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A Framework for Simulation-Based Development and Calibration of VCU-Functions for Advanced PHEV Powertrains

Due to the integration of many interacting subsystems like hybrid vehicle management, energy management, distance management, etc. into the VCU platform the design steps for function development and calibration become more and more complex. This makes an aid necessary to relieve the development. Therefore, the aim of the proposed simulation-based development and calibration design is to improve the time-and-cost consuming development stages of modern VCU platforms. A simulation-based development framework is shown on a complex function development and calibration case study using an advanced powertrain concept with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) concept with two electrical axles. Presenter Thomas Boehme, IAV GmbH

Development of a Hybrid Control Strategy for an Advanced Parallel HEV Powertrain with Two Electrical Axles

This paper proposes a current limits distribution control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (parallel HEV) which includes an advanced powertrain concept with two electrical driving axles. One of the difficulties of an HEV powertrain with two electrical driving axles is the ability to distribute the electrical current of one high voltage battery appropriately to the two independent electrical motors. Depending on the vehicle driving condition (i.e., car maneuver) or the maximization of the entire efficiency chain of the system, a suitable control strategy is necessary. We propose an input-output feedback linearization strategy to cope with the nonlinear system subject to input constraints. This approach needs an external, state dependent saturation element, which translates the state dependent control input saturation to the new feedback linearizing input and therefore preserves the properties of the differential geometric framework.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for Peak Temperature Limitation in DPF Regeneration Supported by Validated Modeling

One of the main challenges in developing cost-effective diesel particulate filters is to guarantee a thermally safe regeneration under all possible conditions on the road. Uncontrolled regenerations occur when the soot reaction rate is so high that the cooling effect of the incoming exhaust gas is insufficient to keep the temperature below the required limit for material integrity. These conditions occur when the engine switches to idle while the filter is already hot enough to initiate soot oxidation, typically following engine operation at high torque and speed or active filter regeneration. The purpose of this work is to investigate engine management techniques to reduce the reaction rate during typical failure mode regenerations. A purely experimental investigation faces many difficulties, especially regarding measurement accuracy, repeatability in filter soot loading, and repeatability in the regeneration protocol.
Technical Paper

Measurement of 3-D In-Cylinder Flow Fields Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

In-cylinder charge motion plays a key role in optimizing the combustion process of modern reciprocating engines. The present paper describes a method for obtaining the volumetric, isothermal, in-cylinder velocity flow field using Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The DGV system is designed for measuring time-averaged velocity data in three different light sheet directions using a single camera system with the aim of providing planar, spatially resolved, three-component velocity data of the cylindrical cross section. As DGV provides time-averaged data, the results can be directly compared with data obtained by 3-D CFD analysis. An automated program code generates characteristic numbers of the measured velocity fields with the aim of assessing and comparing the results of different engine concepts.
Technical Paper

Calibration Process for SCR Only TIER4i Engine for Construction Equipment

The current legislation for industrial applications and construction equipment including earthmoving machines and crane engines allows different strategies to fulfill the corresponding exhaust emission limits. Liebherr Machines Bulle SA developed their engines to accomplish these limits using SCRonly technology. IAV supported this development, carrying out engine as well as SCR aftertreatment system and vehicle calibration work including the OBD and NOx Control System (NCS) calibration, as well as executing the homologation procedures at the IAV development center. The engines are used in various Liebherr applications certified for EU Stage IIIb, EPA TIER 4i, China GB4 and IMO MARPOL Tier II according to the regulations “97/68/EC”, “40 CFR Part 1039”, “GB17691-2005” and “40 CFR Parts 9, 85, et al.” using the same SCR hardware for all engine power variants of the corresponding I6 and V8 engine families.
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Technical Paper

NVH Optimization of Driveline with Mathematical Optimization Methods

The Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behaviour of the powertrain, the driveline and the mounting is playing a very important role in the vehicle development process. The method described in this paper presents the coupling of Multi Body Simulation (MBS) with mathematical optimization tools exemplary for a powertrain mounting at a passenger car vehicle. It is shown, how this approach is integrated in the IAV - development process for validation and for optimization, i.e. finding the best solution for reaching the NVH targets. In early stage of development process, torsional vibration models are used to simulate e.g. the decoupling between engine and transmission. To simulate further physical effects, the models must be more and more detailed with a lot of additional parameter. One challenge for valid models is the parameter identification. The process to do this successfully with mathematical methods will be described.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Automated Tuning of Simulation Models for Correlation with Experimental Data

In this paper a practical methodology for automated tuning of simulation models is introduced, which is widely and successfully adapted in IAV. For this, stochastic optimization algorithms (like Genetic Algorithms or Particle Swarm Optimization), and appropriate algorithms for optimization tasks with very long computation time (e.g. Adaptive Surrogate-Model Optimization or Adaptive Hybrid Strategies) are used in combination with commercial and internal simulation tools. Often it is necessary to evaluate several contradictory objectives at the same time which leads to multi-criterion optimization. Effective post processing methods (mathematical decision aids) are used to select the best compromises for the problem. As a practical example, this automated tuning methodology is applied to an engine performance simulation model developed in GT-Power.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Identification of a Gasoline Common Rail Injection System

The precision of direct fuel injection systems of combustion engines is crucial for the further reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. It is influenced by the dynamic behavior of the fuel system, in particular the injection valves and the common rail pressure. As model based control strategies for the fuel system could substantially improve the dynamic behavior, an accurate model of the common rail injection system for gasoline engines - consisting of the main components high-pressure pump, common rail and injection valves - that could be used for control design is highly desirable. Approaches for developing such a model are presented in this paper. For each key component, two models are derived, which differ in temporal resolution and number of degrees of freedom. Experimental data is used to validate and compare the models. The data was generated on a test bench specifically designed and built for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Scene Based Safety Functions for Pedestrian Detection Systems

The protection of pedestrians from injuries by accidental collision is a primary focus of the automotive industry and of government legislation [1]. In this area, scientists and developers are faced with a multitude of requirements. Complex scenes are to be analyzed. The wide spectrum of where pedestrians and cyclists appear on the road, weather, and light conditions are just examples. Data fusion of raw or preprocessed signals for several sensors (cameras, radar, lidar, ultrasonic) need to be considered as well. Accordingly, algorithms are very complex. When moving from prototypic environments to embedded systems, additional constraints must be considered. Limited system resources drive the need to simplify and optimize for technical and economic reasons. With all these constraints, how can the safety functions be safe-guarded? This submission considers scene-based methods for the development of vehicle functions from prototype to series production focusing on functional safety.
Journal Article

Benchmarking Hybrid Concepts: On-Line vs. Off-Line Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures

The recent advance in the development of various hybrid vehicle technologies comes along with the need of establishing optimal energy management strategies, in order to minimize both fuel economy and pollutant emissions, while taking into account an increasing number of state and control variables, depending on the adopted hybrid architecture. One of the objectives of this research was to establish benchmarking performance, in terms of fuel economy, for real time on-board management strategies, such as ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy), whose structure has been implemented in a SIMULINK model for different hybrid vehicle concepts.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines

The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system (ATS). Several different aftertreatment architectures and technologies, all based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are being considered to meet this need. One of these architectures, the close-coupled SCR (ccSCR), was evaluated in this study using two different physics-based, 1D models; the simulations focused on the first 300 seconds of the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The first model, describing a real, EuroVI-compliant engine equipped with series turbochargers, was used to evaluate a ccSCR located either i) immediately downstream of the low-pressure turbine, ii) in between the two turbines, or iii) in a by-pass around the high pressure turbine.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion and Control Using a Novel Ignition Delay Model

The future emission standards, including real driving emissions (RDE) measurements are big challenges for engine and after-treatment development. Also for development of a robust control system, in real driving emissions cycles under varied operating conditions and climate conditions, like low ambient temperature as well as high altitude are advanced physical-based algorithms beneficial in order to realize more precise, robust and efficient control concepts. A fast-running novel physical-based ignition delay model for diesel engine combustion simulation and additionally, for combustion control in the next generation of ECUs is presented and validated in this study. Detailed chemical reactions of the ignition processes are solved by a n-heptane mechanism which is coupled to the thermodynamic simulation of in-cylinder processes during the compression and autoignition phases.
Technical Paper

Calibration of Torque Structure and Charge Control System for SI Engines Based on Physical Simulation Models

A physics-based simulation program developed by IAV is used to calibrate the torque structure and cylinder charge calculation in the electronic control unit of SI engines. The model calculates both the charge cycle and combustion phase based on flow mechanics and a fractal combustion model. Once the air mass in the charge cycle has been computed, a fractal combustion model is used for the ongoing calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. The progression of cylinder pressure over the high and low-pressure phases also provides information on engine torque. Following the engine-specific calibration of the model using elemental geometric information and reduced test bench measurements, the physical engine properties can be simulated over the operating cycle. The calibrated model allows simulations to be carried out at all operating points and the results to be treated as virtual test bench measurements.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Process-Oriented and Tool Based Calibration Tasks for Engine Management Systems

This paper describes a new approach for the calibration of engine management systems based on a newly developed calibration tool. This approach is based on the idea to design the calibration process of a certain calibration task by means of a computer based stateflow/workflow diagram. By means of library methods for certain calibration routines, the calibration engineer can design his calibration process in a Stateflow diagram and then transfer this function in an executable file, guiding and supporting the engineer for performing his task. Due to this approach a documentation of the calibration process, the performed calibration task and a guided and automated calibration process can be performed.
Technical Paper

Charge Motion and Mixture Formation Analysis of a DISI Engine Based on an Adaptive Parallel Mesh Approach

Mesh generation is frequently one of the most labor-intensive aspects of in-cylinder engine simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This expense makes parameter studies, such like engine geometry, valve timing or injection timing, a particularly challenging endeavor. The present paper introduces a CFD approach for the simulation of the in-cylinder processes of an internal combustion engine that minimizes user-required meshing effort and can handle almost unlimited boundary motion. The adaptation is fully automated and avoids the use of target meshes and global solution remapping. The intention of the approach is to use CFD for numerous parameter variations involving combustion system variabilities. Therefore, an open source base is chosen to avoid limitations of individual simulations due to a finite number of commercial licenses. The approach is used here for the simulation of a modern direct injection spark igniton (DISI) engine.
Technical Paper

Model Based Exhaust Aftertreatment System Integration for the Development and Calibration of Ultra-Low Emission Concepts

The development and calibration of exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) systems for the most diverse applications of diesel powertrain concepts requires EAT models, capable of performing concept analysis as well as control and OBD system development and calibration. On the concept side, the choice of an application-specific EAT layout from a wide technology selection is driven by a number of requirements and constraints. These include statutory requirements regarding emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG), technical constraints such as engine-out emissions and packaging, as well as economic parameters such as fuel consumption, and EAT system and system development costs. Fast and efficient execution of the analysis and multi-criteria system optimization can be done by integrating the detailed EAT models into a total system simulation.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Potential of a Variable Miller Cycle for SI Knock Control

A promising combustion technology for DISI downsizing engines is the Miller cycle. It is based on an early intake valve closing for the separation of effective and geometric compression ratio. Therefore IAV has prepared a turbocharged DISI test engine with a high geometric compression ratio. This engine is equipped with the Schaeffler “UniAir” variable valve train in order to investigate a variable Miller cycle valve timing in the turbocharged map area. The goal is to investigate whether and how a rapidly variable Miller cycle can influence the knocking behavior. Therefore its potential for a SI knock control can be evaluated. The investigated parameters in a steady-state engine dyno mode were the intake valve closing timing, the intake camshaft phasing and the ignition timing. A variable intake valve closing Miller cycle strategy, a variable intake camshaft phasing Miller cycle strategy and a state-of-the- art ignition timing strategy have been investigated.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different Transient Air Charge Models

The correct estimation of the air charge is crucial for the control of gasoline engines. This paper introduces an air charge estimation based on both physical and statistical models. For the physical model, an investigation was made to determine if the assumption of an isothermal process in the intake manifold is too strict and should be weakened to an assumption of an adiabatic process. For the adaptation of the statistical models, the Design of Experiments (DoE) method is used. The DoE method can shorten test expenses and calibration time significantly. The resulting model was tested with a 2-liter gasoline engine.