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Technical Paper

Analysis of In-Cylinder RGF and Other Operating Parameters of an Automotive Gasoline Engine under Transient Operations

2009-06-15
2009-01-1815
A hybrid approach utilizing the measured intake/exhaust port pressure traces and gas dynamics simulation was developed to process the instant fresh charge and RGF (Residual Gas Fraction) trapped in cylinder. The real time RGF, pumping losses and indicated thermal efficiency of an automotive gasoline engine under vehicle driving conditions are analyzed, cycle by cycle, and associated to the engine operating parameters including engine load, speed, VVT positions, manifold pressure and temperatures, as well as spark timing. In this way the inter-relationship among those parameters are established. The derived relationship could be used to determine the in-cylinder process for more accurate prediction of engine performance at the stage of concept simulation study, and applied to narrow the range of parameter tests in the engine calibration stage.
Technical Paper

Processing and Characterization of Solid and Microcellular PHBV/Coir Fiber Composites

2010-04-12
2010-01-0422
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/coir fiber composites were prepared via both conventional and microcellular injection-molding processes. The surface of the hydrophilic coir fiber was modified by alkali and silane-treatment to improve its adhesion with PHBV. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties were investigated. The addition of coir fiber (treated and untreated) reduced cell size and increased cell density. Further decrease in cell size and increase in cell density were observed for treated fibers compared with PHBV/untreated fiber composites. Mechanical properties such as specific toughness and strain-at-break improved for both solid and microcellular specimens with the addition of coir fibers (both treated and untreated); however, the specific modulus remained essentially the same statistically while the specific strength decreased slightly.
Journal Article

Stator Side Voltage Regulation of Permanent Magnet Generators

2009-11-10
2009-01-3095
Permanent magnet AC generators are robust, inexpensive, and efficient compared to wound-field synchronous generators with brushless exciters. Their application in variable-speed applications is made difficult by the variation of the stator voltage with shaft speed. This paper presents the use of stator-side reactive power injection as a means of regulating the stator voltage. Design-oriented analysis of machine performance for this mode of operation identifies an appropriate level of machine saliency that enables excellent terminal voltage regulation over a specified speed and load range, while minimizing stator current requirements. This paper demonstrates that the incorporation of saliency into the permanent magnet generator can significantly reduce the size of the reactive current source that is required to regulate the stator voltage during operation over a wide range of speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Measurements in a Motored Engine

1989-02-01
890319
A set of experiments has been performed on a motored four stroke engine measuring the gas phase thermal boundary layer profile adjacent to the cylinder head using speckle interferometry. Speckle interferometry is an optical technique which allows full field, line of sight averaged optical phase shift measurements. These optical phase shift measurements may be interpreted as local temperature values for planar or axisymmetric geometries with ideal gases. For this set of experiments, a small (20 mm diameter) portion of the cylinder head was raised 2 mm above the rest of the surface and used as a test surface. The experiments were performed at two engine speeds, 300 and 750 RPM and at low and high intake swirl levels. Interferograms were obtained at 10 crank angle degree intervals from 70° before top dead center of compression to 60° after top dead center of compression.
Technical Paper

Ultrasonic Cavitation Based Casting of Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites for Automobile Structures

2006-04-03
2006-01-0290
The properties of aluminum alloys reinforced by ceramic nanoparticles (less than 100nm) would be enhanced considerably while the ductility is retained over that of the native alloy. The potential of bulk Al-based metal matrix nano-composites (Al MMNCs) cannot be fully developed for industrial applications unless complex structural Al MMNC components can be fabricated cost effectively, such as by casting. Reliable bulk Al MMNCs cannot be cast unless the nanoparticles can be dispersed and distributed uniformly in molten Al alloys. This paper investigates a high volume production method for high performance aluminum matrix nanocomposites, in particular, the application of high intensity ultrasonic cavitation in mixing and dispersing nano-sized ceramic particles in Al melts to cast bulk Al MMNCs for complex automobile structures. Nano-sized SiC particles have been dispersed in molten aluminum alloy A356 for casting.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine Spray Vaporization and Combustion

1992-02-01
920579
Diesel engine in-cylinder combustion processes have been studied using computational models with particular attention to spray development, vaporization, fuel/air mixture formation and combustion. A thermodynamic zero-dimensional cycle analysis program was used to determine initial conditions for the multidimensional calculations. A modified version of the time-dependent, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code KIVA-II was used for the computations, with a detailed treatment for the spray calculations and a simplified model for combustion. The calculations were used to obtain an understanding of the potential predictive capabilities of the models. It was found that there is a strong sensitivity of the results to numerical grid resolution. With proper grid resolution, the calculations were found to reproduce experimental data for non- vaporizing and vaporizing sprays. However, for vaporizing sprays with combustion, extremely fine grids are needed.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0951
Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Intake Valve Flow Measurements Using PIV

1993-10-01
932700
Intake valve flow patterns have been measured quantitatively using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for a commercial 4-valve diesel cylinder head and valve system. The measurements have been made for low (600 engine RPM) and higher (1000 engine RPM) speeds, and at several planes in the valve curtain area. The measurements involve double exposure photography of laser light scattered by seed particles (≅1 μm) from a laser light sheet (≅ 0.5 mm by 50 mm) through an imaging system onto silver halide film. Subsequent processing produces the local particle displacement between the two exposures. Combined with the known time interval between exposures, the displacement information can produce velocity vectors at many locations in the field of view. The results of the experiments are shown as vector plots for each operating condition. In the plane of the illuminating laser sheet, velocity vectors representing local gas velocity are produced.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxygen Enhancement on the Emissions from a DI Diesel via Manipulation of Fuels and Combustion Chamber Gas Composition

2000-03-06
2000-01-0512
Oxygen enhancement in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was studied to investigate the potential for particulate matter and NOx emissions control. The local oxygen concentration within the fuel plume was modified by oxygen enrichment of the intake air and by oxygenating the base fuel with 20% methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The study collected overall engine performance and engine-out emissions data as well as in-cylinder two-color measurements at 25% and 75% loads over a range of injection timings. The study found oxygen enhancement, whether it be from intake air enrichment or via oxygenated fuels, reduces particulate matter, the effectiveness depending on the local concentration of oxygen in the fuel plume. Since NOx emissions depend strongly on the temperature and oxygen concentration throughout the bulk cylinder gas, the global thermal and dilution effects from oxygen enrichment were greater than that from operation on oxygenated fuel.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Study of a New Diesel Exhaust Particulate Trap System*

2000-10-16
2000-01-2846
Diesel exhaust particulate trap system is one of the most effective means to control diesel particulate emissions from diesel vehicles. In this paper, a recently developed diesel exhaust particulate trap system was described and experimentally studied. This system employed a wall-flow ceramic foam filter, which was made of silicon carbide or chromium oxide. And this system was equipped with a microwave heater for the purpose of filter regeneration. Engine dynamometer testing, vehicle bench testing and on-road evaluation of this system were conducted. The experiments studied on the filtration efficiency of this system, the effectiveness of filter regeneration, the power penalty of the vehicle, the ability of noise suppression of this system, and the durability of this particulate trap system. The experimental results showed that this diesel particulate trap system was effective, reliable, and durable.
Technical Paper

Determination of Diesel Injector Nozzle Characteristics Using Two-Color Optical Pyrometry

2002-03-04
2002-01-0746
An investigation of several diesel injector nozzles that produced different engine emissions performance was performed. The nozzle styles used were two VCO type nozzles that were manufactured using two different techniques, and two mini-sac nozzles that provided comparison. Fired experiments were conducted on a Detroit Diesel Series 50 engine. Optical access was obtained by substituting a sapphire window for one exhaust valve. Under high speed, high load, retarded injection timing conditions, it was discovered that each nozzle produced different specific soot and NOx emissions. High-speed film images were obtained. It was discovered that the temperature and KL factor results from the 2-color optical pyrometry showed significant differences between the nozzles. The authors propose the possibility that differences in air entrainment, caused by potential differences in CD due to surface finish, may contribute to the variance in emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Reinventing the Internal Combustion (IC) Engine Head and Exhaust Gaskets

2002-03-04
2002-01-0332
This paper describes how a blend of silicon polymers, mixed with the right combination of fillers, enables the production of durable rubber IC engine head and exhaust gaskets. The resin blend, when mixed with glass fiber reinforcement, produces a liquid sealant suitable for exhaust gasket applications. The exhaust sealant and laminate head gaskets were tested on Ford 460 truck engines at Jasper Engine Company and completed more than 5,000 hours of durability testing without incident. Fabric reinforced polymer (FRP) head and exhaust gaskets can be laser cut from molded laminates, creating a ceramic glass-sealed edge. Thermogravimetric scans of typical gasket laminate material reveal an 88%-yield at 1000°C. FRP head gaskets also enable the cost-effective production of multiple spark ignition (MSI) head gaskets.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2002-03-04
2002-01-0499
Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixing Rate Measurements and CFD Analyses

1999-03-01
1999-01-1110
Gas-phase in-cylinder mixing was examined by two different methods. The first method for observing mixing involved planar Mie scattering measurements of the instantaneous number density of silicon oil droplets which were introduced to the in-cylinder flow. The local value of the number density was assumed to be representative of the local gas concentration. Because the objective was to observe the rate in which gas concentration gradients change, to provide gradients in number density, droplets were admitted into the engine through only one of the two intake ports. Air only flowed through the other port. Three different techniques were used in analyzing the droplet images to determine the spatially dependent particle number density. Direct counting, a filtering technique, and autocorrelation were used and compared. Further, numerical experiments were performed with the autocorrelation method to check its effectiveness for determination of particle number density.
Technical Paper

The Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0613
For competition in the 1998 FutureCar Challenge (FCC98), the University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid electric vehicle by modifying a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the Aluminum Cow. The Wisconsin team is striving for a combined, FTP cycle gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 21.3 km/L (50 mpg) and Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) federal emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. To reach these goals, Wisconsin has concentrated on reducing the overall vehicle weight. In addition to customizing the drivetrain, the team has developed a vehicle control strategy that both aims to achieve these goals and also allows for the completion of a reliable hybrid in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion in a Constant-Volume Combustion Vessel

1998-02-01
980159
The role of mixture stratification on combustion rate has been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel in which mixtures of different equivalence ratios can be added in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. The experiments were performed in a regime of low fluid motion to avoid the complicating effects of turbulence generated by the injection of different masses of fluid. Different mixture combinations were investigated while maintaining a constant overall equivalence ratio and initial pressure. The results indicate that the highest combustion rate for an overall lean mixture is obtained when all of the fuel is contained in a stoichiometric mixture in the vicinity of the ignition source. This is the result of the high burning velocity of these mixtures, and the complete oxidation which releases the full chemical energy.
Technical Paper

Air Entrainment in a High Pressure Diesel Spray

1997-05-01
971620
This paper presents some experimental results of air velocity measurements near high pressure diesel sprays. The measurements were made using a moderately high pressure (90 MPa) common rail injector in a pressurized spray chamber. The chamber was operated at ambient temperature (25°C) and was pressurized with Argon to produce a chamber gas density of about 27 kg/m3, similar to densities found in a large turbocharged diesel near TDC. The gas phase was tagged using water droplets doped with Stilbene 420, with an estimated droplet size of 18 μm. The atomized water-Stilbene droplets were illuminated with the third harmonic of a pair of Nd:YAG lasers which caused the Stilbene to fluoresce at about 420 nm. To reduce the competing fluorescence from the injected fuel, the injector was fueled with Jet-A fuel. Using the two lasers, double exposures of the small droplets were recorded on film. The laser pulse lengths were about 6 ns, and typical times between pulses were 100 μs.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-0593
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric vehicle for entry into the 1999 FutureCar Challenge. The base vehicle is a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the “Aluminum Cow,” weighing 1275 kg. The vehicle utilizes a high efficiency, Ford 1.8 liter, turbo-charged, direct-injection compression ignition engine. The goal is to achieve a combined FTP cycle fuel economy of 23.9 km/L (56 mpg) with California ULEV emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. Strategies to reduce the overall vehicle weight are discussed in detail. Dynamometer and experimental testing is used to verify performance gains.
Technical Paper

Investigation of MicroFlow Machining Effects on Diesel Injector Spray Characteristics

2004-03-08
2004-01-0026
An investigation of the effect of microflow machining on the spray characteristics of diesel injectors was undertaken. A collection of four VCO injector tips were tested prior to and after an abrasive flow process using a high viscosity media. The injector nozzles were tested on a spray fixture. Rate of injection measurements and high-speed digital images were used for the quantification of the air entrainment rate. Comparisons of the spray characteristics and A/F ratios were made for conditions of before and after the abrasive flow process. Results showed a significant decrease in the injection-to-injection variability and improvement of the spray symmetry. A link between the quantity of air entrained and potential differences in spray plume internal chemical composition and temperature is proposed via equilibrium calculations.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2001-03-05
2001-01-0532
The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
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