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Technical Paper

A Sensor Fusion Digital-Map System for Driver Assistance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0734
A traffic situation is getting more complex in urban areas. Various safety systems of an automobile have been developed but fatal and serious accidents still can be made by driver's faults or distractions. The system supporting extend of driver's recognition area is going to be an important part of future intelligent vehicles in order to prevent accidents. In this paper we propose sensor fusion system based on a digital-map for driver assistance. The accurate localization of a host vehicle is achieved by a stereo vision sensor and a digital-map using polygon matching algorithm in urban area. A single-row laser scanner is used for tracking multiple moving objects. The coordinate transformation from sensor frame to global frame is performed to visualize the moving objects on a digital-map. An experiment was conducted in an urban canyon where the GPS signals are frequently interrupted.
Technical Paper

Design for NVH Performance and Weight Reduction in Plastic Timing Chain Cover Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1043
Light weighting is a critical objective in the automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency. But when redesigning parts for light weight, by changing from metal to plastic, the resulting design gives NVH issues due to differences in part mass and material stiffness. Many parts were not converted from metal to plastic because of NVH issues that could not be solved. Many engine parts such as cylinder head cover, air intake manifold, oil pan and etc. previously made of metal have since long been replaced with plastic. But timing chain cover has not been replaced because of the aforementioned issue. Sealing performance due to the dynamic characteristics of the application is another challenging factor. In this paper, the key aspects of the plastic timing chain cover as well as its advantage are presented.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization for LNT+SCR System of Diesel Vehicle to Comply with the LEV3 Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1529
This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Manufacturing and Evaluation Technology for the Light Weight Brake Disc Composed of Hybrid Type Material

2014-04-01
2014-01-1009
Reducing unsprung mass of the car is a representative method to enhance the ride & handling performance and fuel efficiency. In this study, brake disc weight is reduced 15∼20% using a hybrid type material. The basis for this study is the separation of the friction surface and HAT(mounting part). Aluminum material is applied in the HAT for a light weight effect. Gray iron is applied in the friction surface section to maintain braking performance. Two types of joining between aluminum and cast iron are developed. One is the aluminum casting method utilizing a gray iron insert and the other is a bolted assembly method. Detailed structure, process and material are optimized using try-out & dynamometer experiments. The Reliability of this development is proved through durability (dynamometer and vehicle) testing.
Technical Paper

Seat Common Frame Design Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0390
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
Technical Paper

Development of Eco-Driving Guide System

2011-10-06
2011-28-0034
The Eco-driving indicator is a colored lamp on a cluster to lead a driver to smoothen acceleration of a vehicle. Informed by the indicator, a driver learns how deep to push a gas pedal for a better fuel economy. The Eco-driving guide system outputs a vehicle fuel efficient state by the Eco-driving indicator. It is based on BSFC map, engine torque map, A/T shift pattern data, engine operation status and transmission operating status. With the Eco-driving guide system, vehicle fuel efficiency can be improved by 4∼26%.
Technical Paper

Available Power and Energy Prediction Using a Simplified Circuit Model of HEV Li-ion Battery

2010-04-12
2010-01-1074
Due to aging of a battery over lifetime, the rated power and nominal energy capacity will be reduced compared with the initial rated power and capacity. These result in influences on the vehicle driving performance and fuel economy. To monitor and diagnose the aging of the battery, in this paper, the method of predicting the available rated power and energy capacity of Li-ion battery under in-vehicle condition is proposed. Under constant power test, available power is calculated from the estimated parameters using recursive least square method. Further, available energy capacity is evaluated through SOH(cn) defined by the ratio of initial state-of-charge (SOC) variation to present SOC (\GdSOC ⁿ /ΔSOC ⁿ ) variation under arbitrary in-vehicle driving cycles. To verify the proposed method, experiments for aging Li-ion battery are performed in hybrid electric vehicle.
Journal Article

Recent Advances in the Development of Hyundai · Kia's Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-1089
Wide attention to fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) comes from two huge issues currently the world is facing with: the concern of the petroleum reserves depletion due to consequent oil dependence and the earth global warming due in some extent to vehicle emissions. In this background, Hyundai, along with its sister company Kia, has been building the FCEVs and operating their test fleet with several tens of units at home and abroad. Since 2004, 32 passenger vehicles have been offered for the Department of Energy's controlled hydrogen fleet and infrastructure demonstration and validation project in the U.S. In the meantime, from 2006, 30 passenger vehicles as well as four buses, featuring the in-house developed fuel cell stack and its associated components, are currently under the domestic operation for the FCEV learning demonstration led by the Ministry of Knowledge and Economy.
Technical Paper

Development of DC Motor Driven 3 Way Valve for FCEV

2013-03-25
2013-01-0127
Fuel cell vehicle is loaded with translating equipment, which converts chemical energy to electrical energy. The equipment has maximum power efficiency at a specific temperature when several operating conditions are met. To control the coolant temperature, the existing system uses a wax-type thermostat, which operates as the wax elements contracts and expands. However, there are several problems with the wax-type thermostat; it is impossible to measure real-time temperature and high pressure drop. To mitigate these problems, we developed a DC motor-driven 3-way valve that can control real-time temperature and low pressure drop. Application of the 3-way valve will improve fuel cell vehicle power and fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

A Study on North American Customer Preference to Interior Noise using Sound Balance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0023
A new approach to achieve better customer perception of overall vehicle quietness is the sound balance improvement of vehicle interior sound during driving. Interior sound is classified into 3 primary sound source shares such as engine sound relative to revolution speed, tire road noise and wind noise relative to vehicle speed. Each interior sound shares are classified using the synchronous time-domain averaging method. The sound related to revolution order of engine and auxiliaries is considered as engine sound share, tire road noise and wind noise shares are extracted by multiple coherent output power analysis. Sound balance analysis focuses on improving the relative difference in interior sound share level between the 3 primary sound sources. Virtual sound simulator which is able to represent various driving conditions and able to adjust imaginary sound share is built for several vehicles in same compact segment.
Technical Paper

The Flexible EV/HEV and SOC Band Control Corresponding to Driving Mode, Driver's Driving Style and Environmental Circumstances

2012-04-16
2012-01-1016
Recently, in accordance with the increased interest of consumer in fuel efficiency due to the phenomenon of high oil price, complaints against actual fuel efficiency in the road in comparison with the certified fuel efficiency have been raised frequently. Especially in case of the hybrid vehicle which is highly popular for the reason of its high fuel efficiency compared with that of existing gasoline car, deviation in the fuel efficiency will be higher compared with that of gasoline car in accordance with the driving mode (downtown/highway), driver's driving style (wild/mild) and external environmental condition (gradient/temperature/altitude). To solve them, this paper developed a method so that the SOC (State Of Charge), EV/HEV mode transition point can be controlled variably in accordance with the driving mode, driver's driving style and external environmental condition by making the most of characteristics of hybrid.
Technical Paper

Development of Two Oil Pumping System for Automatic Transmission

2014-04-01
2014-01-1766
The efforts to improve automatic transmission (AT) efficiency for vehicle fuel economy are constantly continuing. In an AT the oil pump is the largest power loss factor. Therefore the effect on fuel economy is very high. The AT oil pump system has structural contradictions (high pressure × high flow), and the efforts to improve these areas are concentrated. In this paper, a two oil pumping system was designed to improve the efficiency and performance of a 6 speed AT installed in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) [1], and the improvement was confirmed by a prototype experiment. As a result of the experiment, two pumping system was shown to improve vehicle fuel economy while reducing noise and oil pressure vibration.
Technical Paper

Development of Nu 2.0L CVVL Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1635
Hyundai Motor Group launched a Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) engine in 2012. The engine is equipped with HMG's unique CVVL mechanism and is characterized by low fuel consumption, high performance and its responsiveness. The CVVL mechanism is based on a six-linkage mechanism and has advantages of compactness and durability. The engine is a 4 cylinder In-Line, 2.0L gasoline engine and is designed for a mid-sized passenger car. The engine increases fuel efficiency by 7.7% and the peak engine power by 4.2%. One of the most challenging issues in producing a CVVL engine is the valve lift deviations throughout the engine cylinders. The valve cap shim and set screw were designed to adjust the valve lift deviations. Cap shim thickness is chosen by measuring the valve top height, and shoe lift of the cam carrier assembly. The set screw is an auxiliary device to adjust the valve lift deviation.
Technical Paper

Development of Vibration Suppression Control Strategy for Motor System of Eco-Friendly Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1874
Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability.
Journal Article

Electro-Mechanical Brake for Front Wheel with Back-up Braking

2014-09-28
2014-01-2538
Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) is the brake system that is actuated by electrical energy and has a similar design with the Electric Parking Brake (EPB). It uses motor power and gears to provide the necessary torque and a screw & nut mechanism is used to convert the rotational movement into a translational one. The main difference of EMB compared with EPB is that the functional requirements of components are much higher to provide the necessary performance for service braking such as response time. Such highly responsive and independent brake actuators at each wheel lead to enhanced controllability which should result in not only better basic braking performance, but also improvements in various active braking functions such as integrated chassis control, driver assistance systems, or cooperative regenerative braking.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Transfer Path Analysis of Brake Creep Groan Noise

2014-09-28
2014-01-2510
Creep groan noise occurs in a just moving vehicle by the simultaneous application of torque to the wheel and the gradual release of brake pressure in-vehicle. It is the low frequency noise giving the driver a very uncomfortable feeling. It is caused by the stick-sleep phenomenon at the lining and disc interface. Recently, the field claim of low frequency creep groan has increased. There are a lot of efforts to improve creep groan noise by means of modification of lining material. In this paper, Transfer path of creep groan noise was analyzed through ODS and TPA. Additionally the correlation between Source (Brake torque variation, Brake vibration) and Creep Groan Sound level was discussed. Finally countermeasure to Creep Groan noise was suggested.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Control Parameter Optimization in a Diesel Engine Using Cylinder Pressure

2014-04-01
2014-01-1352
In diesel engine development, fuel consumption, emissions and combustion noise have been main development objectives for fuel economy, low emissions and NVH. These main objectives can be achieved with advanced engine technologies. As electronic actuating systems are widely applied on diesel engines, elaborate control is required. This is because the main development targets are greatly affected by engine control parameters but frequently have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, the optimization of combustion control parameters is one of the most challenging tasks for improvement. As an efficient method, the DOE methodology has been used in engine calibration. In order to develop a mathematical model, the input and output values must be measured. Unlike other variables, combustion noise has been continually reported to have better indication method in simplified way. In this paper, advanced noise index from cylinder pressure signal is applied on engine test.
Technical Paper

The Stability Analysis of Steering and Suspension Parameters on Hands Free Motion

2002-03-04
2002-01-0620
Hands-free stability, one of the handling characteristics of a vehicle, is a stability criterion evaluated in case of a driver's steering wheel release after a certain steering input during driving. During the development process, a hands-free-unstable vehicle needs many steering and suspension parts to be repeatedly tested to improve the performance. In this paper, CAE methods are proposed to investigate easily the influence of the steering and suspension design parameters on the hands-free stability. And the results of CAE methods were compared with the prototype vehicle test to verify the validity of the methods.
Technical Paper

Thermal Load in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with EUI System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0492
High pressure fuel injection systems, such as common rail (CR) systems and electronically-controlled unit injector (EUI) systems, have been widely applied to modern heavy duty diesel engines. They are shown to be very effective for achieving high power density with high fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions. However, the increased peak combustion pressure gives additional structural stress and thermal load to engine structure. Thus, proper material selection and thermal analysis of engine components are essential in order to meet the durability requirements of heavy-duty diesel engines adopting a high pressure injection system. In this paper, thermal analysis of a 12.9 ℓ diesel engine with an EUI system was studied. Temperatures were measured on a cylinder head, a piston and a cylinder liner. A specially designed linkage system was used to measure the piston temperatures. A radio-tracer technique was also used to verify the rotation of piston rings.
Technical Paper

Bio-Based Composites and Their Applications for Auto Interior Parts

2016-04-05
2016-01-0512
Polylactide (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and sugar beets, has attracted much attention for automotive parts application. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the PLA composites including stereocomplexed with L- and D-PLA, we developed the unit processes such as fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. We investigated D-lactic acid fermentation with a view to obtaining the strains capable of producing D-lactic acid, and through catalyst screening test for polycondensation and depolymerization reactions, we got a new method which shortens the whole reaction time of lactide synthesis step. Poly(d-lactide) is obtained from the ring-opening polymerization of d-lactide. Also we investigated several catalysts and polymerization conditions.
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