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Technical Paper

Method of NVH Quality Rating of Diesel Combustion Noise Using Typical Driving Modes

2009-05-19
2009-01-2078
The development of a new method to evaluate the NVH quality of diesel combustion noise bases upon following questions by regarding typical driving modes: Driving behavior with diesel vehicles Which driving situation causes an annoying diesel combustion noise Judgment of diesel combustion noise as good or bad A suitable test course was determined to regard typical driving situations as well as the European driving behavior. Vehicles of different segments were tested on that course. The recorded driving style and the simultaneously given comments on the diesel combustion noise results to a typical driving mode linked to acoustics sensation of diesel combustion noise. The next step was to simulate this driving mode on the chassis dynamometer for acoustical measurements. The recordings of several vehicles were evaluated in listening test to identify a metric. The base of metric was objective analyses evaluating diesel combustion noise in relevant driving situations.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Interior Booming Noise for a Small Diesel Engine Vehicle without Balance Shaft Module

2009-05-19
2009-01-2121
Applying BSM (Balance shaft module) is a very common and effective way to reduce the 2nd-order powertrain vibration which is caused by the ill-balanced inertia force due to the oscillating masses inside an engine. However, the adoption of a BSM can also produce undesirable things especially in cost, fuel economy, starting performance, and so on. Therefore, for small vehicles, in which case cost and weight are key factors at the development stage, it is often required to develop competitive NVH performance without the expensive apparatus like a BSM. In this paper, in order to develop interior noise and vibration of a 4-cylinder vehicle without a BSM, we analyzed the contribution of some transfer paths for powertrain vibration, and could reduce interior booming noise by tuning the dynamic characteristic of the engine mount which was one of the largest transfer paths.
Technical Paper

Development of Mild Hybrid City Bus with a Single Voltage Source of 28 V

2008-04-14
2008-01-0086
The most popular issues nowadays in the automotive industry include reduction of environmental impacts by emission materials from automobiles as well as improvement of fuel economy. This paper deals with development of a ¡mild-hybrid¡ system for a city bus as an effort to increase fuel economy in a relatively reasonable expense. Three different technical tactics are employed; an engine is shut down at an engine idle state, a vehicle kinetic energy when the bus is decelerated is re-saved to a battery in the form of electricity, and finally the radiator cooling fan is operated by an electric motor using the saved electric energy with an optimal speed control. It has been demonstrated through the driving tests in a specific city mode, ¡Suwon city mode¡, that an average fuel economy is improved more than 12%, and the system can be a feasible choice in a city bus running in a city mode experiencing many stop and go¡s.
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Control Using the In-Cylinder Pressure Signal in a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1418
Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
Technical Paper

The Unified Relationship between Torque and Gear Ratio and Its Application in Multi-Step Automatic Transmissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1098
The market demands for CO2 reduction and fuel economy have led to a variety of new gear set concepts of automatic transmissions with 4 planetary gear sets and 6 shift elements in recent years. Understanding the relationship between the torque of clutch and brake and gear ratio in the design stage is very important to assess new gear set concepts and to set up the control strategy for enhancing shift quality and to reduce the heat generation of clutch and brake. In this paper, a new systematic approach is used to unify the relationship between torque and gear ratio during the gear shift for all multi-step planetary automatic transmissions. This study describes the unified concept model with a lumped inertia regardless of the specific transmission layout and derives the principal unified relationship equations using torque and energy analysis, which prove that the sum of brake torque is always gear ratio -1 in every in-gear.
Technical Paper

The CAE Analysis of a Cylinder Head Water Jacket Design for Engine Cooling Optimization

2018-04-03
2018-01-1459
Hyundai's new engine is developed which optimize the cooling efficiency for knocking improvement and friction reduction. The cooling concepts for this purpose are 1) equalizing the temperature among cylinders by flow optimization, 2) cooling the required area intensively, 3) adopting ‘active flow control’ and 4) enlarging fuel economy at high speed range. In order to realize the cooling concept, 1) cross-flow, 2) compact water jacket & exhaust cooling, 3) flow control valve and 4) cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold are considered. Improvement of knocking and friction reduction by increased cooling water temperature makes fuel efficiency possible. On the other hand, in order to strengthen the cooling around the combustion chamber and to reduce the deviation among the combustion chamber of cylinders, it is required to design the head water jacket shape accordingly.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Functioning Lean NOx Trap Catalysts for the On-board NH3 Generation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1430
Improved Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts with enhanced NH3 generation feature were developed for the small diesel engine. The next generation LNT system needs to perform good NOx conversions over the wide temperature range including below 200°C for urban driving and above 400°C for motorway of real road driving. However, the extended use of BaO, a component of LNT known to be very effective for high temperature NOx storage, results in the decrease of low temperature NOx conversion due to the degradation of NO oxidation associating with sulfur over time. The improvement of the low-temperature LNT performance is a key requirement for the real driving emission control as the best operation temperature for urea-SCR is above ~250°C. In this study, our next generation LNT with new washcoat architecture has demonstrated improved NOx removal efficiencies under the wider operation temperature window than the current production technology.
Technical Paper

Understanding 3 Cylinder CVT Vehicle for Improving Fuel Economy and Reducing Noise and Vibration

2016-04-05
2016-01-1294
This study presents the NVH characteristics of a passenger vehicle with a three-cylinder engine and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) and an optimization procedure to achieve balance between fuel economy and NVH. The goal of this study is to improve fuel economy by extending the lock-up area of the damper clutch at low vehicle speed and to minimize booming noise and body vibration caused by the direct connection of the engine and transmission. Resonance characteristics of the chassis systems and driveline have been studied and optimized by the experiment. NVH behavior of the vehicle body structure is investigated and modifications for refinement of booming and body vibration are proposed by simulation using MSC NASTRAN. Calibration parameters for CVT control are optimized for fuel economy and NVH. As a result, the lock-up clutch area has been extended by 300RPM and the fuel economy has been improved by about 1%, while the NVH characteristics of the vehicle satisfy the targets.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Friction Road Estimation using an Artificial Neural-Network

2018-04-03
2018-01-0811
Road friction estimation algorithms had been studied for many years because it is very important factor for safety control and fuel efficiency of vehicle. But traditional solutions are hard to adapt in automotive industry because their performance is not sufficient enough and expensive to implement. Therefore, this paper proposes a road friction estimation algorithm based on a trained artificial neural-network which is low cost and robust. The suggested method doesn’t need expensive additional sensors such as optical or lidar sensor, also it shows better performance in real car environment compared to other algorithms based on vehicle dynamics. In this paper, we would describe this algorithm in detail and analyze the test results evaluated in real road conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Method to Manage the Weight and Cost of a Vehicle by Adjusting the Parameters of Styling Profile

2018-04-03
2018-01-1025
Since the fuel efficiency of vehicle has become one of the big issues due to environmental pollution problems, many studies have been conducted on various methods such as improving powertrain performance and aerodynamic performance, reducing the weight of the vehicle and so on. There have been many new attempts to reduce weight but mostly about improving material property. In the case of vehicles sharing the same platform, the weight and cost of vehicle are mainly changed by the exterior styling. But, there is no solution to control the exterior styling in terms of the weight and cost of vehicle, yet. The purpose of this study is to find the way to save the weight and cost of vehicle while achieving the various performance and requirements of vehicle (safety, aerodynamics, driver’s visibility and so on) from exterior styling point of view. We focused on the weight difference of the vehicles that shared the platform and were same overall dimensions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Analysis in a HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Reduced Chemical Kinetics

2004-03-08
2004-01-0108
The combustion characteristics of a HSDI diesel engine were analyzed numerically using a reduced chemical kinetics. The reaction mechanism consisting of 26 steps and 17 species including the Zel'dovich NOx mechanism for the higher hydrocarbon fuel was implemented in the KIVA-3V. The characteristic time scale model was adopted to account for the effects of turbulent mixing on the reaction rates. The soot formation and oxidation processes are represented by Hiroyasu's model and NSC's model. The validation cases include the homogenous fuel/air mixture and the spray combustion in a constant volume chamber. After the validation, the present approach was applied to the analysis of the spray combustion processes in a HSDI diesel engine. The present approach reasonably well predicts the ignition delay, combustion processes, and emission characteristics in the high-pressure turbulent spray flame-field encountered in the practical HSDI diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Combustion Processes and Pollutant Formation in HSDI Diesel Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0126
The Representative Interactive Flamelet(RIF) concept has been applied to numerically simulate the combustion processes and pollutant formation in the direct injection diesel engine. Due to the ability for interactively describing the transient behaviors of local flame structures with CFD solver, the RIF concept has the capabilities to predict the auto-ignition and subsequent flame propagation in the diesel engine combustion chamber as well as to effectively account for the detailed mechanisms of soot and NOx formation. In order to account for the spatial inhomogeneity of the scalar dissipation rate, the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model using the multiple flamelets has been employed. Special emphasis is given to the turbulent combustion model which properly accounts for vaporization effects on turbulence-chemistry interaction.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Diesel Engine with 2 Stage Turbocharger

2006-04-03
2006-01-0021
High specific power, additional hardware and mapping optimization was done to achieve reduction of fuel economy for current engine in this study. 2 stage turbocharger with serial configuration was best candidate not only for high specific power at high engine speed but also for increase of low end torque for current engine. This increase of low end torque is important for development of transient characteristic of vehicle. DoE and efficient EGR Cooler was applied for optimization of fuel economy. DoE was useful for optimization of fuel consumption affected by various fuel injection parameters. This DoE was also efficient for matching optimal fuel economy after change of engine hardware. Performance improvement of engine with 2 stage turbocharger VGT was evaluated and additional development of fuel economy was performed in this study.
Technical Paper

Control of a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter System III (Engine Bench Accelerated Aging Test Development for a Passenger Car Catalyzed Particulate Filter System)

2006-04-03
2006-01-0422
The key technical aspects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) system development are software calibration for regeneration and component optimization for system performance. It is important that the optimized component specification be selected an early stage since the components have an effect on the overall regeneration strategy. Accordingly, in a catalyzed particulate filter system the washcoat and precious metal loading are main components that should be optimized at an early stage of the system development. An accelerated aging protocol is needed in order to properly evaluate the performance of various catalyst systems in a timely manner.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Flow Analysis of Exhaust Manifolds for PZEV

2007-08-05
2007-01-3444
As the current and future emission regulations become stringent, the research on exhaust manifold with CCC (Close Coupled Catalyst) has been the interesting and remarkable subject. To design of exhaust manifold with CCC is a difficult task due to the complexity of the flow distribution caused by the pulsating flows that are emitted at the exhaust ports. This study is concerned with the theoretical and experimental approach to improve catalyst flow uniformity through the basic understanding of exhaust flow characteristics. Computational and experimental approach to the flow for exhaust manifold of conventional cast type, stainless steel bending type with 900 cell CCC system in a 4-cylinder gasoline engine was performed to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Spray-guided Gasoline DI Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3531
Adopting the Spray-guided Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) concept, a new multi-cylinder engine has designed. The engine has piezo injectors at the central position of its combustion chamber, while sparkplugs are also at the center. The sparkplug location is designed so that the spark location is at the outer boundary of the fuel spray where the appropriate air-fuel mixture is formed. A few important operating parameters are chosen to investigate their effects on the combustion stability and fuel consumption. The final experimental results show a good potential of the SGDI engine; the fuel consumption rate was much less than that of the base Multi Port Injection (MPI) engine at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion Model Based on Transport of Mean Reaction Progress Variable in a Spark Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0964
In this study a new model is proposed for turbulent premixed combustion in a spark-ignition engine. An independent transport equation is solved for the mean reaction progress variable in a propagation form in KIVA-3V. An expression for turbulent burning velocity was previously given as a product of turbulent diffusivity in unburned gas, laminar flame speed and maximum flame surface density. The model has similarity with the G equation approach, but originates from zone conditionally averaged formulation for unburned gas. A spark kernel grows initially as a laminar flame and becomes a fully developed turbulent flame brush according to a transition criterion in terms of the kernel size and the integral length scale. Simulation of a homogeneous charge pancake chamber engine showed good agreement with measured flame propagation and pressure trace. The model was also applied against experimental data of Hyundai θ-2.0L SI engine.
Technical Paper

E3 System – A Two speed Accessory Belt Drive System for Reduced Fuel Consumption

2008-06-23
2008-01-1521
All vehicles have some or all accessories such as alternators, air conditioner compressors, power steering pumps, and water pumps. These devices are mounted on the front of the engine and are powered by a pulley mounted on the front of the crankshaft. This power represents a parasitic loss and this loss is greater at higher engine speeds. To reduce the impact of the accessories on the engine, a two speed transmission that reduces the accessories speed at off-idle conditions was designed, implemented, and tested on several vehicles. The vehicles were tested for fuel economy on the Japanese 10.15 Mode driving cycle, the FTP75 city cycle, and the HWFET Highway Cycle. Results showed an average of 5% reduction in fuel consumption and a corresponding 5% in CO2 with no impact of accessory performance and vehicle drivability. Simulations with GT-Drive software was used to determine the optimum speed reduction and the threshold switching speed that maximizes fuel savings.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Resistance to Fretting Corrosion of SCr 420 Gear Steel

2007-08-05
2007-01-3734
A study for improving the resistance to fretting corrosion of SCr 420 pinion gear was conducted. Fretting is the damage to contacting surfaces experiencing slight relative reciprocating sliding motion of low amplitude. Fretting corrosion is the fretting damage to unlubricated contacting surfaces accompanied by corrosion, mostly oxidation that occurs if the fretting occurs in air. Two kinds of conventional heat treatment and a newly designed one suggested for improving the resistance to the fretting corrosion of pinion gear were compared each other to find out what is the main factor for generating fretting corrosion phenomenon. Increased carbon potential at both the heating and diffusing zone and reduced time of tempering was found out to be a solution for improving the resistance to fretting corrosion of forged and heat treated gear steel. On the contrary, modified carbo-nitriding using ammonia gas has been getting worse the fretting corrosion problem.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow, Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes in a Spray-Guided GDI Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0142
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the air/fuel mixture formation and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided GDI engine using a commercial code, STAR-CD. This engine adopted the outwardly opening injector located in the center of cylinder head, which forms a hollow cone spray. The spray injection was modeled arranging multiple points using random function along the ring-shaped nozzle exit. To predict the breakup of spray, Reitz-Diwakar's breakup model was used, and the model constants were calibrated against published experimental data in a constant volume chamber. The validated spray models were applied to the analysis of spray behavior and mixture formation process inside the engine combustion chamber under operating condition of ultra-lean mixture (λ ≈ 4). To predict the combustion process, the modified eddy breakup combustion model was applied.
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