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Technical Paper

Studies on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a CI Engine Operating on Diesel and Diesel Biodiesel Blends at Different Injection Pressures and Injection Timings

The effect of variation in injection pressure and Injection timing on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a direct injection, naturally aspirated Diesel engine operating on Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends were studied. A three-way factorial design consisting of four levels of injection pressure (150,210, 265,320 bar), four levels of injection timing (19° btdc, 21.5° btdc, 26° btdc, and 30.5° btdc) and five different fuel types (D100, B10, B20, B40, and B60) were employed in this test. The experimental analysis shows that when operating with Linseed Oil Methyl Ester-Diesel blends, we could increase the injection pressure by about 25% over the normal value of 20MPa. The engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the engine operating on the ester fuels at advanced injection timing were better than when operating at increased injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Mahua based Biodiesel as Supplementary Diesel Fuel

Biodiesel developed from non- edible seeds grown in the wasteland in India can be very effectively utilized in the existing diesel engines used for various applications. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. These properties were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and Indian standards. The performance of mahua biodiesel (MOME) and its blend with diesel in a Kirloskar DAF8 engine has been observed. The addition of MOME to diesel fuel has significantly reduced CO, UBHC and smoke emissions but increases the NOx emission slightly. The reductions in exhaust emissions could help in controlling air pollution. The results show that no significant power reduction in the engine operation when operated with blends of MOME and diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Variation between Quasi-static and Dynamic Load Deformation Properties of Bovine Medial Collateral Ligaments

In a significant number of automobile crashes involving pedestrians, the ligaments which control the stability of the knee, often get severely loaded. In lateral impact on knee during automotive crashes, varus-valgus motion results in failure of ligament by avulsion or by rupture in the middle region It is known that properties vary in different regions of the ligament. Experimental measurement of tensile load-elongation behavior of the middle region of bovine medial collateral ligament at strain rates of 10−4 /s to 160/s are reported here. The results show that the stress-strain behavior is linear under quasi-static loading whereas it is nonlinear and strain rate sensitive in dynamic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Flow and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels

Fuel atomization and air-fuel mixing processes play a dominant role on engine performance and emission characteristics in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Understanding of microscopic spray characteristics is essential to predict combustion phenomena. The present work investigated near nozzle flow and atomization characteristics of biodiesel fuels in a constant volume chamber. Waste cooking oil, Jatropha, and Karanja biodiesels were applied and the results were compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. The tested fuels were injected by a solenoid injector with a common-rail injection system. A high-speed camera with a long distance microscopic lens was utilized to capture the near nozzle flow. Meanwhile, Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer to compare atomization characteristics.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Use of Water-Butanol Blends in a Turbocharged Common Rail Dual Fuel Engine for Enhanced Performance and Reduce Smoke Levels

Experiments were conducted on a turbocharged three cylinder automotive common rail diesel engine with port injection of butanol. This dual fuel engine was run with neat butanol and blends of water and butanol (up to 20% water by mass). Experiments were performed at a constant speed of 1800 rpm and a brake mean effective pressure of 11.8 bar (full load) at varying butanol to diesel energy share values while diesel was either injected as a single pulse or as twin pulses (Main plus Post). Open engine controllers were used for varying the injection parameters of diesel and butanol. Water butanol blends improved the brake thermal efficiency by a small extent because of better combustion phasing as compared to butanol without water. When the butanol to diesel energy share was high, auto-ignition of butanol occurred before the injection of diesel. This lowered the ignition delay of diesel and hence elevated the smoke level.
Technical Paper

A Composition Based Approach for Predicting Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuelled Engine

Biodiesel is a renewable, carbon neutral alternative fuel to diesel for compression ignition engine applications. Biodiesel could be produced from a large variety of feedstocks including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their composition, fuel properties and thereby, engine characteristics. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations on engine characteristics are captured using a multi-linear regression model incorporated with two new biodiesel composition based parameters, viz. straight chain saturation factor (SCSF) and modified degree of unsaturation (DUm). For this purpose, biodiesel produced from seven vegetable oils having significantly different compositions are tested in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads and injection timings. The regression model is formulated using 35 measured data points and is validated with 15 other data points which are not used for formulation.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Microscopic Spray Characteristics of a GDI Injector Using Phase Doppler Interferometry

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is known for its higher power and higher thermal efficiency. Researchers are steadily determining and resolving the problems of fuel injection in a GDI engine. In order to meet the stringent emission norms such as PM and NOx emitted by a GDI engine, it is necessary to investigate the microscopic spray characteristics and fuel-air mixing process. This paper aims to share the fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms at the wide range of fuel injection pressures. The investigations were carried out at five different fuel injection pressures viz: 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 bar, for 24 mg fuel per injection. A high speed CCD camera was used to determine the macroscopic spray characteristics of the GDI injector. It was found that spray penetration length increased with increasing fuel injection pressure. Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) was used to determine the droplet size and droplet velocity for different test fuels.
Technical Paper

Reducing NO in a Biodiesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine - An Experimental Study

The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Accident Analysis of a Two-Lane National Highway in India

Road accidents and persons killed in India have been reported to the tune of 4,90,383 and 1,38,258 respectively during 2012. On National Highways (NHs), major share of accidents (about 29%) and number of persons killed (35.3%) are observed out of total accidents. National Highways in India constitute about 2% of total road network (92,851 km) in India, but carries about 40% of traffic. 46% (42,829 km) of NHs in India comprises of two-lane and about 19% (17239 km) of NHs are single or intermediate-lane. Road accidents being multi-disciplinary in nature involves attention of multiple departments such as Highways Authority, Police, Motor Vehicles, Automobile Manufacturers, NGOs, etc. Owing to spurt in growth of motor vehicle population in India, road accidents are not reduced significantly despite improvement in NHs (widening of carriageway and riding quality).
Technical Paper

Rollover Propensity of Three-Wheel Scooter Taxis

An analysis of the rollover propensity of a make of a TSR used extensively in S.E. Asia roads is presented using a 6-degree of freedom simulation. Verification of the model was against measured accelerations measured over speed breakers. Rollover stability was analyzed through simulating Increasing Steer, NHTSA J Turn, and Road Edge Recovery maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Investigation of NO Formation Mechanism for Biodiesel and Its Blend with Methanol

Biodiesel makes an attractive option to replace fossil diesel owing to its applicability in diesel engines without major modifications. An increase in NO emissions with biodiesel compared to diesel is a major concern for its wider use. Blending alcohols, such as methanol, with biodiesel is a potential remedy to mitigate NO formation, as suggested by experiments. However, computational investigations studying the effect of biodiesel-methanol blends on NO formation are scarce. A combined experimental and computational approach is adopted here to investigate the NO formation mechanism with neat biodiesel and biodiesel-methanol blend fueled light duty diesel engine. Firstly, a new compact kinetic model is utilized consisting of oxidation reactions for methyl butanoate and n-dodecane as a surrogate for biodiesel. A surrogate is defined to represent biodiesel based on a combined property and functional group based approach.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Design and Performance of Two Types of Hot Surface Ignition Engines

Use of methanol and ethanol in conventional diesel engines is associated with problems on account of the high self ignition temperature of these fuels. The Hot Surface Ignition (HSI) method wherein a part of the injected fuel is made to touch an electrically heated hot surface for ignition, is an effective way of utilizing these fuels in conventional diesel engines. In the present work two types of HSI engines, one using a large ceramic base and the other using a conventional glowplug were developed. These engines were tested with methanol, M.spirit (about 90 % methanol and 10 % ethanol) and diesel. The results of performance, fuel economy emissions and combustion parameters including heat release rates for these fuels with both the types of HSI engines are presented. Diesel engines are commonly used as primemovers in the mass transportation and agricultural sectors because of their high brake thermal efficiency and reliability.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Combustion of Ethanol in a Low Heat Rejection Engine Using Different Methods

As alternate fuels, ethyl and methyl alcohols stand out because of the feasibility of producing them in bulk from plentifully available raw materials. In the present work, ethanol is used as the only fuel, in the standard and Low Heat Rejection(LHR) diesel engines by adopting three different methods. In the first method, ethanol as the sole fuel was used in the LHR engine with normal metal glowplug and in the second method spark plug assistance was used to initiate combustion. In the third method, ethanol was used as the sole fuel in a LHR engine and a ceramic glow plug was used to initiate combustion. The engine was tested for performance and emissions for the above three methods of 100% ethanol operation in both the standard and LHR diesel engine and the results are compared. The spark plug assisted ethanol operation in the LHR engine gave the highest brake thermal efficiency and the lowest emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Head/Neck Impact Responses for Helmeted and Unhelmeted Motorcyclists

The purpose of this study was to assess, by use of computer simulations, the effectiveness of motorcycle helmets in reducing head and neck injuries in motorcyclist impacts. The computer model used was the MVMA Two-Dimensional Crash Victim Simulator. The study investigated a wide variety of impact conditions in order to establish a broad overall view of the effectiveness of helmets. It was found that helmet use invariably reduces dynamic responses which have a role in producing head injury and, in addition, almost always reduces the severity of neck response as well. For no configuration or condition does the helmet greatly increase the likelihood of neck injury. Thus, these simulations of a wide spectrum of motorcyclist impacts provide further evidence that helmet use significantly reduces the likelihood and severity of both head and neck injuries. This study was supported by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on Three Different Methods of Using 100% Methanol in a Low Heat Rejection Engine

As alternate fuels, ethyl and methyl alcohols stand out because of the feasibility of producing them in bulk from plentifully available raw materials. In the present work, methanol is used as the only fuel, in a Low Heat Rejection(LHR) engine by adapting three different methods. In the first method, methanol as the sole fuel was used in the LHR engine with a ceramic glowplug and in the second spark plug assistance was used to initiate combustion of the injected methanol. In the third method, methanol was used as the sole fuel in a LHR engine by a new method in which part of the methanol fuel was inducted through a heated inlet manifold using a carburetor and another part of methanol (with 1% castor oil for lubrication) was injected through the normal injector. With inducted methanol air charge temperature at 70 C and above the engine operated smoothly.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High-Octane Fuel Blends on the Performance of a Two-Stroke SI Engine with Knock-Limited-Compression Ratio

The use of alcohol-gasoline blends enables the favorable features of alcohols to be utilized in spark ignition (SI) engines while avoiding the shortcomings of their application as straight fuels. Eucalyptus and orange oils possess high octane values and are also good potential alternative fuels for SI engines. The high octane value of these fuels can enhance the octane value of the fuel when it is blended with low-octane gasoline. In the present work, 20 percent by volume of orange oil, eucalyptus oil, methanol and ethanol were blended separately with gasoline, and the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were evaluated at two different compression ratios. The phase separation problems arising from the alcohol-gasoline blends were minimized by adding eucalyptus oil as a co-solvent. Test results indicate that the compression ratio can be raised from 7.4 to 9 without any detrimental effect, due to the higher octane rating of the fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Spark-Assisted Alcohol Operation in a Low Heat Rejection Engine

This work demonstrates how the performance of a standard spark-assisted alcohol engine can be improved by using the Low Heat Rejection (LHR ) concept. The improved combustion is attained by better using the greater heat energy in the combustion chamber of a LHR engine - in this case for the faster vaporisation and better mixing of the alcohol fuels. For this program the LHR engine used has a single cylinder diesel and alcohols sued as sole fuels were ethanol and methanol. For spark assistance an extended electrode spark plug was used and location and projection were optimised for best results. These configurations were evaluated for performance and emissions with and without LHR implementation. The results show that the engine with LHR, ethanol fuel and spark assistance has the highest brake thermal efficiency with the lowest emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance of Thin-Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chamber with Gasoline and Methanol as Fuels in a Two-Stroke SI Engine

The performance of a conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engine can be improved by providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber. This will help to improve the vaporization characteristics in particular at part load and medium loads with gasoline fuel and high-latent-heat fuels such as methanol. In the present investigation, the combustion chamber surface was coated with a 0.5-mm thickness of partially stabilized zirconia, and experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, two-stroke SI engine with gasoline and methanol as fuels. Test results indicate that with gasoline as a fuel, the thin ceramic-coated combustion chamber improves the part load to medium load operation considerably, but it affects the performance at higher speeds and at higher loads to the extent of knock and loss of brake power by about 18%. However, with methanol as a fuel, the performance is better under most of the operating range and free from knock.
Technical Paper

Unregulated and Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.