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Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Application of Schlieren Optical Techniques for the Measurement of Gas Temperature and Turbulent Diffusivity in a Diesel Engine

A new technique which is based on optoacoustic phenomena has been developed for measuring in-cylinder gas temperature and turbulent diffusivity. In the experiments, a high energy Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam was focused to cause local ionization of air at a point in the combustion chamber. This initiates a shock wave and creates a hot spot. The local temperature and turbulent diffusivity are determined by monitoring the shock propagation and the hot spot growth, respectively, with a schlieren photography system. In order to assess the validity and accuracy of the measurements, the technique was also applied to a turbulent jet. The temperature measurements were found to be accurate to within 3%. Results from the turbulent jet measurements also showed that the growth rate of the hot spot diameter can be used to estimate the turbulent diffusivity. In-cylinder gas temperature measurements were made in a motored single cylinder Caterpillar diesel engine, modified for optical access.
Technical Paper

Spectral Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Scaling Aspects of the Characteristic Time Combustion Model in the Simulation of Diesel Engines

Combustion simulations utilizing the characteristic time combustion model have been performed for four DI diesel engines ranging in size from heavy-duty to large-bore designs. It has been found that the pre-factor to the turbulent characteristic time acts as a scaling parameter between the engines. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the non-equilibrium behavior of the turbulent time and length scales, as is encountered in the rapidly distorting, spray-induced flows of DI diesel engines. In fact, the equilibrium assumption between turbulence production and dissipation, which forms the basis for the employed k-ε-type turbulence models, does not hold in these situations. For such flows, the real turbulent dissipation time scale is locally proportional to the turbulent characteristic time scale which is determined by a typical eddy turnover time.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion in a Constant-Volume Combustion Vessel

The role of mixture stratification on combustion rate has been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel in which mixtures of different equivalence ratios can be added in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. The experiments were performed in a regime of low fluid motion to avoid the complicating effects of turbulence generated by the injection of different masses of fluid. Different mixture combinations were investigated while maintaining a constant overall equivalence ratio and initial pressure. The results indicate that the highest combustion rate for an overall lean mixture is obtained when all of the fuel is contained in a stoichiometric mixture in the vicinity of the ignition source. This is the result of the high burning velocity of these mixtures, and the complete oxidation which releases the full chemical energy.
Technical Paper

Control and Monitoring of Environmental Parameters in the ASTROCULTURE™ Flight Experiment

The ASTROCULTURE™ (ASC) middeck flight experiment series was developed to test and integrate subsystems required to grow plants in reduced gravity, with the goal of developing a plant growth unit suitable for conducting quality biological research in microgravity. Flights on the Space Shuttle have demonstrated control of water movement through a particulate rooting material, growth chamber temperature and humidity control, LED lighting systems and control, recycling of recovered condensate, ethylene scrubbing, and carbon dioxide control. A complete plant growth unit was tested on STS-63 in February 1995, the first ASC flight in which plant biology experiments were conducted in microgravity. The methods and objectives used for control of environmental conditions in the ASC unit are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Initial Estimation of the Piston Ring Pack Contribution to Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

The contribution to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from fuel that escapes the main combustion event in piston ring crevices was estimated for an air-cooled, V-twin utility engine. The engine was run with a homogeneous pre-vaporized mixture system that avoids the presence of liquid films in the cylinder, and their resulting contribution to the HC emissions. A simplified ring pack gas flow model was used to estimate the ring pack contribution to HC emissions; the model was tested against the experimentally measured blowby. At high load conditions the model shows that the ring pack returns to the cylinder a mass of HC that exceeds that observed in the exhaust, and thus, is the dominant contributor to HC emissions. At light loads, however, the model predicts less HC mass returned from the ring pack than is observed in the exhaust. Time-resolved HC measurements were performed and used to assess the effect of combustion quality on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Lift-Off Characteristics of n-Heptane Sprays Using Direct Numerical Simulations

Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated in a Miniature Car Using Numerical Simulation

Aerodynamic noise generated in a miniature car had been evaluated using numerical simulation. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was applied to analyze the transient flow field and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy was employed to conduct acoustic analysis. The time accurate flow data was obtained using a finite volume flow solver on an unstructured grid. The flow field around the rear view mirror was obtained by numerical for two cases with different side view mirrors. Moreover, the distribution of acoustic source was predicted on side windows, and the aerodynamic noise was lowed through optimizing the shape of the rear view mirror and some experiments were done to validate the effect. Present study ascertained the feasibility and applicability of finite volume method (FVM) with SGS model towards prediction of aerodynamic noise generated in production vehicle.
Journal Article

Detailed Effects of a Diesel Particulate Filter on the Reduction of Chemical Species Emissions

Diesel particulate filters are designed to reduce the mass emissions of diesel particulate matter and have been proven to be effective in this respect. Not much is known, however, about their effects on other unregulated chemical species. This study utilized source dilution sampling techniques to evaluate the effects of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter on a wide spectrum of chemical emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine. The species analyzed included both criteria and unregulated compounds such as particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), inorganic ions, trace metallic compounds, elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other organic compounds. Results showed a significant reduction for the emissions of PM mass, CO, HC, metals, EC, OC, and PAHs.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Soot Processes Inside Turbulent Acetylene Flames under Atmospheric-Pressure Conditions

Two soot-containing turbulent non-premixed flames burning gaseous acetylene in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated by conducting non-intrusive optical experiments at various flame locations. The differences in burner exit Reynolds numbers of these flames were large enough to examine the influence of flow dynamics on soot formation and evolution processes in heavily-sooting flames. By accounting for the fractal nature of aggregated primary particles (spherules), the proper interpretation of the laser scattering and extinction measurements yielded all the soot parameters of principal interest. With the separation of spherule and aggregate sizes, the axial zones of the prevailing turbulent soot mechanisms were accurately identified. With the high propensity of acetylene fuel to soot, relatively fast particle nucleation process led to high concentrations immediately above the burner exit.
Journal Article

Ring Pack Crevice Effects on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Air-Cooled Utility Engine

The effect of the ring pack storage mechanism on the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from an air-cooled utility engine has been studied using a simplified ring pack model. Tests were performed for a range of engine load, two engine speeds, varied air-fuel ratio and with a fixed ignition timing using a homogeneous, pre-vaporized fuel mixture system. The integrated mass of HC leaving the crevices from the end of combustion (the crank angle that the cumulative burn fraction reached 90%) to exhaust valve closing was taken to represent the potential contribution of the ring pack to the overall HC emissions; post-oxidation in the cylinder will consume some of this mass. Time-resolved exhaust HC concentration measurements were also performed, and the instantaneous exhaust HC mass flow rate was determined using the measured exhaust and cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blended Fuels and Multiple Injections on D. I. Diesel Engines

Studies on the effects of methyl soyate (biodiesel) blends with #2 diesel fuel in conjunction with various high pressure injection schemes were conducted on a single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty diesel engine. Engine operating conditions at both high and low loads were investigated. Experiments were performed over a range of injection timings allowing particulate versus NOx trade-off curves to be generated. Phillips 66 certified #2 diesel fuel was used as the baseline; mixtures of 20% and 40% by volume of methyl soyate with the baseline fuel were used as the biodiesel blends. A blend of 20% by volume octadecene (a hydrocarbon fuel that is representative of the biodiesel hydrocarbon's composition but without the oxygen) in #2 diesel fuel was also investigated to help determine the mechanisms of emissions reduction.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Multicomponent Fuels Using Continuous Distributions with Application to Droplet Evaporation and Sprays

In multidimensional modeling, fuels have been represented predominantly by single components, such as octane for gasoline. Several bicomponent studies have been performed, but these are still limited in their ability to represent real fuels, which are blends of as many as 300 components. This study outlines a method by which the fuel composition is represented by a distribution function of the fuel molecular weight. This allows a much wider range of compositions to be modeled, and only requires including two additional “species” besides the fuel, namely the mean and second moment of the distribution. This approach has been previously presented but is applied here to multidimensional calculations. Results are presented for single component droplet vaporization for comparison with single component fuel predictions, as well as results for a multicomponent gasoline and a diesel droplet.
Technical Paper

Internal Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

An experimental investigation of turbulent flow patterns in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of the injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Two steady flow average Reynolds numbers (10,500 and 13,300), analogous to fuel injection velocities and sac pressures of approximately 320 and 405 m/s and 67 and 107 MPa (10,000 and 16,000 psi), were investigated. The axial progression of mean and root mean square (rms) axial velocities was obtained for both sharp and rounded inlet conditions and varying L/D. The discharge coefficient was also calculated for each geometry.
Technical Paper

A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Structures on Fuel/Air Mixing in a Direct-injected Spark-Ignition Engine

Multidimensional computations were carried out to simulate the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using a modified version of the KIVA-3 code. A hollow cone spray was modeled using a Lagrangian stochastic approach with an empirical initial atomization treatment which is based on experimental data. Improved Spalding-type evaporation and drag models were used to calculate drop vaporization and drop dynamic drag. Spray/wall impingement hydrodynamics was accounted for by using a phenomenological model. Intake flows were computed using a simple approach in which a prescribed velocity profile is specified at the two intake valve openings. This allowed three intake flow patterns, namely, swirl, tumble and non-tumble, to be considered. It was shown that fuel vaporization was completed at the end of compression stroke with early injection timing under the chosen engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Injection and Ignition Effects on Two-Stroke Direct Injection Emissions and Efficiency

To help understand the fundamental processes involved in direct injection, a research project was conducted using a single-cylinder, two-stroke research engine at a mid-speed, boat load operating condition. A 24 statistical factorial experimental design was applied. Of the factors tested at this operating condition, spray type was the most important factor affecting hydrocarbon emissions, followed by in-cylinder flow-related factors. Injection spray was also most important for nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon monoxide emissions, and efficiency. The dominant mechanism influencing the results was misfire, with other mechanisms present for specific responses.