface Temperatures

1997-05-01
971593
A two-dimensional transient Heat Conduction in Components code (HCC) was successfully set up and extensively used to calculate the temperature field existing in real engine combustion chambers. The Saul'yev method, an explicit, unconditionally stable finite difference method, was used in the code. Consideration of the gasket between the cylinder wall and head, and the air gap between the piston and liner were included in the code. The realistic piston bowl shape was modeled with a grid transformation and piston movement was considered. The HCC code was used to calculate the wall temperature of an Isuzu ceramic engine and a Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine. The code was combined with the KIVA-II code in an iterative loop, in which the KIVA-II code provided the instantaneous local heat flux on the combustion chamber surfaces, and the HCC code computed the time-averaged wall temperature distribution on the surfaces.
Technical Paper

Injection and Ignition Effects on Two-Stroke Direct Injection Emissions and Efficiency

1996-08-01
961803
To help understand the fundamental processes involved in direct injection, a research project was conducted using a single-cylinder, two-stroke research engine at a mid-speed, boat load operating condition. A 24 statistical factorial experimental design was applied. Of the factors tested at this operating condition, spray type was the most important factor affecting hydrocarbon emissions, followed by in-cylinder flow-related factors. Injection spray was also most important for nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon monoxide emissions, and efficiency. The dominant mechanism influencing the results was misfire, with other mechanisms present for specific responses.
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