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High Temperature Power Device and Packaging - The Technology Leap to Achieve Cost, Power Density and Reliability Target

2011-11-07
The three major challenges in the power electronics in hybrid and electric vehicles are: System cost, power density and reliability. High temperature power device and packaging technologies increases the power density and reliability while reducing system cost. Advanced Silicon devices with synthesized high-temperature packaging technologies can achieve junction temperature as high as 200C (compared to the present limitation of 150C) eliminating the need for a low-temperature radiator and therefore these devices reduces the system cost. The silicon area needed for a power inverter with high junction temperature capability can be reduced by more than 50 - 75% thereby significantly reducing the packaging space and power device and package cost. Smaller packaging space is highly desired since multiple vehicle platforms can share the same design and therefore reducing the cost further due to economies of scale.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Next Generation Automotive Benchmarks

2007-04-16
2007-01-0512
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers whose performance can no longer be measured in MIPS. Instead, their effectiveness is based on a coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, what the designer needs are benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment. This presentation will explore the role of new benchmarks in the development of complex automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Integrated Mechatronic Design and Simulation of a Door Soft Close Automatic with Behavioral Models of Smart Power ICs

2002-03-04
2002-01-0564
Based on the example of a door soft close automatic the potential of integrated system simulation in the automotive systems development is demonstrated. The modeling approach is covering several physical domains like mechanics, electromagnetics and semiconductor physics. With adequate simplifying methods a time efficient model is generated, which allows system optimization in the concept phase. Time consuming redesigns can thus be minimized.
Technical Paper

The BRAKE Project - Centralized Versus Distributed Redundancy for Brake-by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0266
This paper presents the objectives and preliminary results of the BRAKE project - a joint effort of Delphi Automotive Systems, Infineon Technologies, Volvo Car Corporation and WindRiver. The objective of this project is to use microelectronics technologies to design a distributed Brake-by-Wire system including: A distributed fault tolerant system for enhanced safety An extension of the OSEK based operating system for a distributed time triggered architecture An open interface between vehicle control, and brake system control The results comprise the requirements, interface specification (see [1]), a full simulation model, a hardware-in-the-loop bench, and a demonstration vehicle. The application has been developed using advanced automatic code generation for Infineon's TriCore based automotive microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Mechatronic Solution for Motor Management

2002-03-04
2002-01-0473
A mechatronic approach to implementing a BLDC motor drive control system is described. The partitioning method used allows the motor power to be scaled from around 100 watts to 1 kilowatt. The chosen approach maps the required electronic functionality to different existing front-end technologies. By drawing on vast experience with back-end technologies, especially chip-on-chip assembly, it is possible to implement a system in a one-package solution. The advantages of each technology are used to achieve a cost-effective, space-saving solution.
Technical Paper

Smart IGBT for Advanced Ignition Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-1220
Increasing fuel costs and emission regulations force the car manufacturers to develop powerful but efficient engines. The 3-liter car (3-liter/100 km fuel consumption → 80 miles/gallon) is one of the slogans. To fulfill these requirements a fully electronic controlled Engine Management is necessary. Carburetor systems are replaced by fuel injection systems. Direct injection for Diesel as well as for gasoline engines is the clear trend for the future. The mechanical throttle systems, used for a long time will not fit to the requirements of direct injection. A DC motor for electronic throttle control in conjunction with λ regulation and exhaust gas recirculation are the key elements for low emission cars. Also the automotive ignition system is in a process of change today.
Technical Paper

Effective System Development Partitioning

2001-03-05
2001-01-1221
In terms of modern technical systems, the automotive sector is characterized by escalating complexity and functionality requirements. The development of embedded control systems has to meet highest demands regarding process-, time- and cost-optimization. Hence, the efficiency of software development becomes a crucial competitive advantage. Systems design engineers need effective tools and methods to achieve exemplary speed and productivity within the development phase. To obtain such tools and methods, semiconductor manufacturers and tool manufacturers must work closely together. Within the joint efforts of ETAS and Infineon, the software tool suite ASCET-SD was enhanced to generate efficient C code for Infineon's TriCore architecture mapped on ETAS's real-time operating system ERCOSEK. The processor interface to application & calibration tools was realized using the ETK probe based on a JTAG/Nexus link at very high bandwidth.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Hall Effect-Based Magnetosensors in Modern Vehicle Stability Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C058
After comparing magnetosensor technologies for automotive use the system aspects of wheelspeed sensors for vehicle stability systems are discussed. A new generation of intelligent differential Hall Effect-based sensors is described focussing on technology, operating principle and circuitry of the Hall IC. The final realization of the wheel speed sensor is presented concluding with a summary of the main advantages of this concept.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Side Airbag Chip Set with Improved Signal Integrity

2007-04-16
2007-01-0396
In the case of a side impact the decision to deploy an airbag has to be taken much faster as it would be required for a front impact. Furthermore, there is a significant spread of the measurable acceleration depending on which pillars of the cars side are hit. Measuring the pressure inside the door as a direct result of an impact, the deformation of the door becomes observable. Based on pressure measurements side impacts can be detected much faster and more reliable. Therefore side airbag pressure sensors are established as add-on or replacement for side airbag acceleration sensors. This paper will present a Side Airbag Chip Set comprising of a side airbag pressure sensor and a satellite receiver. The system architecture and the partitioning between a single chip solution for the side airbag pressure sensor module plus the compatible satellite receiver will be described.
Technical Paper

Performance and Technology Comparison of GMR Versus Commonly used Angle Sensor Principles for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0397
Position detection and control is necessary in modern automotive applications because of remotely controlled actuators, such as window lifters or windshield. In recent years, the demand for reliable actuators for safety critical systems, such as power steering systems, has also increased significantly. This creates a growing demand for fast, accurate and efficient servo motor systems that are increasingly smarter, smaller and cheaper. One interesting option is to use Giant Magneto Resistive (GMR) angle sensors to replace the resolvers, Hall, inductive and Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect (AMR) Sensors commonly used today for shaft-angle measurements. In principle, there are functional differences among various angle measurement technologies; thus, the effect of switching between them needs to be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Power Electronics in HEV Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0277
Today the majority of power electronics is developed based on the requirements set by the main fields of application e.g. power generation, power supply, industrial drive and traction. With introduction to automotive applications new requirements have to be taken into account. This paper discusses how interconnection technologies for power semiconductors can be improved to meet the demand for higher temperature capability in HEV applications.
Technical Paper

Giant Magneto Resistors - Sensor Technology and Automotive Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0462
The paper will give an introduction to the principle of the giant magneto resistive - GMR - effect and the silicon system integration of GMR sensors. The two main applications of a GMR as a magnetic field strength sensor and as an angular field direction sensor will be discussed under consideration of automotive requirements. The typical applications of a magnetic field strength GMR sensor in incremental position and speed sensing and those of GMR angular field sensors in position sensing will be summarized. Finally advantages of GMR in those applications will be discussed and conclusions on the use of GMR in automotive sensing will be drawn.
Technical Paper

Microsecond Bus (μSB): The New Open-Market Peripheral Serial Communication Standard

2005-04-11
2005-01-0057
For the past approximately 20 years, the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) has been the established standard for serial communication between a host or central microprocessor and peripheral devices. This standard has been used extensively in control modules covering the entire spectrum of automotive applications, as well as non-automotive applications. As the complexity of engine control modules grows, with the number of vehicle actuators being controlled and monitored increasing, the number of loads the central microprocessor has to manage is growing accordingly. These loads are typically controlled using discrete and pulse-width modulated (PWM) outputs from the microcontroller when real-time operation is essential or via SPI when real-time response is not critical. The increase of already high pin-count on microcontrollers, the associated routing effort and demand for connected power stages is a concern of cost and reliability for future ECU designs.
Technical Paper

Sensor Signal Delivery

2005-04-11
2005-01-0043
The signal delivery and quality of sensor data is of growing importance for modern automotive control applications. Sensors tend to be calibrated subsystems that are designed to stay in a defined tolerance and thus can easily be modeled. Compared to this deterministic behavior the transmission channel is time variant due to EMC and aging of contacts for example. The use of analog signaling, which is the actual state of realization in many cases, is sensitive to the time variant effects mentioned before. This time variance is hard to consider for the control system development. In this paper we will analyze the role of the sensor in the signal supply chain and discuss approaches for digital sensor-ECU communication and their potential to establish a link, which allows neglecting low level effects of the channel.
Technical Paper

Lithium-ion Battery Management Integrating Active Load Balancing

2008-04-14
2008-01-1335
Increasingly stringent requirements to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions are pushing the automotive industry toward more innovative solutions. To fulfill the demand, OEMs are developing hybrid systems with powerful electronics. The key technology is in all cases the battery. It is the most critical and expensive element of hybrid systems. The battery requires special care, as it must supply up to 400 Volts (V) and have a capacity of up to several kilowatt-hours (kWh). This paper will review the main functions of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery management system, including power on/off, charging/discharging, and computation of the state of charge and state of health. In order to increase the battery lifespan, new functions such as active load balancing must be implemented.
Technical Paper

MultiCore Benefits & Challenges for Automotive Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0989
This paper will give an overview of multicore in automotive applications, covering the trends, benefits, challenges, and implementation scenarios. The automotive silicon industry has been building multicore and multiprocessor systems for a long time. The reasons for this choice have been: increased performance, safety redundancy, increased I/O & peripheral, access to multiple architectures (performance type e.g. DSP) and technologies. In the past, multiprocessors have been mainly considered as multi-die, multi-package with simple interconnection such as serial or parallel busses with possible shared memories. The new challenge is to implement a multicore, micro-processor that combines two or more independent processors into a single package, often a single integrated circuit (IC). The multicores allow a computing device to exhibit some form of thread-level parallelism (TLP).
Technical Paper

In-vehicle Network Verification from Application to Physical Layer

2004-03-08
2004-01-0208
The verification of an in-vehicle network often requires to look at more than one level of abstraction at a time. At the moment, this is not addressed by existing methods, which are dedicated either to physical or application layer, but not both. This paper fills this gap by introducing a methodology to insert the protocol related software execution as well as the motor behavior into the physical layer mixed-signal (i.e. analog/digital) simulation. Electronics and mechanics are covered by the hardware description language VHDL-AMS, while the software is given in C.
Technical Paper

Driving Small Motors at 42V PowerNet

2001-03-05
2001-01-0726
The following article discusses various proposed solutions, for driving small motors from the existent 12V or 24V supply voltage system at the 42V PowerNet by using dc-dc converters or pulse width modulation (PWM) for voltage- and power- matching with respect to the EMI behaviour.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic and Control Systems for Automotive Power Electronics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0075
The recent improvements in automotive electronics have had a tremendous impact on safety, comfort and emissions. But the continuous increase of the volume of electronic equipment in cars (representing more than 25% of purchasing volume) as well as the increasing system complexity represent a new challenge to quality, post-sales customer support and maintenance. Identifying a fault in a complex network of ECUs, where the different functions are getting more and more intricate, is not an easy task. It can be shown that with the levels of reliability common in 1980, an upper-range automobile of today could never function fault-free. On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD) concepts are emerging to assist the maintenance personnel in localizing the source of a problem with high accuracy, reducing the vehicle repair time, repair costs and costs of warranty claims.
Technical Paper

Safety Element out of Context - A Practical Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0033
ISO 26262 is the actual standard for Functional Safety of automotive E/E (Electric/Electronic) systems. One of the challenges in the application of the standard is the distribution of safety related activities among the participants in the supply chain. In this paper, the concept of a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) development will be analyzed showing its current problematic aspects and difficulties in implementing such an approach in a concrete typical automotive development flow with different participants (e.g. from OEM, tier 1 to semiconductor supplier) in the supply chain. The discussed aspects focus on the functional safety requirements of generic hardware and software development across the supply chain where the final integration of the developed element is not known at design time and therefore an assumption based mechanism shall be used.
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