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Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Testing - Still Necessary!

Over the last decades, the use of computers has become an integral part of the engine development process. Computer-based tools are increasingly used in the design process, and especially the layout of the various subsystems is conducted by means of simulation models. Computer-aided engineering plays a central role e.g. in the design of the combustion process as well as with regards to work performed in the area of engine mechanics, where CFD, FEM, and MBS are applied. As a parallel trend, it can be observed that various engine performance characteristics such as e.g. the specific power output and the power-to-weight ratio have undergone an enormous increase, a trend which to some extent counteracts the increase in safety against malfunction and failure. As yet, due to the constant need for further optimization, mechanical testing and verification processes have not become redundant, and it is assumed that they will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.
Technical Paper

Application of Combustion Sound Level (CSL) Analysis for Powertrain

Powertrain noise is a significant factor in determination of the overall vehicle refinement expected by today's discriminating automotive customer. Development of a powertrain to meet these expectations requires a thorough understanding of the contributing noise sources. Specifically, combustion noise greatly impacts the perception of sound levels and quality. The relevance of combustion noise development has increased with the advent of newer efficiency-driven technologies such as direct injection or homogeneous charge compression ignition. This paper discusses the application of a CSL (Combustion Sound Level) analysis-a method for the identification and optimization of combustion noise. Using CSL, it is possible to separate mechanical and combustion noise sources.
Technical Paper

LOTUS: A Co-operation for Low Temperature Urea-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

The European research co-operation Lotus is presented. The main objectives of the project were i) to show the potential for a urea-based SCR system to comply with the EU standard of years 2005 and 2008 for heavy-duty Diesel engines for different driving conditions with optimal fuel consumption, ii) to reach 95 % conversion of NOx at steady state at full load on a Euro III engine, iii) to reach 75 % NOx reduction for exhaust temperatures between 200-300°C, and 85 % average NOx reduction between 200-500°C. The energy content of the consumed urea should not exceed 1.0 %, calculated as specific fuel consumption. These targets were met in May 2003 and the Lotus SCR system fulfilled the Euro V NOx legislative objectives for year 2008.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy

Current and future emission legislations require a significant reduction of engine-out emissions for Diesel engines. For a further reduction of engine-out emissions, different measures are necessary such as: Especially an advanced emission and closed-loop combustion control has gained increased significance during the past years.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hydrodynamic Bearing Behaviour for Pre-layout of Cranktrain Dimensions

Calculating the bearing reliability and behavior is one of the primary tasks which have to be performed to define the main dimensions of the cranktrain of an internal combustion engine. Since the bearing results are essential for the pre-layout of the cranktrain, the conclusion on the bearing safety should be met as early as possible. Therefore detailed simulations like T-EHD or EHD analysis may not be applied to define the dimensions in such an early development phase. In the frame of this study a prediction methodology, based on a HD bearing approach, for bearing reliability of inline-4 crankshafts of passenger cars is proposed. In this way not only the design phase is shortened but also achieving the optimal solution is simplified. Moreover the requirement of a CAD model is eliminated for the preliminary design phase. The influencing parameters on the bearing behavior are first selected and divided into two groups: geometry and loading.
Technical Paper

A Compositional Representative Fuel Model for Biofuels - Application to Diesel Engine Modelling

The adequacy of the fuels with the engines has been often a major goal for the oil industry or car manufacturers. As the formulation of fuels becomes more complex, the use of numerical simulation provides an efficient way to understand and analyze the combustion process. These conclusions become increasingly true with the appearance of second generation biofuels. This paper describes a methodology for the representation of fuels and biofuels using a lumping procedure combined with adequate thermodynamic and thermophysical models. This procedure allows computing different thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for simulation purposes in internal combustion engines. The lumping approach involves reducing analytical data to a few pseudo-components characterized by their molecular weight, critical properties and acentric factor.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Temperature Management for Diesel Engines Assessment of Engine Concepts and Calibration Strategies with Regard to Fuel Penalty

Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the development of future diesel engines. These engines will comprise not only the mandatory diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and particulate filter DPF but a NOx aftertreatment system as well - at least for heavier vehicles. The oxidation catalysts as well as currently available NOx aftertreatment technologies, i.e., LNT and SCR, rely on sufficient exhaust gas temperatures to achieve a proper conversion. This is getting more and more critical due to the fact that today's and future measures for CO₂ reduction will result in further decrease of engine-out temperatures. Additionally this development has to be considered in the light of further engine electrification and hybridization scenarios.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Combustion Control - Enabler of Future Refined Engine Performance Regarding Power, Efficiency, Emissions & NVH under Stringent Governmental Regulations

Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of the carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the global automotive industry and especially for the engine manufacturers. From the multiplicity of possible approaches and strategies for clear compliance with these demands, engine internal measures offer a large and, eventually more important, very economical potential. For example, the achievements in fuel injection technology are a measure which in the last years has contributed significantly to a notable reduction of the emissions of the modern DI Diesel engines at favorable fuel efficiency. Besides the application of modern fuel injection technology, the linked combustion control (Closed Loop Combustion Control) opens possibilities for a further optimization of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Architecture of a Detailed Three Dimensional Piston Ring Model

Piston rings are faced with a broad range of demands like optimal sealing properties, wear properties and reliability. Even more challenging boundary conditions must be met when latest developments in the fields of direct injection as well as the application of bio fuels. This complex variety of piston ring design requirements leads to the need of a comprehensive simulation model in order to support the development in the early design phase prior to testing. The simulation model must be able to provide classical objectives like friction analysis, wear rate and blow-by. Furthermore, it must include an adequate oil consumption model. The objective of this work is to provide such a simulation model that is embedded in the commercial MBS software ‘FEV Virtual Engine’. The MBS model consists of a cranktrain assembly with a rigid piston that contains flexible piston rings.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Fuel Film Thickness Measurement for Direct Injection SI Engines Using Refractive Index Matching

The fuel film thickness resulting from fuel spray impingement on a flat transparent window was characterized in a high pressure high temperature cell for various thermodynamic conditions, injection pressures, injection durations, fuel types and injector technologies by Refractive Index Matching technique. The ambient conditions at injection timing were similar to that of a direct injection spark ignition engine at Top Dead Center, with the distance between the injector tip and the impinging surface set to 10 mm. The spray axis was set normal to the rough transparent window surface at ambient temperatures of 453 K, 573 K and 673 K, and ambient densities of 5.0 kg/m₃, 6.0 kg/m₃ and 6.5 kg/m₃. Injection pressures of 100 and 200 bar were investigated. Three injector technologies were studied: piezo-electric, multi-holes and swirl types. Two fuels, iso-octane and model gasoline, were tested.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging of Downsized Gasoline DI Engines with 2 and 3 Cylinders

Turbocharged DISI engines with four cylinders have established in the market and provide a performance comparable to larger six-cylinder engines in the smaller compartment of a four-cylinder engine. In the Japanese market, also turbo gasoline engines with 500 - 660 cm₃ displacement have a long tradition in Kei-Cars. However, those engines show a lower specific performance as would be required for propelling typical small or compact vehicles in Europe. Recently, two-cylinder turbo engines have come to market, which are found attractive with respect to sound, package, and also enable low vehicle fuel consumption in NEDC test. The paper presents a turbocharger layout study on 2- and 3-cylinder engines. It discusses the influence of cylinder displacement volume on the sizing of turbines and compressors, and how specific flow phenomena in the turbine can be captured in the simulation model.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fischer-Tropsch Incorporation on Engine Outputs and Performances of a Modern Diesel Engine with Standard and Optimized Settings

In a context of a fossil reserve depletion and reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, the search for new energy for transport is fundamental. Among those new energies, alternative fuels and especially synthetic fuel from Fischer-Tropsch process (so-called XtL, "X-to-Liquid" fuels) seem to have an interesting potential in terms of availability and GHG emission reduction, according to the feedstock used. Due to the special properties of such products, especially high cetane number, several strategies of incorporation can be envisaged: as a blend in specific basestocks in order to obtain a conventional fuel or a premium fuel or as a pure component. In order to assess these strategies; a standard diesel fuel (B0), a blend with 40%vol of Fischer-Tropsch and a neat Fischer-Tropsch have been tested on a modern downsized high pressure direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine. The used Fischer-Tropsch fuel is a commercial GtL - Gas to Liquid, with a cetane number higher than 80.
Technical Paper

IFP Energies Nouvelles Approach for Dual Fuel Diesel-Gasoline Engines

Compared to Spark Ignition (SI) engines, Compression Ignition (CI) engines are more efficient because of the higher compression ratios and leaner operation. However, thanks to stoichiometric air fuel ratio, SI engines allow efficient pollutants after treatment, particularly for NOx emissions. In this context, IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) has developed the concept of diesel-gasoline combustion in order to combine the advantages of both fuels and both combustion processes. Focusing on a passenger car application, experiments have been performed using a modified DI turbocharged small diesel engine (the combustion chamber has been redesigned and port fuel injectors have been added). In-Cylinder Fuel Blending (ICFB) using port-fuel-injection of gasoline and optimized direct injection of diesel was used to control combustion phasing and duration. This modified engine can still run on diesel alone.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Addition in RON 95 Gasoline on GDI Stratified Combustion

The aim of this work is to study the effect of ethanol/gasoline blends on stratified operation in a single-cylinder GDI engine and to build up a large database that will be used to improve engine simulation codes. The effects of three different fuel blends are compared: a reference RON 95 fuel without oxygenates, E20 with 20% in volume of ethanol added to the RON 95 fuel, and E85 corresponding to 85% of ethanol added to the RON 95 fuel. The engine was equipped with a centrally-mounted piezoelectric injector. A wide range of engine speed and load operating conditions were studied: from 1000 to 4000 rpm and from 1.5 to 9 bar IMEP. Injection strategies were optimized using up to three injections per working cycle. It was shown that multi-injection is necessary to improve stratified combustion stability and to limit particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Flow Simulation in an Internal Combustion Engine Using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

The numerical simulation of internal aerodynamic of automotive combustion chamber is characterised by complex displacements of moving elements (piston, intake/exhaust valves…) and by a strong variation of volume that cause some problems with classical numerical based mesh methods. With those methods (FEM, FVM) which use geometric polyhedral elements (hexaedron, tetrahedron, prismes…), it is necessary to change periodically the mesh to adapt the grid to the new geometry. This step of remeshing is very fastidious and costly in term of engineer time and may reduce the precision of calculation by numerical dissipation during the interpolation process of the variables from one mesh to another. Recently, the researcher community has renewed his interest for the development of a generation of numerical to circumvent the drawbacks of the classical methods.
Technical Paper

A New CFD Approach for Assessment of Swirl Flow Pattern in HSDI Diesel Engines

The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.