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Technical Paper

SCR for Passenger Car: the Ammonia-Storage Issue on a Fe-ZSM5 Catalyst

2009-06-15
2009-01-1929
A comprehensive experimental approach has been developed for a Fe-ZSM5 micro-porous catalyst, through a collaborative project between IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). Tests have first been conducted on a synthetic gas bench and yielded estimated values for the amount of NH3 stored on a catalyst sample. These data have further been compared to those obtained from an engine test bench, in running conditions representative of the entire operating range of the engine. 15 operating points have been chosen, considering the air mass flow and the exhaust temperature, and tested with different NH3/NOx ratios. Steady-state as well as transient conditions have been studied, showing the influence of three main parameters on the reductant storage characteristics: exhaust temperature, NO2/NOx ratio, and air mass flow.
Technical Paper

Detailed Particulate Characterization from HCCI Combustion for Future DPF Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-1185
This paper presents the detailed characterization of particulate emissions from a NADI™ dual mode engine (HCCI at low load and conventional combustion at high load). Morphology, composition and chemical reactivity of the particulate matter generated on an engine running in HCCI mode have been specified and compared to the conventional mode reference. Results showed that HCCI combustion formed particles with a higher volatile organic fraction due to the relatively high level of HC generated by this kind of combustion. Advanced soot characterization emphasized that HCCI soot is oxidized at a slower reaction rate than conventional soot, but with a lower temperature. This last characteristic could partially compensate the poor continuous regeneration effect due to low NO2 emission levels observed in HCCI combustion. Microscopic observation and particle sizing did not show significant differences between HCCI and conventional soot.
Technical Paper

Which Fuel Properties for Improved CAI Combustion? Study of Fuel Impacts on the Operating Range of a CAI PFI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1100
This paper presents the major results of an International Consortium study carried out by IFP and focused on the evaluation of fuel impacts on Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. The formulation and tests of two adapted fuel matrix have allowed identifying and evaluating the main fuel properties that can improve CAI combustion for a maximum enlargement of the CAI operating range. CAI combustion mode appears as one promising solution for the development of low CO2 gasoline engines. Fuel properties can then be key parameters to improve the performances of CAI engines. During a first step of the study, steady state tests have been performed on a single cylinder Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engine, with real fuels.
Journal Article

Analysis of Combustion Process in Cold Operation with a Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1267
Future emissions standards for passenger cars require a reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) and CO₂ (carbon dioxide) emissions of diesel engines. One of the ways to reach this challenge while keeping other emissions under control (CO: carbon monoxide, HC: unburned hydrocarbons and particulates) is to reduce the volumetric compression ratio (CR). Nevertheless complications appear with this CR reduction, notably during very cold operation: start and idle. These complications justify intensifying the work in this area. Investigations were led on a real 4-cylinder diesel 13.7:1 CR engine, using complementary tools: experimental tests, in-cylinder visualizations and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations. In previous papers, the way the Main combustion takes place according to Pilot combustion behavior was highlighted. This paper, presents an in-depth study of mixture preparation and the subsequent combustion process.
Journal Article

Optimization of a Euro 5 Vehicle Powered by an Ethanol Based Diesel Fuel

2010-05-05
2010-01-1520
Diversifying energy resources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are key priorities in the forthcoming years for the automotive industry. Currently, among the different solutions, sustainable biofuels are considered as one of the most attractive answer to these issues. This paper deals with the vehicle application of an innovative diesel fuel formulation using Ethanol to tackle these future challenges. The main goal is to better understand the impact of using biofuel blends on engine behavior, reliability and pollutants emissions. This alternative oxygenated fuel reduces dramatically particulate matter (PM) emissions; this paves the way to improve the NOx/PM/CO₂ trade-off. Another major interest is to avoid adding a particulate filter in the exhaust line and to avoid modifying powertrain and vehicle hardware and therefore to minimize the overall cost to fulfill upcoming emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Improving Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off by using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Mode

2010-10-25
2010-01-2162
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
Journal Article

Effects of Methane/Hydrogen Blends On Engine Operation: Experimental And Numerical Investigation of Different Combustion Modes

2010-10-25
2010-01-2165
The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the exhaust particles mass determined by the European regulatory gravimetric method and the mass estimated by ELPI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2147
Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Performances and Durability of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) Tested on a Fleet of Peugeot 607 Taxis: Final results

2004-03-08
2004-01-0073
In order to asses the durability of DPF, a study has been performed in order to study the evolution of several taxis (Peugeot 607) and the performance of this after-treatment systems over 80,000 km mileage in hard urban driving conditions, which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance (this periodicity is applied on the first generation of DPF technology launched in 2000). More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20 000 km): Regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle (New European Driving Cycle) Particulate emissions, by mass measurement on NEDC but also by particle number and size measurement with SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) technique on NEDC and on unconventional steady-state running points.
Technical Paper

On the origin of Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in a Wall Guided, Low NOx Diesel Combustion System

2007-07-23
2007-01-1836
The formation mechanisms of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) in low NOx, homogeneous type Diesel combustion have been investigated in both standard and optical access single cylinder engines operating under low load (2 and 4 bar IMEP) conditions. In the standard (i.e. non-optical) engine, parameters such as injection timing, intake temperature and global equivalence ratio were varied in order to analyse the role of bulk quenching on HC emissions formation. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of in-cylinder unburned HC within the bulk gases was performed on the optical-access engine. Furthermore, studies were performed in order to ascertain whether the piston top-land crevice volume contributes significantly to engine-out HC emissions. Finally, the role of piston-top fuel films and their impact on HC emissions was studied. This was investigated on the all-metal engine using two fuels of different volatilities.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Structure and Implications on Post-Oxidation Under Homogeneous and Stratified Operation in a DISI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1262
An experimental investigation into the structure and flame propagation characteristics of stratified and homogeneous combustion has been performed in an optically-accessible, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engine using OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. Homogeneous and stratified operation was achieved by employing either early or late injection timing strategies during the intake or compression stroke respectively. Planar LIF OH images obtained revealed that for stratified operation, the 3D structure of the combustion zone is highly inhomogeneous and is predominantly due to high fuel concentration gradients which are formed as a result of local fuel mixture stratification. The images reveal a combustion structure which suggests that the flame propagation pathway is ultimately determined by the presence of these local fuel mixture inhomogeneities.
Technical Paper

Development of Highly Premixed Combustion Diesel Model: From Simulation to Control Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-1072
In the context of increasingly stringent pollution norms, reduced engine emissions are a great challenge for compressed ignition engines. After-treatment solutions are expensive and very complex to implement, while the NOx/PM trade-off is difficult to optimise for conventional Diesel engines. Therefore, in-cylinder pollutant production limitation by the HPC combustion mode (Highly Premixed Combustion) - including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) - represents one of the most promising ways for new generation of CI engine. For this combustion technology, control based on torque estimation is crucial: the objectives are to accurately control the cylinder-individual fuel injected mass and to adapt the fuel injection parameters to the in-cylinder conditions (fresh air and burned gas masses and temperature).
Technical Paper

Optimal Design for a Highly Downsized Gasoline Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1794
The combination of air charging and downsizing is known to be an efficient solution to reduce CO2 emissions of modern gasoline engines. The decrease of the cubic capacity and the increase of the specific performance help to reduce the fuel consumption by limiting pumping and friction losses and even the losses of energy by heat transfer. Investigations have been conducted on a highly downsized SI engine to confirm if a strong decrease of the displacement (50 %) was still interesting regarding the fuel consumption reduction and if other ways were possible to improve further more its efficiency. The first aim of our work was to identify the optimal design (bore, stroke, displacement, …) that could maximize the consumption reduction potential at part load but also improve the engine's behaviour at very high load (up to 3.0 MPa IMEP from 1000 rpm). In order to do that, four engine configurations with different strokes and bores have been tested and compared.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel: Managing the Flash Point Issue - Consequences on Engine Behavior

2009-06-15
2009-01-1807
Facing more and more stringent regulations, new solutions are developed to decrease pollutant emissions. One of them have shown promising and relevant results. It consists of the use of ethanol as a blending component for diesel fuel Nevertheless, the addition of ethanol to Diesel fuel affects some key properties such as the flash point. Consequently, Diesel blends containing ethanol become highly flammable at a temperature around ambient temperature. This study proposes to improve the formulation of ethanol based diesel fuel in order to avoid flash point drawbacks. First, a focus on physical and chemical properties is done for ethanol based diesel fuels with and without flash point improvement. Second, blends are tested on a passenger car diesel engine, under a wide operating range conditions from low load low speed up to maximum power. The main advantage of the ethanol based fuels generate low smoke level, that allows using higher EGR rate, thus leading to an important NOx decrease.
Technical Paper

Towards CO and HC Aftertreatment Devices for the Next Generation of Diesel Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1543
The reduction of NOx emissions required by the future Euro 6 standards leads engine manufacturers to develop Diesel Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. Because this concept allows reducing both NOx and particulates simultaneously, it appears as a promising way to meet the next environmental challenges. Unfortunately, HCCI combustion often increases CO and HC emissions. Conventional oxidation catalyst technologies, currently used for Euro 4 vehicles, may not be able to convert these emissions because of the saturation of active catalytic sites. As a result, such increased CO and HC emissions have to be reduced under standard levels using innovative catalysts or emergent technologies. The work reported in this paper has been conducted within the framework of the PAGODE project (PSA, IFP, Chalmers University, APTL, CRF, Johnson Matthey and Supelec) and financed by the European Commission.
Technical Paper

Performances and Durability of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) Tested on a Fleet of Peugeot 607 Taxis First and Second Test Phases Results

2002-10-21
2002-01-2790
The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 30% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharging…) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environmental point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulate and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterization and developments. PSA Peugeot-Citroën has recently launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improved Modelling of DI Diesel Engines Using Sub-grid Descriptions of Spray and Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0008
Three dimensional CFD tools are commonly used to simulate spray injection and combustion in DI Diesel engines. However typical computations are strongly mesh dependent. By now it is not possible to enhance grid resolution since it would violate the underlying assumptions for the Lagrangian liquid phase description. Besides, a full Eulerian approach with an adapted mesh is not practical at the moment mainly because of prohibitive computer requirements. Based on the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, new approaches have been developed: the Coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian (CLE) model for the two-way coupling between the spray and the air flow and a new combustion model (CFM3Z) which allows a description of the fuel-oxidizer sub-grid mixing. The previously introduced CLE model consists in retaining vapor and momentum along parcel trajectories as long as the mesh is insufficient to resolve the steep gradients created by the spray.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation and Combustion via LIEF and LIF of Combustion Radicals in a Direct-Injection, HCCI Diesel Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2945
The influence of piston geometry on the in-cylinder mixture distribution and combustion process in an optically-accessible, direct injection HCCI Diesel engine has been investigated. A new, purpose-designed piston which allows optical access directly into the combustion chamber bowl permitted the application of a number of optical diagnostic techniques. Firstly, laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) has been applied in order to characterize the fuel spray and vapor development within the piston bowl. Subsequently a detailed study of the auto-ignition and two-stage Diesel HCCI combustion process has been conducted by a combination of direct chemiluminescence imaging, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of the intermediate species formaldehyde (CH2O) which is present during the cool flame and LIF of the OH radical later present in the reaction and burned gas zones at higher temperature.
Technical Paper

A New 0D Approach for Diesel Combustion Modeling Coupling Probability Density Function with Complex Chemistry

2006-10-16
2006-01-3332
The model presented in this paper is an original contribution for two main mechanisms involved in a Diesel combustion chamber: the micro-mixing and the combustion heat release. The micro-mixing phenomenon is modelled thanks to the presumed probability density function theory adapted to the 0D combustion modeling issues in order to take into account the stratification of air / fuel ratio around the spray. The combustion heat release is obtained from complex chemistry look-up tables. These tables are issued from a dedicated use of the Flame Prolongation of ILDM theory and allow a large range of combustion conditions since it includes high EGR rates. Moreover, the spray model including evaporation and turbulent macro-mixing is based on the well-known Siebers theory.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel - Potential in HCCI Mode

2008-10-06
2008-01-2506
This work studies the potential of ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel fuel blends in both conventional Diesel and HCCI combustion modes. First, ethanol based fuels were tested on a modern commercial multi-cylinder DI diesel engine. The aim of this phase was to assess how such fuels affect Diesel engine performances and emissions. These results indicate that low levels of PM and NOx emissions, with a contained fuel consumption penalty and with an acceptable noise level, are achievable when the Diesel-ethanol blends are used in combination with an optimized combustion control. Moreover, experiments with ethanol based blends were performed using a single cylinder engine, running under both early injection HCCI and Diesel combustion modes. Compared to a conventional fuel, these blends allow increasing the HCCI operating range and also lead to higher maximum power output in conventional Diesel combustion.
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