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Technical Paper

Measurement of the Viscosity of Thin Films of Lubricants on Solid Surfaces

This paper describes the development of a thin film rheometer able to measure the viscosity of lubricant films of the order of 200 μm thickness on flat, solid surfaces. The rheometer consists of a small cylinder mounted on a piezo bimorph which is divided electrically into two halves. When an AC voltage is applied to the one half of the piezo it causes the flat surface of the cylinder to oscillate in its own plane with an amplitude of a few microns. This motion produces an AC output from the other half of the piezo. The flat face of the cylinder is held parallel to an oily test surface and the latter is supported on a micrometer stage so that the gap between the two surfaces can be adjusted. As the gap is narrowed the oil film dampens the sinusoidal motion of the cylinder and the extent of this damping can be used to determine the viscosity of the oil film between the surfaces.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Between Engine Stop/Start and Cylinder Deactivation Technologies Under Southeast Asia Urban Driving Condition

Engine stop/start and cylinder deactivation are increasingly in use to improve fuel consumption of internal combustion engine in passenger cars. The stop/start technology switches off the engine to whenever the vehicle is at a stand-still, typically in a highly-congested area of an urban driving. The inherent issue with the implementation of stop/start technology in Southeast Asia, with tropical climate such as Malaysia, is the constant demand for the air-conditioning system. This inevitably reduces the duration of engine switch-off when the vehicle at stop and consequently nullifying the benefit of the stop/start system. On the other hand, cylinder deactivation technology improves the fuel consumption at certain conditions during low to medium vehicle speeds, when the engine is at part load operation only. This study evaluates the fuel economy benefit between the stop/start and cylinder deactivation technologies for the actual Kuala Lumpur urban driving conditions in Malaysia.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
Technical Paper

Engine Operational Benefits with Cylinder Deactivation in Malaysian Urban Driving Conditions

Cylinder deactivation has been utilized by vehicle manufacturers since the 80's to improve fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Cylinder deactivation is achieved by cutting off fuel supply and ignition in some of the engine cylinders, while their inlet and outlet valves are fully closed. The vehicle demand during cylinder deactivation is sustained by only the firing cylinders, hence increasing their indicated power. Conventionally, half the number of cylinders are shut at certain driving conditions, which normally at the lower demand regime. An optimal strategy will ensure cylinder deactivation contributes to the fuel saving without compromising the vehicle drivability. Cylinder deactivation has been documented to generally improve fuel consumption between 6 to 25 %, depending on the type-approval test drive cycle. However, type-approval test has been reported to differ from the “real-world” fuel consumption values.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of Diesel Engine Transient Pumping-loss and Control Methodology for Transient Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)

This study measures, during various transients of speed and load, in-cylinder-, intake-/exhaust- (manifold) pressures and engine torque. The tests were conducted on a typical high power-density, passenger car powertrain (common-rail diesel engine, of in-line 4-cylinder configuration equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger). The objective was to quantify the deterioration (relative to a steady-steady condition) in transient Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) that may occur during lagged-boost closed-loop control and thus propose an engine control strategy that minimises the transient SFC deterioration. The results, from transient characterisation and the analysis method applied in this study, indicate that transient SFC can deteriorate up to 30% (function of load transient) and is primarily caused by excessive engine pumping-loss.
Technical Paper

Off-Road Diesel Engine Transient Response Improvement by Electrically Assisted Turbocharging

Turbocharged diesel engines are widely used in off-road applications including construction and mining machinery, electric power generation systems, locomotives, marine, petroleum, industrial and agricultural equipment. Such applications contribute significantly to both local air pollution and CO₂ emissions and are subject to increasingly stringent legislation. To improve fuel economy while meeting emissions limits, manufacturers are exploring engine downsizing by increasing engine boost levels. This allows an increase in IMEP without significantly increasing mechanical losses, which results in a higher overall efficiency. However, this can lead to poorer transient engine response primarily due to turbo-lag, which is a major penalty for engines subjected to fast varying loads. To recover transient response, the turbocharger can be electrically assisted by means of a high speed motor/generator.
Technical Paper

Efforts to Establish Malaysian Urban Drive-Cycle for Fuel Economy Analysis

Emissions from motor vehicles are known to be the major contributor of air pollution. Pollutants that are commonly concerned and regulated for petrol engines are Hydrocarbons, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter. One of the most important factor that vary these pollutants is the engine operating condition such as cold start, low engine loads and high engine loads which are found during actual driving. In actual driving conditions, particularly in urban areas, vehicles regularly travel at idle, low or medium speeds which signify the engine part load operations. Thus urban driving carries a crucial weight on the overall vehicle fuel economy. Understanding the implications of urban driving conditions on fuel economy will allow for strategic application of key technologies such as cylinder deactivation in the efforts towards better efficiency.
Technical Paper

Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis of Uncertainties in Turbocharger Compressor Gas Stand Measurements Using Monte Carlo Simulation

Turbocharger hot gas stand testing is routinely carried out in the industry both to provide an experimental assessment of different designs, and to confirm to automotive OEM customers that the product meets the afore-promised levels of performance and durability. The resulting characteristics, or maps, have a hugely significant role in the correct matching of turbocharger options for engine applications. However, since these are generated from experimentally-determined values of pressure, temperature and mass flow, with each sensed variable having an inherent finite error, the uncertainty in these measured components is variously propagated through to the flow and efficiency characteristics - and the significance of this is not well recognized.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Matching Method for Reducing Residual Concentration in a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

In a turbocharged engine, preserving the maximum amount of exhaust pulse energy for turbine operation will result in improved low end torque and engine transient response. However, the exhaust flow entering the turbine is highly unsteady, and the presence of the turbine as a restriction in the exhaust flow results in a higher pressure at the cylinder exhaust ports and consequently poor scavenging. This leads to an increase in the amount of residual gas in the combustion chamber, compared to the naturally-aspirated equivalent, thereby increasing the tendency for engine knock. If the level of residual gas can be reduced and controlled, it should enable the engine to operate at a higher compression ratio, improving its thermal efficiency. This paper presents a method of turbocharger matching for reducing residual gas content in a turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Experimental Efficiency Characterization of an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger

Electrically assisted turbochargers consist of standard turbochargers modified to accommodate an electric motor/generator within the bearing housing. Those devices improve engine transient response and low end torque by increasing the power delivered to the compressor. This allows a larger degree of engine down-sizing and down-speeding as well as a more efficient turbocharger to engine match, which translates in lower fuel consumption. In addition, the electric machine can be operated in generating mode during steady state engine running conditions to extract a larger fraction of the exhaust energy. Electric turbocharger assistance is therefore a key technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper an electrically assisted turbocharger, designed to be applied to non-road medium duty diesel engines, is tested to obtain the turbine and electrical machine efficiency characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Flow and Loading Coefficient-Based Compressor Map Interpolation Technique for Improved Accuracy of Turbocharged Engine Simulations

Internal combustion engines are routinely developed using 1D engine simulation tools. A well-known limitation is the accuracy of the turbocharger compressor and turbine sub-models, which rely on hot gas bench-measured maps to characterize performance. Such discrete map data is inherently too sparse to be used directly in simulation, and so a preprocessing algorithm interpolates and extrapolates the data to generate a wider, more densely populated map. Methods used for compressor map interpolation vary. They may be mathematical or physical in nature, but there is no unified approach, except that they typically operate on input map data in SAE format. For decades it has been common practice for turbocharger suppliers to share performance data with engine OEMs in this form. This paper describes a compressor map interpolation technique based on the nondimensional compressor flow and loading coefficients, instead of SAE-format data.
Technical Paper

Improving Energy Extraction from Pulsating Exhaust Flow by Active Operation of a Turbocharger Turbine

A mixed flow turbine with pivoting nozzle vanes was designed and tested to actively adapt to the pulsating exhaust flow. The turbine was tested at equivalent speed of 48000 rpm with inlet flow pulsation of 40Hz and 60Hz, which corresponds to a 4-stroke diesel engine speed of 1600 rpm and 2400 rpm respectively. The nozzle vane operating schedules for each pulse period are evaluated experimentally in two general modes; natural opening and closing of the vanes due to the pulsating flow and the forced sinusoidal oscillation of the vanes to match the incoming pulsating flow. The turbine energy extraction as well as efficiency is compared for the two modes to formulate its effectiveness.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Journal Article

A New De-throttling Concept in a Twin-Charged Gasoline Engine System

Throttling loss of downsized gasoline engines is significantly smaller than that of naturally aspirated counterparts. However, even the extremely downsized gasoline engine can still suffer a relatively large throttling loss when operating under part load conditions. Various de-throttling concepts have been proposed recently, such as using a FGT or VGT turbine on the intake as a de-throttling mechanism or applying valve throttling to control the charge airflow. Although they all can adjust the mass air flow without a throttle in regular use, an extra component or complicated control strategies have to be adopted. This paper will, for the first time, propose a de-throttling concept in a twin-charged gasoline engine with minimum modification of the existing system. The research engine model which this paper is based on is a 60% downsized 2.0L four cylinder gasoline demonstrator engine with both a supercharger and turbocharger on the intake.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Turbo Matching: Radial Turbine Design Optimization through 1D Engine Simulations with Meanline Model in-the-Loop

Turbocharging has become the favored approach for downsizing internal combustion engines to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, without sacrificing performance. Matching a turbocharger to an engine requires a balance of various design variables in order to meet the desired performance. Once an initial selection of potential compressor and turbine options is made, corresponding performance maps are evaluated in 1D engine cycle simulations to down-select the best combination. This is the conventional matching procedure used in industry and is ‘passive’ since it relies on measured maps, thus only existing designs may be evaluated. In other words, turbine characteristics cannot be changed during matching so as to explore the effect of design adjustments. Instead, this paper presents an ‘adaptive’ matching methodology for the turbocharger turbine.
Technical Paper

Steady-State, Transient and WLTC Drive-Cycle Experimental Performance Comparison between Single-Scroll and Twin-Scroll Turbocharger Turbine

The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbine in automotive powertrain has been known for providing better transient performance over conventional single-scroll turbine. This has been accredited to the preservation of exhaust flow energy in the twin-scroll volute. In the current study, the performance comparison between a single and twin-scroll turbine has been made experimentally on a 1.5L passenger car gasoline engine. The uniqueness of the current study is that nearly identical engine hardware has been used for both the single and twin-scroll turbine volutes. This includes the intake and exhaust manifold geometry, turbocharger compressor, turbine rotor and volute scroll A/R variation trend over circumferential location. On top of that, the steady-state engine performance with both the volutes, has also been tuned to have matching brake torque.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Experimental and Meanline Study of an Asymmetric Twin-Scroll Turbine at Full and Unequal and Partial Admission Conditions

The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbines has gained popularity in recent years. The main reason is its capability of isolating and preserving pulsating exhaust flow from engine cylinders of adjacent firing order, hence enabling more efficient pulse turbocharging. Asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines have been used to realize high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) using only one scroll while designing the other scroll for optimal scavenging. This research is based on a production asymmetrical turbocharger turbine designed for a heavy duty truck engine of Daimler AG. Even though there are number of studies on symmetrical twin entry scroll performance, a comprehensive modeling tool for asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines is yet to be found. This is particularly true for a meanline model, which is often used during the turbine preliminary design stage.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Influence of Different Asperity Contact Models on the Elastohydrodynamic Analysis of a Conrod Small-End/Piston Pin Coupling

Bearings represent one of the main causes of friction losses in internal combustion engines, and their lubrication performance has a crucial influence on the operating condition of the engine. In particular, the conrod small-end bearing is one of the most critical engine parts from a tribological point of view since limited contact surfaces have to support high inertial and combustion forces. In this contribution an analysis is performed of the tribological behavior of the lubricated contact between the piston pin and the conrod small-end of a high performance motorbike engine. A mass-conserving algorithm is employed to solve the Reynolds equation based on a complementarity formulation of the cavitation problem. The analysis of the asperity contact problem is addressed in detail. A comparison between two different approaches is presented, the former based on the standard Greenwood/Tripp theory and the latter based on a complementarity formulation of the asperity contact problem.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Tumble Flow Characteristics and Implications for Fuel/Air Mixing in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

The present investigation is centered around two motored research gasoline direct-injection engines, equipped with a pressure-swirl atomizer closely spaced with the centrally located spark plug. At first a Laser Doppler Velocimetry system was employed to characterize the in-cylinder airflow in one of the engines. A comparison was made to velocity profiles in a port-fuel injected engine of similar design characteristics, which revealed a different decay mechanism of the large-scale flow structure and associated higher turbulence levels in the pentroof of the cylinder. Second, images of the hollow cone fuel spray generated by the direct injector were recorded for three different injection timings in order to discuss the temporal and spatial development of the liquid phase in the engine cylinder in terms of its interaction with the gas motion.