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Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

Dyno Test Investigations of Gasoline Engine Fueled with Butanol-Gasoline Blends

As the issue of oil shortage and air pollution caused by automotive engine emissions become more and more serious day by day, researchers and engineers from all over the world are seeking for alternative fuels of lower pollution and renewable nature. This paper discusses in detail the feasibility of fueling gasoline engines with Butanol-gasoline blends. Besides the production, transportation, storage, physical and chemical properties of Butanol-gasoline blends, the combustion characteristics were analyzed as well. As the result Butanol was considered an excellent alternative fuel for gasoline engines, with many unique advantages superior to Natural Gas, LPG, Carbinol and Ethanol, the latter are widely studied at present time. In order to validate the above conclusions in engine application, engine dyno tests were conducted for a gasoline engine fueled with different concentrations of Butanol blend ranging from 10% to up to 35%.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study and Parameter Optimization on a Diesel - Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engine

This work presents a comprehensive computational study of diesel - natural gas (NG) dual fuel engine. A complete computational model is developed for the operation of a diesel - NG dual fuel engine modified from an AVL 5402 single cylinder diesel test engine. The model is based on the KIVA-3V program and includes customized sub-models. The model is validated against test cell measurements of both pure diesel and dual fuel operation. The effects of NG on ignition and combustion in dual fuel operation are analyzed in detail. Zero-dimensional computations with a diesel surrogate reaction mechanism are conducted to discover the effects of NG on ignition and combustion and to reveal the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind such effects. Backed by the detailed theoretical analysis, the engine operation parameters are optimized with genetic algorithm (GA) for the dual fuel operation of the modified AVL 5402 test engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics

In this paper, knock in a Ford single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was modeled and investigated using the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The deflagrative turbulent flame propagation was described by the G-equation combustion model. A 22-species, 42-reaction iso-octane (iC8H18) mechanism was adopted to model the auto-ignition process of the gasoline/air/residual-gas mixture ahead of the flame front. The iso-octane mechanism was originally validated by ignition delay tests in a rapid compression machine. In this study, the mechanism was tested by comparing the simulated ignition delay time in a constant volume mesh with the values measured in a shock tube under different initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio conditions, and acceptable agreements were obtained.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Platinum and Cerium from Use of a FBC

Fuel-borne catalysts (FBC) have demonstrated efficacy as an important strategy for integrated diesel emission control. The research summarized herein provides new methodologies for the characterization of engine-out speciated emissions. These analytical tools provide new insights on the mode of action and chemical forms of metal emissions arising from use of a platinum and cerium based commercial FBC, both with and without a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Characterization efforts addressed metal solubility (water, methanol and dichloromethane) and particle size and charge of the target species in the water and solvent extracts. Platinum and cerium species were quantified using state-of-the-art high resolution plasma mass spectrometry. Liquid-chromatography-triple quad mass spectrometry techniques were developed to quantify potential parent Pt-FBC in the PM extracts. Speciation was examined for emissions from cold and warm engine cycles collected from an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Aspects of a Modified Hypocycloid Engine

The modified hypocycloid (MH) mechanism, which uses gears to produce straight line motion, has been proposed as an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion (IC) engines. Advantages of the MH mechanism over the slider-crank for an IC engine include the capability of perfect balancing with any number of cylinders and the absence of piston side loads. The elimination of piston side load has the potential for lower piston friction, reduced piston slap, and less susceptibility to cylinder liner cavitation. To evaluate the concept, an experimental single cylinder four-stroke engine which utilizes the MH mechanism is currently being built at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The MH engine has an increased number of friction interfaces compared to a conventional slider-crank engine due to additional bearings and the gear meshes. Thus, the lubrication of these components is an important issue in total MH engine friction.
Technical Paper

Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions

A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
Technical Paper

Emission Tests of Diesel Fuel with NOx Reduction Additives

In this paper results are given from single-cylinder, steady-state engine tests using the Texaco Diesel Additive (TDA) as an in-fuel emission reducing agent. The data include NOx, total unburned hydrocarbons, indicated specific fuel consumption, and heat release analysis for one engine speed (1500 RPM) with two different loads (Φ ≈ 0.3, IMEP = 0.654 MPa and Φ ≈ 0.5, IMEP = 1.006 MPa) using the baseline fuel and fuels with one percent and five percent additive by weight. The emissions were measured in the exhaust stream of a modified TACOM-LABECO single cylinder engine. This engine is a 114 mm x 114 mm (4.5″ x 4.5″) open chamber low swirl design with a 110.5 MPa (16,000 psi) peak pressure Bosch injector. The injector has 8 holes, each of 0.2 mm diameter. The intake air was slightly boosted (approximately 171 kPa (25 psia)) and slightly heated (333 K (140 °F)). In previous research on this engine the emissions, including soot, were well documented.
Technical Paper

Spectral Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenate and Gasoline-Diesel Fuel Blends on Diesel Engine Emissions

A study was performed in which the effects on the regulated emissions from a commercial small DI diesel engine were measured for different refinery-derived fuel blends. Seven different fuel blends were tested, of which two were deemed to merit more detailed evaluation. To investigate the effects of fuel properties on the combustion processes with these fuel blends, two-color pyrometry was used via optically accessible cylinderheads. Additional data were obtained with one of the fuel blends with a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. California diesel fuel was used as a baseline. The fuel blends were made by mixing the components typically found in gasoline, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and whole fluid catalytic cracking gasoline (WH-FCC). The mixing was performed on a volume basis. Cetane improver (CI) was added to maintain the same cetane number (CN) of the fuel blends as that of the baseline fuel.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-Averaged Histories of Nitrogen Oxide in a D.I. Diesel with Simulated Turbocharging

An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct injection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine run conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERC modified KIVA-II computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method

The fuel film thickness resulting from diesel fuel spray impingement was measured in a chamber at conditions representative of early injection timings used for low temperature diesel combustion. The adhered fuel volume and the radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was injected normal to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353 K, 426 K and 500 K, with densities of 10 kg/m3 and 25 kg/m3. Two injectors, with nozzle diameters of 100 μm and 120 μm, were investigated. The results show that the fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but was minimally affected by the ambient density. The peak fuel film thickness and the film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. The fuel film was found to be circular in shape, with an inner region of nearly constant thickness. The major difference observed with temperature was a decrease in the radial extent of the film.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

For competition in the 1998 FutureCar Challenge (FCC98), the University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid electric vehicle by modifying a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the Aluminum Cow. The Wisconsin team is striving for a combined, FTP cycle gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 21.3 km/L (50 mpg) and Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) federal emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. To reach these goals, Wisconsin has concentrated on reducing the overall vehicle weight. In addition to customizing the drivetrain, the team has developed a vehicle control strategy that both aims to achieve these goals and also allows for the completion of a reliable hybrid in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Boost Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Single-Cylinder D.I. Diesel Engine

An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE) was used to study diesel combustion. The SCOTE retains the port, combustion chamber, and injection geometry of the production six cylinder, 373 kW (500 hp) 3406E heavy-duty truck engine. The engine was equipped with an electronic unit injector and an electronically controlled common rail injector that is capable of multiple injections. An emissions investigation was carried out using a six-mode cycle simulation of the EPA Federal Transient Test Procedure. The results show that the SCOTE meets current EPA mandated emissions levels, despite the higher internal friction imposed by the single-cylinder configuration. NOx versus particulate trade-off curves were generated over a range of injection timings for each mode and results of heat release calculations were examined, giving insight into combustion phenomena in current “state of the art” heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on Fuel Sprays from a Multi-Hole Nozzle Injector

A study of fuel spray characteristics for diesel fuel from a multi-hole nozzle injector was performed yielding tip penetration length and spray cone angle for each of the spray plumes from a six hole injector. The main feature of the system used was that analysis of all the fuel plumes could occur at one time, as all the plumes were imaged on the same piece of film. Spray behavior was examined for two injection pressures (72 MPa and 122 MPa) and for ambient temperatures up to 523 K (250°C). The results in this paper show how the spray plumes behave as they leave each of the six holes of the injector. The characteristics of each hole differs during injection. The variations of spray cone angle and tip penetration length between holes are small, but significant. These variations in tip penetration and cone angle changed as the temperature of the chamber changed, but the overall characteristics of the spray plumes changed only slightly for the temperatures used in this paper.