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Technical Paper

Flow Analysis and Catalytic Characteristics for the Various Catalyst Cell Shapes

1999-05-03
1999-01-1541
The shape of unit cell of catalytic converter has great influence on the conversion efficiency and pressure drop characteristics. Therefore, the properties of design parameters of catalyst monolith were analyzed and the parameters of various cell shapes of catalyst were compared. Also, the numerical study of a three dimensional compressible flow in a Close-coupled Catalyst Converter (CCC) system was performed to investigate the flow characteristics and the flow distribution of exhaust gases. Unsteady flow analysis shows that severe interferences of each pulsating exhaust gas flow as well as geometric factors (junction, mixing pipe, cell shape etc.) influence greatly on the flow uniformity and flow characteristic in substrate. The results can be applied for the catalytic converter design.
Technical Paper

The Study of HC Emission Characteristics and Combustion Stability with Spark Timing Retard at Cold Start in Gasoline Engine Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-1082
In this study, the mass of THC is reduced almost 40 percent with spark timing ATDC 7.8CA during 15 seconds from engine start in phase 1 LA4 mode, comparison with TDC 2.8CA (Figure 1, Table 3). One of the reason of HC reduction in vehicle test is reduction of raw THC concentration before CCC (Closed Coupled Catalyst) which is 36% lower level (Figure 3, Table 3). The other reason is that the LOT (Light Off Time) of catalyst is shortened from 34 seconds to below 20 seconds (Figure 7, Table 3). As the spark timing is retarded with same intake air quantity and same RPM, BMEP is reduced (Equation (3), Figure 9). Therefore in order to operate in an idle RPM in vehicle, the mass of intake air should be increased (Figure 5). So a catalyst is heated in shorter period.
Technical Paper

Effects of Composite Sandwich Endplates on the Cold Start Characteristics of PEMFC

2010-04-12
2010-01-1091
End-plates are highly stiff plates that hold together the components composing a fuel cell stack, i.e. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs), Gas Distribution Layers (GDLs) and bipolar plates, offering sufficient contact pressure between them. The proper contact pressure is required not only to improve energy efficiency of a stack by decreasing ohmic loss but also to prevent leakage of fluids such as hydrogen, air, or coolant. When a fuel cell starts in cold environment, heat generated in a fuel cell stack as a result of electrochemical reactions should not be used much to increase the temperature of endplates but to melt ice inside the stack to prevent ice-blocking and to increase the temperature near the three-phase-boundary on MEAs. However, to satisfy the high stiffness required, massive metallic endplates have been used despite their inferior thermal characteristics: high thermal conductivity and large thermal inertia.
Technical Paper

Available Power and Energy Prediction Using a Simplified Circuit Model of HEV Li-ion Battery

2010-04-12
2010-01-1074
Due to aging of a battery over lifetime, the rated power and nominal energy capacity will be reduced compared with the initial rated power and capacity. These result in influences on the vehicle driving performance and fuel economy. To monitor and diagnose the aging of the battery, in this paper, the method of predicting the available rated power and energy capacity of Li-ion battery under in-vehicle condition is proposed. Under constant power test, available power is calculated from the estimated parameters using recursive least square method. Further, available energy capacity is evaluated through SOH(cn) defined by the ratio of initial state-of-charge (SOC) variation to present SOC (\GdSOC ⁿ /ΔSOC ⁿ ) variation under arbitrary in-vehicle driving cycles. To verify the proposed method, experiments for aging Li-ion battery are performed in hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Control Logic and Optimization of Catalyst in DeNOx System with Secondary Injection for Euro 6

2010-04-12
2010-01-1067
A technical approach to reduce NOx and to minimize the fuel consumption caused by the DeNOx aftertreatment system was introduced. The NEDC mode test of the HMC (Hyundai Motor Company) DeNOx system was done with a Euro 5 vehicle (ETW (Equivalent Test Weight) = 1,810 kg, 143 kW, 430 N⋅m), which resulted in that the Euro 6 legislation standards were met. The NOx and HC emissions were, respectively, measured to be 0.059 g/km and 0.087 g/km with the hydrothermal-aged catalysts, and CO₂ was increased by ≺ 4%.
Technical Paper

Development of Continuously Variable Valve Lift Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1187
In the present study, we developed a CVVL (Continuously Variable Valve Lift) engine. The CVVL mechanism is Hyundai Motor Company's own design, which is characterized by its compactness. The CVVL engine was developed without the increase of the engine height, thus the same hood line of the vehicle could be used with the base engine; the base engine does not adopt the CVVL technology, and it has the same engine specification other than valvetrain system. The CVVL mechanism was based on a six-linkage mechanism. Although the valvetrain friction of the CVVL engine of the six-linkage is higher than the base engine when operated with the same valve lift, it is in a competitive level compared to the other engines produced by HMC. The fuel consumption of the CVVL engine has been reduced by more than 5% compared to the base engine, and this is mainly thanks to the reduction of the pumping loss and friction.
Technical Paper

Characteristic Evaluation and Improvement of Suspension Rattle Noise

2010-04-12
2010-01-1141
The purpose of this paper is to identify and reduce the suspension rattle noise. First, the characteristics of the rattle noise are analyzed experimentally in the time and frequency domain. It was found that the rattle noise and vibration at shock absorber mounting point are strongly correlated. Second, the sensitivity analysis of design parameters is performed using a half car model in ADAMS. The result of the simulation model is verified by comparison with test. Finally, the influence of design parameters for the rattle noise is investigated. The study shows that the shock absorber mounting bushing is the most sensitive parameter to affect the suspension rattle noise. This paper shows how the suspension rattle noise can be improved.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust System for Post-SULEV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0850
A new exhaust system has been developed to cope with post-SULEV (Super Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle) regulation by newly designed hardware of exhaust system. This paper will describe the various new technologies used for achieving the post-SULEV standards, such as Conicat (cone-type metal catalyst), dual-wall pipe, pipe-type metal catalyst, ultra thin wall monolith and HC trap system for the improvement of catalyst light-off time. The tested data on 2.0L SULEV vehicle indicate that Conicat(cone-type metal catalyst) and HC trap (hydrocarbon absorbing catalyst) have more positive characteristics, and are expected to show the enhanced HC reduction performance with the optimization of emission system.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Parameter of Roof Rack & Cross Bar for the Reduction of Wind Noise

2007-04-16
2007-01-0994
An increasing number of cars which are being used to foster leisure and a convenient life for consumers are being outfitted with roof racks and/or cross bars. This trend of installing roof racks is partly for the function of carrying objects on the roof of the vehicle and partly as a way to affect the style and exterior look of the vehicle. Therefore, the application of roof racks and cross bars is becoming increasingly important in the automotive industry. Because of the expanding application of roof racks on vehicles, the challenge of reducing wind noise caused by exposed cross bars becomes the main issue in this field. For solving this problem, the cross bar shape is designed and evaluated in the development stage, and if there is a problem, it is re-designed and re-evaluated many times. This repetitive corrective action is called “trial and error”.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Powertrain Control Strategy for Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2007-08-05
2007-01-3472
The series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV), which employs a planetary gear set to combine one internal combustion engine(ICE) and two electric motors(EMs), can take advantages of both series and parallel hybrid system. The efficient powertrain operating point of the system can be obtained by the instantaneous optimization of equivalent fuel consumption. However, heavy computational requirements and variable constraints of the optimization process make it difficult to build real-time control strategy. To overcome the difficulty, this study suggests the control strategy which divides the optimization process into 2 stages. In the first stage, a target of charge/discharge power is determined based on equivalent fuel consumption, then in the second stage, an engine operating point is determined taking power transfer efficiency into account.
Technical Paper

Model Based Optimization of Supervisory Control Parameters for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1453
Supervisory control strategy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) provides target powers and operating points of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. To promise efficient driving of the HEV, it is needed to find the proper values of control parameters which are used in the strategy. However, it is very difficult to find the optimal values of the parameters by doing experimental tests, since there are plural parameters which have dependent relationship between each other. Furthermore variation of the test results makes it difficult to extract the effect of a specific parameter change. In this study, a model based parameter optimization method is introduced. A vehicle simulation model having the most of dynamics related to fuel consumption was developed and validated with various experimental data from real vehicles. And then, the supervisory control logic including the control parameters was connected to the vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drift Investigation during Straight Line Accelerating and Braking

2008-04-14
2008-01-0588
A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. The multibody dynamic analysis of vehicle drift during accelerating and braking are performed. This paper focuses on modeling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, engine mounting and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment. Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side is considered cause of drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of acceleration, the interaction of differential friction and driveshaft stiffness and their influence on drift are also studied. For braking condition, suspension parameters such as initial toe variation of rear coupled torsion beam axle type suspension and kingpin inclination deviation of front suspension are studied including the braking force difference.
Technical Paper

Semi-Active Steering Wheel for Steer-By-Wire System

2001-10-01
2001-01-3306
Conventional steering system has a mechanical connection between the driver and the front tires of the vehicle, but in steer-by-wire system, there is no such a connection. Instead, actuators, positioned in the vehicle's front corners receive input from the control module and turn the front wheels accordingly. In steer-by-wire system, steering wheel is an important part that not only transfers driver's steering input to the controller but also provides a road feedback feeling to the driver's hand. Thus the reactive torque actuator, providing road feedback, plays an important role in steer-by-wire system. In conventional steer-by-wire-system, a motor was used as a reactive torque actuator. But using motor has some disadvantages such as an oscillatory feeling, and improper and potentially dangerous acceleration of the steering wheel by the motor when driver's hands are released from steering wheel abruptly.
Technical Paper

Development of primerless paintable thermoplastic polyolefin with high impact strength for vehicle interior parts

2000-06-12
2000-05-0151
A new thermoplastic polyolefin with primerless adhesion to paint has been developed by polypropylene (PP) with α-olefin copolymers, mineral fillers and some additives. It can substantially reduce costs and environmental problems by eliminating primer treating operations, traditionally treated from trichloroethene (TCE). This new material exhibits unique solid-state texture that rubbery polymer component are typically dispersed in lamellar structure matrix. Versus conventional PP or thermoplastic olefin (TPO), it provides excellent brittle-ductile (BD) transition as well as paintability. Also it is expected to have a significant impact on interior parts as requirements for material change to an emphasis on light weight, lower cost, more efficient finishing.
Technical Paper

The development of the autonomous driving system for a car-to-car crash test

2000-06-12
2000-05-0210
To simulate the car-to-car crash accidents in the real field, the Autonomous Driving System was developed. This system consists of communicating, sensing, accelerating, braking, steering and data recording subsystems. All these were designed to be compact, light and collapsible, so that the crash characteristics of test vehicle were not affected. The velocity performance of the system covers from 10 kph to 100 kph within ± 0.5 kph error, and the lateral deviation is constrained within ± 20 mm. With this system, several frontal offset and side car-to-car crash tests were carried out successfully. Deformations, injury levels, deceleration signals and dynamic behaviors during crash were typically investigated. And the dynamic behaviors were compared with the simulation results of EDSMAC. Car-to-car crash tests between small and large vehicles with different masses were carried out and the effects on the compatibility were investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of finite element Euro-SID model

2000-06-12
2000-05-0197
In contrast to the other types of crash simulations, integrated analysis is needed to perform the side impact simulation, and the acquired injury values are so sensitive that they are difficult to assess by the deformed vehicle structure itself. Accurate FE Euro-side impact dummy (EURO-SID) model is needed to predict the various injury values in Euro side-impact simulation. In the past, rigid body model and coarse FE model have been used. The advantage of these models is low computing power. By the way, they have lack of injury predictability in integrated simulations. The deviations are caused by inaccurate geometry and improper material characteristics expression for individual components. Therefore, new Euro side-impact dummy model is developed through mass (inertia), component and sled validation. In this paper, validation results are illustrated, and their application results in two kinds of full car simulations are introduced.
Technical Paper

Vehicle electric power simulator for optimizing the electric charging system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0054
The electrical power system is the vital lifeline to most of the control systems on modern vehicles. The demands on the system are highly complex, and a detailed understanding of the system behavior is necessary both to the process of systems integration and to the economic design of a specific control system or actuator. The vehicle electric power system, which consists of two major components: a generator and a battery, has to provide numerous electrical and electronic systems with enough electrical energy. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. An easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system. A vehicle electric power simulator is developed in this study.
Technical Paper

Application of a Wide Range Oxygen Sensor for the Misfire Detection

1999-05-03
1999-01-1485
A new concept of misfire detection in spark ignition engines using a wide-range oxygen sensor is introduced. A wide-range oxygen sensor, installed at the confluence point of the exhaust manifold, was adopted to measure the variation in oxygen concentration in case of a misfire. The signals of the wide-range oxygen sensor were characterized over the various engine-operating conditions in order to decide the monitoring parameters for the detection of the misfire and the corresponding faulty cylinder. The effect of the sensor position, the transient response characteristics of the sensor and the cyclic variation in the signal fluctuation were also investigated. Limited response time of a commercially available sensor barely allowed to observe misfire. It was found that a misfiring could be distinguished more clearly from normal combustion through the differentiation of the sensor response signal. The differentiated signal has twin peaks for a single misfiring in a cylinder.
Technical Paper

The development of in-vehicle unit of advanced vehicle information and communication system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0370
This paper presents an in-vehicle information system, AVICS in development. With AVICS, the driver could get the various information on traffic, news, weather, restaurants, and so on, which the AVICS information center provides via mobile telecommunication network. The driver requests the information to operator in center by voice with hands-free system or by handling the menu offered in the form of web-page. The in-vehicle unit for AVICS is designed to interface with wireless network with a built-in RF MODEM, to control NAVI system, and to display the information on the LCD monitor of AV system. The Internet browser is customized to parse specific HTML tags, application software is realized on 32-bit RISC processor. In this paper, we will overview the concept of AVICS and focus on development of in-vehicle unit of AVICS.
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