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Technical Paper

Three-way catalysts for partial lean-burn engine vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0322
Emission of carbon dioxide from mobile sources seriously concerned to solve greenhouse effect and high price of gasoline in some countries have resulted in the development of lean-burn concept engine. In spite of many studies on the lean deNOx catalyst, we have no clear solution to obtain high fuel economy and high efficiency of NOx conversion in lean-burn application. This paper describes applicability and problems of NOx adsorber system to partial lean-burn vehicle, the development of three-way catalyst with improvement of washcoat technology based on three-way catalyst used for gasoline application, and comparison test results of evaluations is synthesized gas activity test, Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test, etc. This study shows improved three-way catalysts in partial lean- burn vehicle have max. 89% of NOx conversion in FTP without adding rich spike and regeneration functions to engine management system.
Technical Paper

Scavenger free three-way catalyst with low hydrogen sulfide emission

2000-06-12
2000-05-0308
This study suggests new types of catalysts that show low hydrogen sulfide emission without scavenger such as NiO. Hydrogen sulfide can be reduced by changing the physicochemical properties of washcoat components. Synthesized gas activity tests were performed to investigate the effect of modified washcoat on hydrogen sulfide formation and catalytic activity. BET surface area tests, X- ray diffraction tests, and gas chromatography tests were also carried out to examine the characteristics of catalysts. Preparation methods for catalysts were focused on minimizing the adsorption of sulfur species on catalysts. The first approach is heat treatment of cerium oxide to reduce adsorption sites for sulfur compounds. But this leads to deterioration of CO and NOx conversion efficiencies. The second one is adding new types of promoters that increase thermal durability and dynamic oxygen storing function of cerium oxide.
Technical Paper

A development of diesel oxidation catalyst and the evaluation of its performance characteristic

2000-06-12
2000-05-0287
The new concept oxidation for diesel engine has been developed. It has been designed to use under circumstances of the "dry condition" of exhausted emission, which indicates low soluble organics and high dry soot concentration under high exhaust gas temperature. For the reliability and performance of catalysts in dry condition, several design concepts were established. First of all, extremely low sulfate formation on catalyst at high temperature conditions, and an improved soluble organic burning characteristics was required. A minimization of deposition of the particulate component, especially sulfate, was obtained from the adjustment of washcoat loading and material property. Six different types of catalysts have been prepared and tested in a laboratory. Diesel vehicle test showed the possibility that soluble organic could be removed mostly with minimal sulfate formation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Behavior on Combustion Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engines

1989-11-01
891299
The purpose of this paper is to closely examine the influence of the behavior of fuel mixture in the intake manifold on combustion characteristics, performances of engine output and exhaust emission by using a 4-stroke spark ignition engine. In case of removing the liquid film fuel flowing on the wall of the intake manifold and of not removing it, the values of combustion characteristics such as the heat release delay, the combustion delay, the rate of heat release, the burned mass fraction and the maximum combustion pressure were obtained from the analysis of pressure indicator diagram. And then, the values of engine performance and concentration of exhaust gas were obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of the Overmolding Instrument Panel

2013-03-25
2013-01-0018
We developed the hard IP (Instrument Panel) that is integrally over molded with a soft layer (TPO, Thermo Plastic Olefin) for the soft feeling and cost reduction. And also we produced the cost-effective PAB(Passenger-side Airbag) door system that had an in-mold tearseam and avoided competitors' patents simultaneously. The development procedure of this technology is; ① Material for overmolding ② Design optimization ③ Solving tool challenges. The reduction of process through integrally molding with soft material helped to accomplish a soft feeling on the IP and cost reduction at the same time. The deployment, head impact and heat aging tests were conducted and 5 patents were applied such as the optimization of the mold structure and injection condition.
Technical Paper

MEMS Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement of Exhaust Gas

2013-03-25
2013-01-0011
To meet Euro6 regulation particulate matter MEMS sensor is suggested. This sensor detects induced charges by PM. To increase sensitivity of the sensor, surface area of the sensor is increased by MEMS process. Sensor is made by low resistive silicon. Total size is 4.3 mm x 59.4 mm x 1 mm and size of sensor part is 4.3 mm x 13 mm. On the backside of the sensor, Pt heater is fabricated to remove piled PM on sensor part. After sensor part, charge amplifier is used to measure the induced charge of the sensor. From FFT of sensor signal, it can sense 5.46 mg/m₃ of PM. In this paper, MEMS devices for exhaust system monitoring of automobiles are investigated. PM emitted from diesel engine is charged particle. Charge-induced-type PM sensor we designed can measure by real time and it doesn't need particle collection apparatus
Technical Paper

Seat Common Frame Design Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0390
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0561
Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs)

1993-03-01
930330
This paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV). The work on FFV has been conducted to evaluate its potential as an alternative to the conventional gasoline vehicle. Hyundai FFV described here can operate on M85, gasoline, or any of their combinations, in which the methanol concentration is measured by an electrostatic type fuel sensor. For that operation, a special FFV ECU has been developed and incorporated in the FFV. The characteristics affecting FFV operation, such as FFV ECU control strategy and injector flow rate, have been investigated and optimized by experiment. Various development tests have been performed in view of engine performance, durability, cold startability, and exhaust emissions reduction. The exhaust gas aftertreatment system being consisted of manifold type catalytic converter(MCC) and secondary air injection system has shown good emission reduction performance including formaldehyde emission.
Technical Paper

A Predicting and Improvement of Side Impact Using the CC-CTP

1993-03-01
930443
Extensive researches are being performed on a world wide basis with the aim of enhancing occupant protection on the side impact. The test methodology for side impact can be divided into two general groups; Sub-System Tests Full Scale Tests. However, the advantages of full scale test is that it is possible to make an integrated statement on the protective potential of the structural stiffness of the struck vehicle and the padding for a selected collision speed and type of collision. The advantages of sub-system test methodology can be simulates more exactly for wide range of accident(i.e. collision directions, impact points etc.). The latter test procedure can be carried out at a relatively earlier stage in the development of a new vehicle, and also can be reduce the time and cost. The Computer Controlled Composite Test Procedure(CC-CTP) presented in this paper has been developed by CCMC (Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors).
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Crashworthiness of a Passenger Car Using Iterative Simulations

1993-11-01
931977
The paper describes an engineering project carried out to optimize the crashworthiness of an existing passenger car for frontal crash using a procedure relying on numerical simulation. An optimization target is defined in terms of an ideal acceleration pulse at the seats anchors. The acceleration time history and structural members are scanned in parallel to correlate the local acceleration peaks to specific structural members. Members details are iteratively modified in order to alter the accelerations and get closer to the target.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation and Knock Detection Using an Optical Fiber Technique in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1993-11-01
931906
In this research, an optical system for the detection of the flame propagation under the non-knocking and knocking conditions is developed and applied to a mass produced four cylinder SI engine. The normal flames are measured and analyzed under the steady state operating conditions at various engine speeds. For knocking cycles, the flame front propagations before and after knock occurrence are simultaneously taken with cylinder pressure data. In non-knocking and knocking cycles, flame propagation shows cycle-by-cycle variations, which are quite severe especially in the knocking cycles. The normal flame propagations are analyzed at various engine speeds, and show that the flame front on the exhaust valve side becomes faster as the engine speed increases. According to the statistical analysis, knock occurence location and flame propagation process after knock can be categorized into five different types.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV)

1993-11-01
931986
Recently, flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) has been drawn great attention because of its response for immediate use as alternative fueled one. Hyundai FFV can be operated on arbitrary fuel mixtures between gasoline and M85 with the specially programmed electronic control unit (ECU) which can determine optimized fueling quantity and ignition timing as the methanol content by the signal from electrostatic type fuel sensor. In this paper, the results of various tests including engine performance, cold startability, durability and exhaust emission reduction have been described. Full load, cold mode durability tests and field trials have been carried out with some material changes and surface treatments in the lubricating parts and fuel system. But, more work on its durability improvement is still required.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Flex Fuel system with Delphi Heated injector application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1369
After the second worldwide oil crisis, Brazil put in place by 1975 a strategic plan to stimulate the usage of ethanol (from sugar cane), to be mixed to the gasoline or to be sold as 100% ethanol fuel (known as E100). To enable an engine to operate with both gasoline and ethanol (and their mixtures), by 2003 the “Flex Fuel” technology was implemented. By 2012 calendar year, from a total of about 3.8 million vehicles sold in the Brazilian market, 91% offered the “Flex Fuel” technology, and great majority used a gasoline sub-tank to assist on cold starts (typically below 15°C, where more than 85% of ethanol is present in fuel tank). The gasoline sub-tank system suffers from issues such as gasoline deterioration, crash-worthiness and user inconvenience such as bad drivability during engine warm up phase. This paper presents fuel injector technologies capable of rapidly electrically heating the ethanol fuel for the Brazilian transportation market.
Technical Paper

An Improved Methodology for Calculation of the Inertial Resistance of Automotive Latching Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0544
This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Various Design Factors for Invisible Passenger-side Airbag Door Opening

2002-03-04
2002-01-0184
Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door systems must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. A predictive Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out to calculate the effects of varying design factors (the length and thickness of kink-hinge, tear-line type and temperature) on the IPAB-door opening. The impact performance of plastic parts was considered, because the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials are strongly dependent on strain rate.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Structure for the Head Protection on Front Pillar in Crash or Rollover of the Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0684
In order to meet FMVSS 201 (U) requirements, the upper vehicle interior structures with trim in a vehicle need to be properly designed to minimize injuries when head impacts these components. This paper presents a study of countermeasures in pillars using FEA approach by considering some design factors. Optimal designs are then selected for interior head impact protection based on CAE analysis using LS-DYNA non-linear finite element code.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Carbon Deposit Formation in Piston Top Ring Groove of Gasoline and Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980526
In order to investigate the characteristics of top ring groove deposit formation in gasoline and diesel engine, engine test and simulation test were performed. From component analysis of used oils sampled from actual running engines, oxidation and nitration for gasoline engine and soot content for diesel engine were selected as main parameters for evaluating oil degradation. In gasoline engine, deposit formation increases linearly with oxidation and nitration, and especially, oil oxidation is a dominant factor on the deposit formation rather than nitration. And, deposit formation increases gradually in low temperature ranges below 260°C even if oils are highly oxidized, but it increases rapidly if piston top ring groove temperature is above 260°C. In diesel engine, deposit formation is highly related to soot content in lubricating oils.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Packing Design for Manifold Catalytic Converter Application

1996-02-01
960561
A preconverter is an essential component of the new vehicle exhaust system for the achievement of tightened emission standards. To meet those standards, the Manifold Catalytic Converter (MCC) system has been developed in the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC). Unfortunately, the conventional MCC is no longer a suitable design for the exhaust gas treatment of the newly developed high performance engine since it cannot withstand the engine's exhaust temperature, vibration, pressure pulsation, and many other severe conditions. This paper is focused on a failure-mode analysis and new packing designs for the MCC application through a series of durability tests.
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