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Technical Paper

A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Engine Bearing and Cam/Tappet Contacts from the Measurement of Temperature and Oil Film Thickness

1995-10-01
952472
This paper discusses the effects of lubricant viscosity on the friction characteristics of engine bearing and cam/tappet which are the typical moving parts of an engine and operate in different lubrication regimes. Based on the measured crankshaft temperatures, we calculated the friction coefficient of the engine bearing according to Sommerfeld number by a simple heat equilibrium equation. The oil film thicknesses between cam and tappet were measured in a motored cylinder head which had a direct acting type overhead camshaft. The boundary and viscous friction components were estimated separately according to a parameter defined as the ratio of the central oil film thickness to the composite surface roughness. These two friction components were added to calculate the friction coefficient. Finally, the motoring friction torque was measured and compared with the estimated friction coefficient.
Technical Paper

The Development and Performance Simulation of Polychloroprene High Temperature Bush Type Engine Mount

1994-03-01
940888
In recent years, high performance engines and the reduction in engine room due to aerodynamic styling has caused increases in engine room temperature. Because of this increasing temperature, the conventional natural rubber engine mount is now at the marginal point on its performance and durability. Several heat resistant materials have been considered for engine mount applications because of this reason. Polychloroprene rubber could be a strong candidate for engine mount application due to its balance of heat resistance, dynamic properties, and fatigue life. This paper will discuss the development of the technology, property characteristics and part performance simulations on the HYUNDAI BUSH TYPE COMPLEX ENGINE MOUNT (for 2.0L DOHC ENGINE). This type of mount requires higher creep resistance and fatigue life than those of other designs, such as block or simple shear type mounts. Early evaluations of polychloroprene mounts have shown some deficiencies in creep resistance.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Temperature Properties in Al Matrix Composite Fabricated by the Low Pressure Squeeze Infiltration Process

1994-03-01
940809
Al matrix composites containing alumina (Al2O3) fibers are fabricated by the low pressure (25MPa) squeeze infiltration process which is suitable for the low cost mass production. Mechanical properties at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures (250°C, 350°C) are improved due to the presence of reinforcements. Upto 350°C, composites maintain a reasonable strength, which is much better than strength of the conventional Al alloy. Composites have equivalent wear rates to those of Ni - resist cast iron. Wear behavior is changed with the sliding speed. At low sliding speed, wear proceeds by the excessive failure of matrix and fiber, whilst, at higher sliding speed, matrix fracture near fiber plays a major role in wear. Wear resistance of 125°C is inferior to that of room temperature due to the reduction of mechanical properties followed by matrix softening and poor bonding.
Technical Paper

The Wettability of Silicon Carbide by Liquid Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

1994-03-01
940808
There have been strong moves in recent years to introduce the metal matrix composites concept into higher volume applications, notably the automotive field where large volume production and lower material costs are required. The wettability between reinforcing materials and base material is one of important factors for the strength of composites and its manufacture. The main objective of this paper is to establish a basic understanding of wetting phenomena in SiC/liquid aluminum and aluminum alloy systems. In the present paper, results from the sessile drop method are reported for the effects on the wetting angle, θ, of free silicon in the silicon carbide substrate and of alloying additions of silicon, copper or magnesium to the aluminum drop for the temperature range 700-900 or 1400°C in the titanium-gettered vacuum (1.3 x 10-2 / 1.3 x 10-3 Pa).
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Crankshaft Vibration Analysis Including Gyroscopic Effect

1994-03-01
940699
It has been recently reported that the crankshaft vibration provides the main exciting source in the power train vibration. This paper presents the analytical method for the vibration of crankshaft by using the finite element method. The optimization process is employed so that the beam model of the crankshaft can have the same natural frequencies as those of solid model on the free-free condition. The mode analysis of the crankshaft whirling is made in the consideration of the gyroscopic effect and the changes of the natural frequencies are also studied with the increase of the engine speed. Finally, the forced vibration of the crankshaft is solved on the time domain and the results are compared with those of the experimental measurements of bending moment by using the strain gage. This crankshft system model can be used to analyze the forced vibration of the full power train as well.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Transient Characteristics of Automatic Transmission with Detailed Dynamic Modeling

1994-03-01
941014
Transient characteristics during gear ratio change including the disturbance of output torque have been important issues in the study of passenger car automatic transmission. In this paper, to investigate the transient characteristics during gear ratio change, a detailed dynamic model of the power transmission system of a passenger car focused on the automatic transmission was proposed and the governing dynamic equations were derived and solved. The results of simulation showed good agreements with the experimental data. It was proved that the suggested dynamic model is very useful to analyze the phenomena occurred during the speed ratio change.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction and Noise Refinement of the Hyundai 1.5 Liter Powertrain

1994-03-01
940995
The weight reduction and noise refinement of powertrain has been major concern in automotive industry although they are known as self trade-off. This paper presents various methods to deal with those problems for new Hyundai 1.5 liter powertrain. It was possible to reduce the weight of powertrain by using plastic for both headcover and intake manifold, aluminum for crankshaft damper pulley and stainless steel for exhaust manifold and by reducing the general thickness of cylinder block On the other hand, the noise refinement of vibration in the powertrain was made by optimizing the engine structure and by adapting the hydraulic lash adjuster valve train system, which was proved to be effective in mechanical noise of engine.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Flow in the Engine Intake System

1995-09-01
952067
To design an optimum engine intake system, a flow model for the intake manifold was developed by the method of characteristics. The flow in the intake manifold was one-dimensional, and finite difference equations were derived from the governing equations of flow. The thermodynamic properties inside a cylinder were found by the first law of thermodynamics, and the boundary conditions were formulated using a steady flow model. By comparing the calculated results with experimental data, the appropriate boundary conditions and convergence limits for a flow model were established. From this model, design variables for the intake system were investigated. The optimum manifold length became shorter when the engine speed were increased. The effect of intake valve timings on inlet air mass was also studied by this model. Advancing intake valve opening decreased inlet air mass slightly, and the optimum intake valve closing was found.
Technical Paper

Development of Structure-Occupant Integrated Analysis Method

1995-02-01
951058
Structure-occupant related method, which uses some structural analysis results for inputs of occupant simulation, has being used widely even if it is difficult to describe real crash precisely. The method is not proper to simulate complex situation such as an occupant behavior restrained with air bag in out-of-position impact. A structure-occupant integrated method is needed to analyze these sophisticated problems in the early stage of design. Therefore, Hyundai Motor Co. tried to develop the method, and the process is described in this paper. The integrated vehicle model includes Hybrid III dummy, air bag, seat belt and interior detail models. The interior detail models are instrument panel, knee bolsters, steering wheel and column, and seats. The part models were compared with the part test results and they were merged into larger models only if they passed correlation test.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Identify the Structure Borne Sound Sources Induced by Powertrain Vibration Behavior

1995-05-01
951235
Identification of structure borne sound sources induced by the structural vibration of an automotive powertrain has been studied. Based on the principal component analysis which uses singular value decomposition of a matrix consisting of the auto- and cross-spectra, the operating vibrational analysis is performed. The quantitative description of the output power due to intrinsic incoherent source is addressed. The applicability of the technique is tested both numerically and experimentally. First, the coherence analysis is numerically carried out with a simple structure which is modeled as multi-input and single output to identify the structure borne noise generation process. Second, the actual vibrational behavior of a powertrain structure and the interior noise analysis of a car under the running condition are carried out. The technique is shown to be very effective in the identification of the structure borne noise sources.
Technical Paper

The Characteristic of the Shock Force Induced in the Switchable Damper During its Mode Change

1995-02-01
950587
The switching on/off system, which is one of the means to control the semi-active damper, is utilized with the merit of its simple control method but the shock force occuring in the mode change is still a problem to be overcome in this kind of damper. In this study, by simulating a quarter car model which incorporates the damper mass and the stiffness of damper mount bushes, the presence of the shock force and the characteristic of the shock force was examined. This study suggests an interesting relationship between the frequency of the shock force induced in the damper mode change and the stiffness of the damper mount bushes.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Comparison Between Air-Assisted Injection System and High Pressure Injection System at 2-Stroke Engine

1995-02-01
950270
This study presents engine test results of HMC's piston-ported 2-stroke gasoline engine. This single cylinder engine of 400cc displacement has featured in direct injection(DI) of fuel and external blower scavenging of air. Two different concepts of DI system were adopted, one is high pressure fuel injection(HPFI) system for solid fuel only and the other is low pressure air-assisted fuel injection(AAFI) system. Two kinds of engines with different scavenging intake port shapes and areas were tested to find the effect of scavenging port type on engine performance. Also tested were trends of BSFC, BSHC and BSCO versus fuel injection timing and engine speed with HPFI and AAFI, respectively. Power and boost pressure at full load and BSFC and BSHC at part load were tested.
Technical Paper

A Predicting and Improvement of Side Impact Using the CC-CTP

1993-03-01
930443
Extensive researches are being performed on a world wide basis with the aim of enhancing occupant protection on the side impact. The test methodology for side impact can be divided into two general groups; Sub-System Tests Full Scale Tests. However, the advantages of full scale test is that it is possible to make an integrated statement on the protective potential of the structural stiffness of the struck vehicle and the padding for a selected collision speed and type of collision. The advantages of sub-system test methodology can be simulates more exactly for wide range of accident(i.e. collision directions, impact points etc.). The latter test procedure can be carried out at a relatively earlier stage in the development of a new vehicle, and also can be reduce the time and cost. The Computer Controlled Composite Test Procedure(CC-CTP) presented in this paper has been developed by CCMC (Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors).
Technical Paper

Identification of the Relation Between Crank Shaft Bending and Interior Noise of A/T Vehicle in Idle State

1993-03-01
930618
This paper shows the cause and the solution to the uncommon noise which happens ½ order component of engine rpm when a vehicle with automatic transmission has an air conditioning load and “drive” range load on the engine. By measuring cylinder pressure, main bearing cap vibration, engine mount vibration, and interior noise simultaneously, the cause of the noise can be proved by analyzing and comparing the data. The cause of the uncommon noise is bending vibration of the crank shaft. To solve the problem, one can change the crank shaft dynamics by reducing the mass of the damper pulley.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs)

1993-03-01
930330
This paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV). The work on FFV has been conducted to evaluate its potential as an alternative to the conventional gasoline vehicle. Hyundai FFV described here can operate on M85, gasoline, or any of their combinations, in which the methanol concentration is measured by an electrostatic type fuel sensor. For that operation, a special FFV ECU has been developed and incorporated in the FFV. The characteristics affecting FFV operation, such as FFV ECU control strategy and injector flow rate, have been investigated and optimized by experiment. Various development tests have been performed in view of engine performance, durability, cold startability, and exhaust emissions reduction. The exhaust gas aftertreatment system being consisted of manifold type catalytic converter(MCC) and secondary air injection system has shown good emission reduction performance including formaldehyde emission.
Technical Paper

A Method to Analyze “The Imaginary Kingpin Axis” in Multi-Link Type Suspension Systems

1993-03-01
930262
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a method to analyze the imaginary kingpin axis in multi-link type suspension mechanisms by using the Displacement Matrix method, the instantaneous screw axis theory, and the nonlinear equation solver “DESIGN”.[1][2] The mathematical logic and a Kinematic theory used in this method have been developed a long time ago. But the key point of this method is how accurate and effective we can get the information on design parameters related to the imaginary kingpin axis existing only in the multi-link type suspension, especially in the initial stage of suspension geometry design.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Carbon Deposit Formation in Piston Top Ring Groove of Gasoline and Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980526
In order to investigate the characteristics of top ring groove deposit formation in gasoline and diesel engine, engine test and simulation test were performed. From component analysis of used oils sampled from actual running engines, oxidation and nitration for gasoline engine and soot content for diesel engine were selected as main parameters for evaluating oil degradation. In gasoline engine, deposit formation increases linearly with oxidation and nitration, and especially, oil oxidation is a dominant factor on the deposit formation rather than nitration. And, deposit formation increases gradually in low temperature ranges below 260°C even if oils are highly oxidized, but it increases rapidly if piston top ring groove temperature is above 260°C. In diesel engine, deposit formation is highly related to soot content in lubricating oils.
Technical Paper

Experimental Body Panel Contribution Analysis for Road Induced Interior Noise of a Passenger Car

1997-05-20
971913
This paper describes more in detail the methodology, the measurements and the results of the ASQ method. The Airborne Sound Quantification method aims at identifying the acoustical contribution of the different body panels surrounding a cavity. The contribution of different body panels is the product of the acoustical strength (or volume velocity) of each panel with the corresponding acoustic transfer function between the panel and the interior microphone position. These volume velocities are the product of the corresponding normal velocity and the surface. The normal velocity has been measured by means of accelerometers attached to the different subpanels. In the next step, the acoustical FRF's are measured in an indirect way using the reciprocity principle. This means that the pressure response at all the subpanels is measured when the acoustical excitation takes place at the target interior noise microphone position. A high quality low frequency sound source has been used.
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