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Technical Paper

Reduction of Interior Booming Noise for a Small Diesel Engine Vehicle without Balance Shaft Module

Applying BSM (Balance shaft module) is a very common and effective way to reduce the 2nd-order powertrain vibration which is caused by the ill-balanced inertia force due to the oscillating masses inside an engine. However, the adoption of a BSM can also produce undesirable things especially in cost, fuel economy, starting performance, and so on. Therefore, for small vehicles, in which case cost and weight are key factors at the development stage, it is often required to develop competitive NVH performance without the expensive apparatus like a BSM. In this paper, in order to develop interior noise and vibration of a 4-cylinder vehicle without a BSM, we analyzed the contribution of some transfer paths for powertrain vibration, and could reduce interior booming noise by tuning the dynamic characteristic of the engine mount which was one of the largest transfer paths.
Technical Paper

A Study of Layout Regarding Integrated Controls on the Steering Wheel

In order to utilize in-vehicle systems efficiently, many vehicles are becoming equipped with integrated controls near the center fascia or the control box. However, the placement of these control systems can cause safety issues and risks due to visual distractions. In this study, we proposed a new integrated touch screen on the steering wheel. For this experiment, a control system was placed on the steering wheel or the center fascia. 15 participants were required to drive while utilizing vent and navigation control tasks regarding four different locations. Three of these locations were based on the steering wheel (center, upper right, lower right) and one location on the center fascia. Afterwards, the task completion time and visual distraction rate of the different locations were measured and compared. The results showed that a touch screen placed on the upper right section of the steering wheel had better performance and lower user discomfort.
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Control Using the In-Cylinder Pressure Signal in a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
Technical Paper

The Unified Relationship between Torque and Gear Ratio and Its Application in Multi-Step Automatic Transmissions

The market demands for CO2 reduction and fuel economy have led to a variety of new gear set concepts of automatic transmissions with 4 planetary gear sets and 6 shift elements in recent years. Understanding the relationship between the torque of clutch and brake and gear ratio in the design stage is very important to assess new gear set concepts and to set up the control strategy for enhancing shift quality and to reduce the heat generation of clutch and brake. In this paper, a new systematic approach is used to unify the relationship between torque and gear ratio during the gear shift for all multi-step planetary automatic transmissions. This study describes the unified concept model with a lumped inertia regardless of the specific transmission layout and derives the principal unified relationship equations using torque and energy analysis, which prove that the sum of brake torque is always gear ratio -1 in every in-gear.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Functioning Lean NOx Trap Catalysts for the On-board NH3 Generation

Improved Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts with enhanced NH3 generation feature were developed for the small diesel engine. The next generation LNT system needs to perform good NOx conversions over the wide temperature range including below 200°C for urban driving and above 400°C for motorway of real road driving. However, the extended use of BaO, a component of LNT known to be very effective for high temperature NOx storage, results in the decrease of low temperature NOx conversion due to the degradation of NO oxidation associating with sulfur over time. The improvement of the low-temperature LNT performance is a key requirement for the real driving emission control as the best operation temperature for urea-SCR is above ~250°C. In this study, our next generation LNT with new washcoat architecture has demonstrated improved NOx removal efficiencies under the wider operation temperature window than the current production technology.
Technical Paper

Measuring the Displacement of a Vehicle Body with an Optical Measuring System (Motion Capture)

The 3D measurement of a body displacement on a moving vehicle is a quite challenging process. Well-known displacement measuring device such as a dial gauge and strain gauge can measure the displacement in only limited areas. An accelerometer also can estimate body motion but it has an accumulated error and a bias issue for an acquisition of displacements. However, an optical measuring (Motion Capture) method which uses markers and multiple cameras can read 3D coordinates directly and carry out those measurements well. In this paper, first, we determined how to extract a body displacement from global motion. Then we suggested a combining measurement methodology which uses a motion capture and an accelerometer simultaneously. Though it has failed to compensate each result and exact displacement, we showed an accuracy comparison between a motion capture and an accelerometer to measure a displacement along this process.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Auxiliary Belt Drive System for Actual Fuel Saving

The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Friction Road Estimation using an Artificial Neural-Network

Road friction estimation algorithms had been studied for many years because it is very important factor for safety control and fuel efficiency of vehicle. But traditional solutions are hard to adapt in automotive industry because their performance is not sufficient enough and expensive to implement. Therefore, this paper proposes a road friction estimation algorithm based on a trained artificial neural-network which is low cost and robust. The suggested method doesn’t need expensive additional sensors such as optical or lidar sensor, also it shows better performance in real car environment compared to other algorithms based on vehicle dynamics. In this paper, we would describe this algorithm in detail and analyze the test results evaluated in real road conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

Smart Engine Control Strategy for the Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Understanding the Unique Behavior of TWC

The worldwide fuel economy compliance level has been tightening, at the same time, LEV-III/Euro-6d/China-6/BS-6 regulations for NMOG and NOx emissions are being introduced or already effective. Therefore, intensive research effort has been conducted in order to improve the fuel efficiency of passenger cars and reduce exhaust emission. In response to these demands, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine is being introduced for gasoline vehicles in consideration of fuel efficiency improvement, high output and driving performance compared to naturally aspirated (NA) engine. However, due to its larger thermal mass from the turbo hardware in the exhaust, it suffers from the cold-start emission. The main hazardous gases emitted from gasoline vehicles are CO, HC and NOx, and a three-way catalyst (TWC) is installed for the purification of these harmful emissions.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Holographic Lighting

A signal lamp performs a function to inform the position and behavior of the vehicle. And it represents a specific design identity of the vehicle or brand identity. Recently it implements the unique three-dimensional effect while using a LED. However, a number of LEDs and complex form of the lens shape have to be applied, so results in the size, weight, cost increase. In this study, the hologram technology that is an exemplary technique for implementing the described three-dimensional image is applied. With a hologram, it is possible to reproduce a complex shape three-dimensional image by using a hologram film. Therefore the number of parts can be reduced. And it is possible to copy the film has a mass production benefits.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Analysis in a HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Reduced Chemical Kinetics

The combustion characteristics of a HSDI diesel engine were analyzed numerically using a reduced chemical kinetics. The reaction mechanism consisting of 26 steps and 17 species including the Zel'dovich NOx mechanism for the higher hydrocarbon fuel was implemented in the KIVA-3V. The characteristic time scale model was adopted to account for the effects of turbulent mixing on the reaction rates. The soot formation and oxidation processes are represented by Hiroyasu's model and NSC's model. The validation cases include the homogenous fuel/air mixture and the spray combustion in a constant volume chamber. After the validation, the present approach was applied to the analysis of the spray combustion processes in a HSDI diesel engine. The present approach reasonably well predicts the ignition delay, combustion processes, and emission characteristics in the high-pressure turbulent spray flame-field encountered in the practical HSDI diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Combustion Processes and Pollutant Formation in HSDI Diesel Engines

The Representative Interactive Flamelet(RIF) concept has been applied to numerically simulate the combustion processes and pollutant formation in the direct injection diesel engine. Due to the ability for interactively describing the transient behaviors of local flame structures with CFD solver, the RIF concept has the capabilities to predict the auto-ignition and subsequent flame propagation in the diesel engine combustion chamber as well as to effectively account for the detailed mechanisms of soot and NOx formation. In order to account for the spatial inhomogeneity of the scalar dissipation rate, the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model using the multiple flamelets has been employed. Special emphasis is given to the turbulent combustion model which properly accounts for vaporization effects on turbulence-chemistry interaction.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Diesel Engine with 2 Stage Turbocharger

High specific power, additional hardware and mapping optimization was done to achieve reduction of fuel economy for current engine in this study. 2 stage turbocharger with serial configuration was best candidate not only for high specific power at high engine speed but also for increase of low end torque for current engine. This increase of low end torque is important for development of transient characteristic of vehicle. DoE and efficient EGR Cooler was applied for optimization of fuel economy. DoE was useful for optimization of fuel consumption affected by various fuel injection parameters. This DoE was also efficient for matching optimal fuel economy after change of engine hardware. Performance improvement of engine with 2 stage turbocharger VGT was evaluated and additional development of fuel economy was performed in this study.
Technical Paper

Systematic Automotive Wiring Guideline Based on Coupling Theory

This paper introduces a systematic wiring guideline which includes coupling noise calculation, wire layout design, and wire type selection methodologies. The coupling theory between wires has been introduced long time ago but it was not successfully applied to real automotive wiring design due to the complexity in the theory such as large number of parameters and many different conditions in automotive wiring environment. In this paper, the complexity is reduced by separating physical parameters and electrical parameters and identifying controllable parameters and given parameters. This paper first introduces parameters which are used in the coupling equations and automotive wiring design, then the coupling noise calculation method which uses the coupling equations is introduced. The systematic automotive wiring guideline which prevents noise problem in various design stage such as system filter design, wire layout design, wire type selection is introduced.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Spray-guided Gasoline DI Engine

Adopting the Spray-guided Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) concept, a new multi-cylinder engine has designed. The engine has piezo injectors at the central position of its combustion chamber, while sparkplugs are also at the center. The sparkplug location is designed so that the spark location is at the outer boundary of the fuel spray where the appropriate air-fuel mixture is formed. A few important operating parameters are chosen to investigate their effects on the combustion stability and fuel consumption. The final experimental results show a good potential of the SGDI engine; the fuel consumption rate was much less than that of the base Multi Port Injection (MPI) engine at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Two-Staged Modeling of Alternator

The alternator provides power to vehicle electrical loads with the battery, and its maximum current depends on various factors such as electrical load, engine speed, thermal condition, and other variables. Above all, thermal effects make alternator simulations more complicated. For example statically similar conditions may show different results according to the temperature variation for each alternator operation. This paper proposes a two-stage statistically-based model structure which separates dynamic thermal effects from steady state performance. The method was validated by experiments and shows good predictive performance, suitable for use in test reduction.
Technical Paper

Development Work on HMC'S Natural Gas-Fueled 1.5 L MPI DOHC Engine

Thii paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on the dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) engine, A conventional light duty gasoline engine, a 1.5 liter four cylinder DOHC, has been modified to run on natural gas (NG) by a gas injection system and engine dynamometer test has been performed with emphasis on optimizations of compression ratio and intake port. Also presented are the results on the exhaust emissions characteristic and the purification performance of three-way catalytic converters developed for NG engine. Fuel composition and THC emissions are analyzed quantitatively using gas chromatography devices.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Electric Power Simulator for Optimizing the Electric Charging System

The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to numerous electrical and electronic systems. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: a generator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In order to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system, an easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed. In this study, a vehicle electric power simulator is developed. The simulator can be utilized to determine the optimized capacities of generators and batteries appropriately. To improve the flexibility and easy usage of the simulation program, the program is organized in modular structures, and is run on a PC.
Technical Paper

The Development of Lab-Simulation Test to Accelerate the Durability Validation of Engine Mounting and Wiring Harness

With the advent of cars with computerized engines, drivers sometimes suffer discomfort with “check engine” light problem, and as a result, insist on increasing levels of reliability in their cars. Hence, reliability of the wiring harness has become a very important automotive design characteristic. On one hand, the more secure an engine mounting system is, the more stable the engine wiring harness is. In order to enhance their durability, car manufacturers need to perform many validation tests during the development phase which involves a lot of time and cost. In this study, a newly developed lab-simulation test is proposed to qualify the design of engine mounting and engine wiring early in the design cycle and reduce time and expense. The lab-simulation test has contributed to a significant cost and time reduction and has shown good correlation to the original proving ground test.