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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Use of Water Diesel Emulsion with Oxygen Enriched Air in a DI Diesel Engine

A single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was run on water diesel emulsion at a constant speed of 1500 rpm under variable load conditions. Water to diesel ratio of 0.4 on the mass basis was used. Tests indicated a considerable reduction in smoke and NO levels. This was accompanied by an increase in brake thermal efficiency at high outputs. HC & CO levels, ignition delay and rate of pressure rise went up. The heat release rate in the premixed burn period was higher. When the oxygen concentration in the intake air was enhanced in steps up to 25% along with the use of water diesel emulsion, the brake thermal efficiency was improved and there was a further reduction in the smoke level. HC and CO levels also dropped. NO emission went up due to increased temperature and oxygen availability. An oxygen concentration of 24% by volume was optimal as the NO levels were near about base diesel values.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Design and Performance of Two Types of Hot Surface Ignition Engines

Use of methanol and ethanol in conventional diesel engines is associated with problems on account of the high self ignition temperature of these fuels. The Hot Surface Ignition (HSI) method wherein a part of the injected fuel is made to touch an electrically heated hot surface for ignition, is an effective way of utilizing these fuels in conventional diesel engines. In the present work two types of HSI engines, one using a large ceramic base and the other using a conventional glowplug were developed. These engines were tested with methanol, M.spirit (about 90 % methanol and 10 % ethanol) and diesel. The results of performance, fuel economy emissions and combustion parameters including heat release rates for these fuels with both the types of HSI engines are presented. Diesel engines are commonly used as primemovers in the mass transportation and agricultural sectors because of their high brake thermal efficiency and reliability.
Technical Paper

A Holistic Approach to Develop a Common Rail Single Cylinder Diesel Engine for Bharat Stage VI Emission Legislation

The upcoming Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation has put enormous pressure on the future of small diesel engines which are widely used in the Indian market. The present work investigates the emission reduction potential of a common rail direct injection single cylinder diesel engine by adapting a holistic approach of lowering the compression ratio, intake air boosting and engine down-speeding. Experimental investigations are conducted across the entire operating map of a mass production, light duty diesel engine to examine the benefits of the proposed approach and the results are quantified for the modified Indian drive cycle (MIDC). The compression ratio reduction from 18:1 to 14:1 could reduce the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions by 40% and 75% respectively. However, a significant penalty in the fuel economy, unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are observed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Multiple injection strategies on combustion stability, performance and emissions in a Methanol-Diesel Dual fuel Non-Road engine

In this work methanol was port injected while diesel was injected using a common rail system in a single cylinder non road CI engine. Experiments were conducted with single (SPI) and double (DPI - pilot and main) injection of the directly injected diesel at 75% load and a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of methanol to diesel energy share (MDES) and injection scheduling on combustion stability, engine efficiency and emissions were evaluated. Initially in the SPI mode the methanol to diesel Energy Share (MDES) was varied while the injection timing of diesel was always fixed for best efficiency. Increase in MDES resulted in reduction in NOx and smoke because of the high latent heat of vaporization of methanol and the oxygen available. Enhanced premixed combustion led to a raise in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Combustion stability i.e. coefficient of variation of IMEP and peak pressure was deteriorated which limited the MDES to 50%.