Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Linkage and Structural Optimization of an Earth Moving Machine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0496
Faced with competitive environments, pressure to lower development costs and aggressive timelines engineers are not only increasingly adopting numerical simulation techniques but are also embracing design optimization schemes to augment their efforts. These techniques not only provide more understanding of the trade-offs but are also capable of proactively guiding the decision making process. However, design optimization and exploration tools have struggled to find complete acceptance and are typically underutilized in many applications; especially in situations where the algorithms have to compete with existing swift decision making processes. In this paper we demonstrate how the type of setup and algorithmic choice can have an influence and make optimization more lucrative in a new product development atmosphere. We also present some results from a design exploration activity, involving linkage and structural development, of an earth moving machine application.
Technical Paper

Some Problems in Reliability Estimation

1964-01-01
640564
This paper is concerned with a series of three important problems on reliability where complete solutions are still unavailable. These problems have all been researched and approximate solutions are outlined. The three areas of interest are 1. The government requirement of assurance of high reliability of complex items where the cost of sampling is extremely high. 2. Confidence intervals for a system in series where component data are available, and 3. Estimation of the parameters of the Weibull distribution when sampling terminates after the rth failure is observed in a sample of size n.
Technical Paper

Design for Graphics

1973-02-01
730411
This paper consists of viewing graphics as a language showing it is critical to effective visual communication Equally important is the process of visual translation itself, the practical application of graphic language to expressive requirements. This paper identifies in logical order some of the major message functions of graphic language, and to develop these functions in terms of specific communicative options available to the designer.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Statistical Design Method for Co-Creation HMI Applications in the Chinese Automotive Market

2017-03-28
2017-01-0650
The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
Technical Paper

Exploring Transitional Automation with New and Old Drivers

2016-04-05
2016-01-1442
Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
Technical Paper

FD&E Total Life T-Sample Residual Stress Analytical Predictions and Measured Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0528
The Society of Automotive Engineers Fatigue Design & Evaluation Committee [SAE FD&E] is actively working on a total life project for weldments, in which the welding residual stress is a key contributor to an accurate assessment of fatigue life. Physics-based welding process simulation and various types of residual stress measurements were pursued to provide a representation of the residual stress field at the failure location in the fatigue samples. A well-controlled and documented robotic welding process was used for all sample fabrications to provide accurate inputs for the welding simulations. One destructive (contour method) residual stress measurement and several non-destructive residual stress measurements-surface X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), and neutron diffraction (ND)-were performed on the same or similarly welded samples.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Chemical Kinetic Models for Surrogate Gasoline Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0175
The development of surrogate mixtures that represent gasoline combustion behavior is reviewed. Combustion chemistry behavioral targets that a surrogate should accurately reproduce, particularly for emulating homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation, are carefully identified. Both short and long term research needs to support development of more robust surrogate fuel compositions are described. Candidate component species are identified and the status of present chemical kinetic models for these components and their interactions are discussed. Recommendations are made for the initial components to be included in gasoline surrogates for near term development. Components that can be added to refine predictions and to include additional behavioral targets are identified as well. Thermodynamic, thermochemical and transport properties that require further investigation are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Electronic Engine Diagnostics

1990-10-01
901158
Software systems on electronically controlled diesel truck engines typically provide diagnostic features to enable the engine mechanic to identify and debug system problems. As future systems become more sophisticated, so will the diagnostic requirements. The advantages of serviceability and accuracy found in todays electronic systems must not be allowed to degrade due to this increased sophistication. One method of maintaining a high level of serviceability and accuracy is to place an even greater priority on diagnostics and servicing in the initial design phase of the product than is done today. In particular, three major goals of future diagnostic systems should be separation of component failures from system failures, prognostication of failures and analysis of engine performance. This paper will discuss a system to realize these goals by dividing the diagnostic task into the Electronic System Diagnostics, Engine System Diagnostics and the Diagnostic Interface.
Technical Paper

Lyophilization for Water Recovery III, System Design

2005-07-11
2005-01-3084
Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids that remain. Our previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents results of functional and performance tests.
Technical Paper

Initiating a Values Based Culture at Track-Type Tractors Division of Caterpillar Inc.

1999-03-01
1999-01-0250
During the early 1990s, the Track-Type Tractors Division (TTTD) of Caterpillar Inc. experienced several challenges. The Division faced increasing global competition in the midst of an economic recession. Although intense plant modernization and reorganization occurred in the five previous years, the business unit was not profitable. In 1993, Track-Type Tractors Division instituted its solution -- a change in its culture. Previously, the culture hindered the division’s ability to move forward. This was revealed in a 1992 review detailing the major obstacles inhibiting management from achieving divisional goals. The division leaders recognized that a change in business philosophy, as opposed to further plant modernization, was required to achieve production goals and stay globally competitive.
Technical Paper

Shortcuts in Cumulative Damage Analysis

1973-02-01
730565
The paper presents a method for shorter evaluation of the fatigue damage done by an irregular sequence of loads. The method looks first for the largest overall range from highest peak to lowest valley, then for the next largest overall range that interrupts the first range, and so on, down until a suitable fraction (for example, 10%) of all reversals have been used. These few reversals form a short history, which will do substantially the same damage as the total history. The process is applied to three long histories selected by the SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee. The sensitivity of calculated damage to the omission of smaller ranges is computed for plain and for notched specimens. The error is compared with differences produced by different current rules for evaluating damage, by different cycle counting methods, and by smooth specimen simulation of notched parts.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Developing Performance Standards for Alternative Hydraulic Fluids

2000-09-11
2000-01-2540
There has been an ongoing interest in replacing mineral oil with more biodegradable and/or fire-resistant hydraulic fluids in many mobile equipment applications. Although many alternative fluids may be more biodegradable, or fire-resistant, or both than mineral oil, they often suffer from other limitations such as poorer wear, oxidative stability, and yellow metal corrosion which inhibit their performance in high-pressure hydraulic systems, particularly high pressure piston pump applications. From the fluid supplier's viewpoint, the development of a definitive test, or series of tests, that provides sufficient information to determine how a given fluid would perform with various hydraulic components would be of interest because it would minimize extensive testing. This is often too slow or prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, from OEM's (original equipment manufacturer's) point of view, it would be advantageous to develop a more effective, industry accepted fluid analysis screening.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0069
Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Technical Paper

Results of Applying a Families-of-Systems Approach to Systems Engineering of Product Line Families

2002-11-18
2002-01-3086
Most of the history of systems engineering has been focused on processes for engineering a single complex system. However, most large enterprises design, manufacture, operate, sell, or support not one product but multiple product lines of related but varying systems. They seek to optimize time to market, costs of development and production, leverage of intellectual assets, best use of talented human resources, overall competitiveness, overall profitability and productivity. Optimizing globally across multiple product lines does not follow from treating each system family member as an independently engineered system or product. Traditional systems engineering principles can be generalized to apply to families. This article includes a multi-year case study of the actual use of a generic model-based systems engineering methodology for families, Systematica™, across the embedded electronic systems products of one of the world's largest manufacturers of heavy equipment.
Technical Paper

Induction Hardening Simulation of Steel and Cast Iron Components

2002-03-19
2002-01-1557
The induction hardening process involves a complex interaction of electromagnetic heating, rapid cooling, metallurgical phase transformations, and mechanical behavior. Many factors including induction coil design, power, frequency, scanning velocity, workpiece geometry, material chemistry, and quench severity determine a process outcome. This paper demonstrates an effective application of a numerical analysis tool for understanding of induction hardening. First, an overview of the Caterpillar induction simulation tool is briefly discussed. Then, several important features of the model development are examined. Finally, two examples illustrating the use of the computer simulation tool for solving induction-hardening problems related to cracking and distortion are presented. These examples demonstrate the tool's ability to simulate changes in process parameters and latitude of modeling steel or cast iron.
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

1998-04-08
981502
Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids: A Review

1999-09-14
1999-01-2865
There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RoHS on Electric Vehicles in the Chinese Automotive Market

2016-09-27
2016-01-8124
China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
Technical Paper

Application of a Self-Adjusting Audible Warning Device as a Backup Alarm for Mobile Earthmoving Equipment

2005-11-01
2005-01-3507
Most pieces of mobile equipment (machines) produce an audible signal to indicate movement in the rearward direction. This signal is intended to alert nearby personnel of the potential danger associated with the machine moving in a direction where the operator may not be able to see people or objects in the machine path. Anyone who has been on or near a construction site recognizes the familiar “beep…beep…beep…” of this signal as the backup alarm. To be effective, the backup alarm must be discernible, timely, and relevant to those people where a reaction is intended. As machine designers respond to various sound directives for reducing sound emissions (including the backup alarm), the performance of the backup alarm is receiving special attention. An emerging solution is an alarm capable of sensing ambient sounds and producing an audible signal proportional to the sensed sound levels-a self-adjusting backup alarm.
X