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Technical Paper

Air System Control for Advanced Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0970
In order to satisfy environmental regulations while maintaining strong performance and excellent fuel economy, advanced diesel engines are employing sophisticated air breathing systems. These include high pressure and low pressure EGR (Hybrid EGR), intake and exhaust throttling, and variable turbine geometry systems. In order to optimize the performance of these sub-systems, system level controls are necessary. This paper presents the design, benefits and test results of a model-based air system controller applied to an automotive diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Measurement of 3-D In-Cylinder Flow Fields Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

2004-03-08
2004-01-1409
In-cylinder charge motion plays a key role in optimizing the combustion process of modern reciprocating engines. The present paper describes a method for obtaining the volumetric, isothermal, in-cylinder velocity flow field using Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The DGV system is designed for measuring time-averaged velocity data in three different light sheet directions using a single camera system with the aim of providing planar, spatially resolved, three-component velocity data of the cylindrical cross section. As DGV provides time-averaged data, the results can be directly compared with data obtained by 3-D CFD analysis. An automated program code generates characteristic numbers of the measured velocity fields with the aim of assessing and comparing the results of different engine concepts.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Assessment of Hybrid Powertrain Solutions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0070
This paper shows the main results of a research activity carried out in order to investigate the impact of different hybridization concepts on vehicle fuel economy during standard homologation cycles (NEDC, FTP75, US Highway, Artemis). Comparative analysis between a standard passenger vehicle and three different hybrid solutions based on the same vehicle platform is presented. The following parallel hybrid powertrain solutions were investigated: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) solution (three different levels of hybridization are investigated with respect to different Electric Motor Generator size and battery storage/power capacity), High Speed Flywheel (HSF) system described as a fully integrated mechanical (kinetic) hybrid solution based on the quite innovative approach, and hydraulic hybrid system (HHV). In order to perform a fare analysis between different hybrid systems, analysis is also carried out for equal system storage capacities.
Journal Article

Emission and Ignition Effects of Alternative Fuels at Conventional and Premixed Diesel Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0870
The growing availability of different biofuels and synthetic fuels is leading to increased diversity of automotive fuels. Understanding how fuel properties affect combustion and how engine calibration strategies can compensate for variations in fuel composition is crucial for ensuring proper engine operation in this world of increased fuel diversity. This study looks at the ability to compensate for wide changes in cetane quality. Four different fuels with variations in cetane number, volatility and composition have been tested in a single cylinder engine and compared to diesel fuel. The selected operating conditions represent the entire engine map of a passenger car diesel engine. In part load the effects were investigated for conventional and premixed Diesel combustion. The results show that part load operation is especially relevant for the detection and compensation of varying fuel properties and that, depending on engine load, different control strategies have to be applied.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Identification of a Gasoline Common Rail Injection System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0196
The precision of direct fuel injection systems of combustion engines is crucial for the further reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. It is influenced by the dynamic behavior of the fuel system, in particular the injection valves and the common rail pressure. As model based control strategies for the fuel system could substantially improve the dynamic behavior, an accurate model of the common rail injection system for gasoline engines - consisting of the main components high-pressure pump, common rail and injection valves - that could be used for control design is highly desirable. Approaches for developing such a model are presented in this paper. For each key component, two models are derived, which differ in temporal resolution and number of degrees of freedom. Experimental data is used to validate and compare the models. The data was generated on a test bench specifically designed and built for this purpose.
Journal Article

Benchmarking Hybrid Concepts: On-Line vs. Off-Line Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures

2013-09-08
2013-24-0084
The recent advance in the development of various hybrid vehicle technologies comes along with the need of establishing optimal energy management strategies, in order to minimize both fuel economy and pollutant emissions, while taking into account an increasing number of state and control variables, depending on the adopted hybrid architecture. One of the objectives of this research was to establish benchmarking performance, in terms of fuel economy, for real time on-board management strategies, such as ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy), whose structure has been implemented in a SIMULINK model for different hybrid vehicle concepts.
Technical Paper

Calibration of Torque Structure and Charge Control System for SI Engines Based on Physical Simulation Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-0854
A physics-based simulation program developed by IAV is used to calibrate the torque structure and cylinder charge calculation in the electronic control unit of SI engines. The model calculates both the charge cycle and combustion phase based on flow mechanics and a fractal combustion model. Once the air mass in the charge cycle has been computed, a fractal combustion model is used for the ongoing calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. The progression of cylinder pressure over the high and low-pressure phases also provides information on engine torque. Following the engine-specific calibration of the model using elemental geometric information and reduced test bench measurements, the physical engine properties can be simulated over the operating cycle. The calibrated model allows simulations to be carried out at all operating points and the results to be treated as virtual test bench measurements.
Technical Paper

Boost and EGR System for the Highly Premixed Diesel Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0204
Advanced Diesel combustion strategies with the focus on the reduction of NOx and PM emission as well as fuel consumption need an increase of the EGR rate and therefore improved boost concepts. The suppression of the nitrogen oxide build up requires changes in the charge condition (charge temperature, EGR rate), which have to be realized by the gas exchange system. The gas exchange system of IAV's ADCS test engine was dimensioned with the help of the engine process simulation software THEMOS®. This paper shows simulation and test bench results of the potential to increase the EGR rate and the charge density at stationary and transient operation. The increase of both EGR rate and boost pressure, as well as the need for a better control of transient operation leads to greater requirements for the engine control system. The potential of the engine and its control system for an application to a demo vehicle will be assessed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Charge Motion Characteristics on Engine Variables such as Emission Behavior and Efficiency

2007-04-16
2007-01-0640
Mixture formation in the combustion chamber is of paramount significance for diesel combustion processes. Particularly in inhomogeneous combustion processes with internal mixture formation, the course of combustion and composition of combustion products are heavily influenced by charge motion and material transport during the compression phase and during combustion itself. Charge motion is normally quantified in steady-state flow testing. This model-based test takes place under idealized conditions. This means that with a permanently open valve and constant pressure differential over the inlet port, a steady-state flow of air is established in the simulated cylinder. The influence of piston movement is neglected. The test delivers integral characteristic flow figures, such as swirl number, flow number and tumble number.
Technical Paper

The Controlled Vane-Type Oil Pump for Oil Supply on Demand for Passenger Car Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1319
The oil supply of combustion engines today is typically realized by oil pumps with constant displacement. To secure the operational safety in hot idling these pumps are oversized, what causes low efficiency in most of operating speeds. IAV developed a vane-type oil pump, which allows to infinitely regulate the delivery rate. Because of no oil release over a pressure limiting valve the pump achieves a higher efficiency in a wide range of operation. The design of the theoretical delivery characteristic allows the calculated and particular increase of oil pressure to avoid critical operating conditions and to support hydraulically operated functions as variable camshaft timing.
Technical Paper

0D/3D Simulations of Combustion in Gasoline Engines Operated with Multiple Spark Plug Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1243
A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Diesel Combustion with External Mixture Formation by a Cool Flame Vaporizer

2006-10-16
2006-01-3323
The homogeneous Diesel combustion is a way to effect a soot and nitrogen oxide (NOx) free Diesel engine operation. Using direct injection of Diesel fuel, the mixture typically ignites before it is fully homogenized. In this study a homogeneous mixture is prepared outside of the combustion chamber by a Cool Flame Vaporizer. At first the specification of the vaporizer is given in this paper. To determine the composition of the vaporizer gas an analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) was made. The results give an idea of the effects on engine combustion. Followed by, the vaporizer was adapted to a single-cylinder Diesel engine. To adapt the engine's configuration regarding compression ratio and inlet temperature range a zero dimensional engine process simulation software was utilized. The engine was run in different operating modes.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow Field Measurement with Doppler Global Velocimetry in Combination with Droplet Distribution Visualization by Mie Scattering

2009-04-20
2009-01-0652
Flow fields and fuel distribution play a critical role in developing the combustion process inside the cylinders of piston engines. This has prompted the development of measurement and diagnostic capabilities including laser techniques like Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The paper provides an overview of the basics of DGV and the type of results that can be obtained. It also includes a short comparison to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) which is a popular alternative method. Furthermore, it is shown that DGV can be used simultaneously in combination with droplet distribution visualization inside cylinders based on Mie scattering.
Technical Paper

Advantages of Diesel Engine Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Information for Closed Loop Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-0364
Increasing emissions regulations, diagnostics capability, and other demands in vehicle refinement, have led to the need for increasingly complex engine control systems. These demands have led to in-cylinder combustion control, especially for the diesel engine. Diesel engine combustion relies heavily on the auto-ignition process. Therefore accurate control of this process is important and will become even more important for HCCI-engines. This paper discusses the configuration of a diesel engine for in-cylinder combustion control. It describes the digital evaluation of the cylinder pressure signal and the computation of the physical parameters necessary for proper combustion analysis, along with methods for using the calculated combustion parameter for engine control. The paper demonstrates the advantages of electronic engine control combined with in-cylinder pressure information. The paper also addresses some of the future challenges of engine control.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

2015-01-01
2014-01-9053
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Comparison of Different Power Split Configurations with Respect to the System Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0438
In power-split configuration, the input power is split into two parts, one of which is transmitted from the internal combustion engine through one or more planetary gear(s) to the wheels. The other part is generated as electricity and passes through an electrical variator to assist the driving torque. The latter has the characteristic of poor efficiency. In this simulation study, a comparison among the input power-split, compound power-split, and two mode power-split are discussed. Output power-split is not mentioned in this paper due to its limited applicability in specific vehicles. The idea of selection of the electrical machines is explained: the speed and torque of electrical machines was taken into consideration for the required transmission ratios spread.
Technical Paper

Virtual Exhaust-Gas Aftertreatment Test Bench - A Contribution to Model-Based Development and Calibration of Engine Control Algorithmsa

2012-04-16
2012-01-0897
Introducing new exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts at mass production level places exacting demands on the overall development process - from defining process engineering to developing and calibrating appropriate control-unit algorithms. Strategies for operating and controlling exhaust-gas aftertreatment components, such as oxidation and selective catalytic reduction catalysts (DOC and SCR), diesel particulate filters (DPF) and SCR on DPF systems (SCR/DPF), have a major influence on meeting statutory exhaust-emission standards. Therefore it is not only necessary to consider the physical behavior of individual components in the powertrain but also the way in which they interact as the basis for ensuring efficient operation of the overall system.
Technical Paper

Achieving the Max - Potential from a Variable Compression Ratio and Early Intake Valve Closure Strategy by Combination with a Long Stroke Engine Layout

2017-09-04
2017-24-0155
The combination of geometrically variable compression (VCR) and early intake valve closure (EIVC) proved to offer high potential for increasing efficiency of gasoline engines. While early intake valve closure reduces pumping losses, it is detrimental to combustion quality and residual gas tolerance due to a loss of temperature and turbulence. Large geometric compression ratio at part load compensates for the negative temperature effect of EIVC with further improving efficiency. By optimizing the stroke/bore ratio, the reduction in valve cross section at part load can result in greater charge motion and therefore in turbulence. Turbocharging means the basis to enable an increase in stroke/bore ratio, called β in the following, because the drawbacks at full load resulting from smaller valves can be only compensated by additional boosting pressure level.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Ventilation Strategies for SI Cylinder Deactivation Based on a Variable Valve Train

2016-10-17
2016-01-2346
Advanced SI engines for passenger cars often use the cylinder deactivation technology for dethrottling and thus achieving a reduction of fuel consumption. The gas exchange valves of the deactivated cylinders are closed permanently by a zero lift of the cams. The solutions for cylinder deactivation can vary in the kind of gas composition included in the deactivated cylinders: charge air, exhaust gas or vacuum. All these strategies have in common the frequent loss of captured charge mass from cycle to cycle. Their two-stroke compression-expansion cycle additionally intensifies this phenomenon. Thus, a significant decrease of the minimum cylinder pressure can cause an undesired entry of lubricant into the combustion chamber. The idea was to ventilate the generally deactivated cylinders frequently to compensate the loss of captured cylinder charge mass. The task was to keep the minimum cylinder pressure above a certain limit to prevent the piston rings from a failure.
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