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Technical Paper

Development of Engine Control Using the In-Cylinder Pressure Signal in a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Electric Power Simulator for Optimizing the Electric Charging System

The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to numerous electrical and electronic systems. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: a generator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In order to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system, an easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed. In this study, a vehicle electric power simulator is developed. The simulator can be utilized to determine the optimized capacities of generators and batteries appropriately. To improve the flexibility and easy usage of the simulation program, the program is organized in modular structures, and is run on a PC.
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Corrosion Test Mode Considering Environmental Condition

Accelerated simulation of vehicle corrosion in a controlled environment not only involves large chambers for actual vehicle tests, but also requires careful consideration of interactions between various parameters given a short time period within which the test is bounded. A new corrosion durability test mode reproducing various field conditions using salt spray, climatic, sunlight simulation and cold chambers has been developed. Verification of the test mode is carried out using four actual vehicle corrosion tests correlated against used cars of Nort h America and Northern Europe. The process of new corrosion test mode is discussed along with the characteristics of the test chambers.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle by Using Ultra-Capacitors as a Secondary Power Source

Hyundai motor company has developed a fuel cell hybrid vehicle that has ultra-capacitors as a secondary power source. The simulation of fuel cell vehicles allows the user to analyze various types of fuel cell systems and hybrid configurations before implementing into a real system and to reduce the development time and cost. Before implementing fuel cell vehicles, a fuel cell vehicle simulation model, that has component modularity and forward facing characteristics, was developed. The simulation model was used in designing the fuel cell hybrid vehicle to select component sizes and a hybrid configuration. The hybridization by using ultra-capacitors provided better fuel economy and power response than the hybridization by using batteries.
Technical Paper

Study of Sealing Mechanism to Prevent Oil Leakage for the Thermoplastic Cylinder Head Cover

Most of car makers nowadays produce Cylinder Head Cover with Thermoplastic to get the benefit of weight and cost reduction. The production of Cylinder Head Cover with Thermoplastic brings a number of benefits such as enhancement in productivity, design freedom, integration with other parts and reduction in weight. However, NVH characteristics, sealing performance issues possibly caused by design of cover and gasket and loss of properties of materials when used for long-term period still remain as critical tasks to be solved. Especially in case of car OEMs strongly insist that we have to meet their severe specifications requirements so as to satisfy their customers' growing demand. Sealing performance is one of the core factors, which require continuous effort and studies to meet the OEM's specifications.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sensitivity and Optimization for Chassis Design Parameters on the X-Wind Stability

In the view point of driving safety, the crosswind sensitivity of a vehicle becomes more important, as the driving speed in highway gets higher in these days. The sensitivity of a vehicle to crosswind depends on many factors, including the design of the suspension and aerodynamics of the body, etc. However, the knowledge about this phenomenon has still to be improved, in order to develop vehicle with optimum characteristics for crosswind stability. In this research, the physics behind the sensitivity of a vehicle is discussed in detail through various kinds of virtual test using computer aided engineering (CAE) simulation scheme. In the first, a reliable simulation model for vehicle, driver, wind generator and interactions among them is built. This simulation model is verified by comparison with test results of real vehicle. Then, the sensitivity analysis is carried out to find out the most influential design parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a Heat Resistant Cast Iron Alloy for Engine Exhaust Manifolds

A new heat-resistant cast iron alloy has been developed for the exhaust manifolds of new passenger-car diesel engines. This development occurred because operating demands on exhaust manifolds have increased significantly over the past decade. These demands are due to higher exhaust gas temperatures resulting from tighter emission requirements, improved fuel efficiencies, and designs for higher specific engine power. These factors have led to much higher elevated temperature strength and oxidation resistance requirements on exhaust manifold alloys. Additionally, thermal fatigue that occurs directly as a result of thermal expansions and mechanical constraint has become an increasingly important issue. The research detailed in this paper focused on the optimization of the chemical composition of a Si-Mo ductile iron to improve the mechanical and physical properties for use in an engine exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

The Procedure for Improving R&H Performance of the New 2010 Hyundai Sonata by Modal Parameter Modification of Its Body

Various deformation shapes of the vehicle body were investigated for the purpose to establish vehicle body's performance criteria which correlates well to handling performance and ride comfort. Using CAE tool, the dynamic behavior of a structure by its modal parameter can be described instead of by its nodes and elements. Each modal characteristic in a dynamic system is reduced by its modal stiffness, its modal mass and its damping parameter in the model. This technology offers not only computational efficiency but also parametric model enabling easy what-if simulation. This reduced model can be obtained by modal test as well as simulation of full FE model. It was also investigated that which mode is sensitive to ride or handling performance using the parameterized model. The body stiffness of the brand new 2010 SONATA was improved on reference to the sensitivity analysis. The ride and handling performance of the 2010 SONATA were verified by computer simulation and vehicle field test
Technical Paper

Optimal Rear Suspension Design for the Improvement of Ride Comfort and Suspension Noise

The purpose of this paper is to identify and reduce a knocking noise from a rear suspension. First, the characteristics of a knocking noise are analyzed experimentally in the frequency domain. It was found that the knocking noise of a passenger room and vibration at a lower arm, a subframe and a floor are strongly correlated. Second, the knocking noise sensitivity is strongly dependent on suspension dynamics characteristics. Moreover, the improvement of ride comfort and noise was achieved simultaneously based on simulation analysis, principle vehicle testing. A design parameter study shows that the trailing arm bush stiffness, shock absorber bump/rebound damping characteristics, floor stiffness and shock absorber insulator bushing are one of the most sensitive parameter to affect the suspension knocking noise. Finally, this paper shows how the suspension knocking noise and ride comfort can be improved considering handling performance.
Technical Paper

Co-operative Control of Regenerative Braking using a Front Electronic Wedge Brake and a Rear Electronic Mechanical Brake Considering the Road Friction Characteristic

In this study, a co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was developed for an electric vehicle (EV) equipped with an electronic wedge brake (EWB) for its front wheels and an electronic mechanical brake (EMB) for its rear wheels. The co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was designed considering the road friction characteristic to increase the recuperation energy while avoiding wheel lock. A powertrain model of an EV composed of a motor, and batteries and a MATLAB model of the control algorithm were also developed. They were linked to the CarSim model of the vehicle under study to develop an EV simulator. The EMB and EWB were modeled with an actuator, screw, and wedge to develop an EMB and EWB simulator. A co-simulator for an EV equipped with an EWB for the front wheels and an EMB for the rear wheels was fabricated, composed of the EV and the EMB and EWB simulator.
Technical Paper

Microstructure and Tribological Behavior of CrN-Cu Nanocoatings Deposited by PVD Systems

The present study focused on CrN-Cu nanocoatings composed of nano-meter grains with CrN, Cr and Cu functioning low-friction, anti-wear and heat resistance. The coatings were synthesized by hybrid PVD including metal arc source, magentron sputter source and ion-gun source. Although Cu has low hardness, the hardness of CrNCu is not declined because it was composed of below 20nm sized grains of CrN, Cr, and Cu. However, CrN-Cu had lower friction than CrN owing to Cu’s low shear strength. CrN-Cu films optimized using the Reaction Surface Method (RSM) showed the excellent tribological behavior and low coefficient of friction compared with DLC. The tribological properties of the Cr-Cu-N demonstrated superior wear resistance and low friction at normal and high temperature conditions. The CrN-Cu nanocoatings can be used for the downsizing automotive engines working at severe tribological conditions.