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Technical Paper

Restraint Robustness in Frontal Crashes

2007-04-16
2007-01-1181
The protection of a vehicle occupant in a frontal crash is a combination of vehicle front structural design and occupant restraint design. Once chosen and manufactured, these design features must interact with a wide variety of structural characteristics in potential crash partners. If robust, the restraint design will provide a high level of protection for a wide variety of crash conditions. This paper examines how robust a given restraint system is for occupant self-protection and how frontal design can improve the restraint performance of potential crash partners, thus improving their restraint robustness as well. To examine restraint robustness in self protection, the effect of various vehicle deceleration characteristics on occupant injury potential is investigated for a given restraint design. A MADYMO model of a 1996 Taurus interior and its restraint system with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy are simulated and subjected to 650 crash pulses taken during 25 years of U.S.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the ES-2 dummy in representative side impacts

2001-06-04
2001-06-0096
An upgrade of EUROSID-1, the side impact dummy used in the European Union Side Impact Directive 96/EC/27, was recently developed by TNO to address dummy response issues raised by industrial and governmental bodies, in particular, the flat-top anomaly in the rib deflections. NHTSA is evaluating the ES-2 dummy, the upgraded EUROSID-1, to assess its performance in the FMVSS 214 test configuration. This paper presents results from NHTSA's testing of the ES-2 including high mass pendulum impactor tests using three proposed rib designs, biofidelity sled tests comparing the ES-2 and U.S. SID, and full-scale side impact tests.
Technical Paper

Enhancing post-crash vehicle safety through an automatic collision notification system

2001-06-04
2001-06-0085
In August of 2000, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) completed an Automated Collision Notification (ACN) Field Operational Test (FOT) in Erie County, New York, that combined crash sensing, position location, and wireless communications technology in a system with the goal of saving lives and reducing disabilities from injuries by providing faster and more informed emergency medical responses to serious injury crashes. The ACN FOT Team designed and built an ACN system prior to the start of the test period in July 1997. ACN in-vehicle systems were than installed in 850 vehicles. The crash notification messages were delivered to emergency response and dispatch equipment installed at the Erie County Sheriff's Office, which served as the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) for this FOT.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of injury risk from side impact air bags

2001-06-04
2001-06-0091
Several thoracic and head protection side impact air bag systems (SAB) are emerging in the U.S. market and are projected to become prevalent in the fleet. These systems appear to offer superior protection in side crashes. However, concerns have been raised as to their potential for causing injury to out-of-position (OOP) occupants. This paper describes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) program for evaluation of the SAB systems for OOP occupants and provides a status report on the current research. The industry's Side Airbag Out-of- Position Injury Technical Working Group (TWG) recommended procedures for 3-year-old and 6-year-old occupants are evaluated. Additional test procedures are described to augment the TWG procedures for these occupants and 12-month- old infants.
Technical Paper

Simulations of large school bus safety restraints~NHTSA

2001-06-04
2001-06-0226
This paper describes computer crash simulations performed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) under the current research and testing activities on large school bus safety restraints. The simulations of a frontal rigid barrier test and comparative dynamic sled testing for compartmentalization, lap belt, and lap/shoulder belt restraint strategies are presented. School bus transportation is one of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. School age children transported in school buses are safer than children transported in motor vehicles of any other type. Large school buses provide protection because of their size and weight. Further, they must meet minimum Federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSSs) mandating compartmentalized seating, improved emergency exits, stronger roof structures and fuel systems, and better bus body joint strength.
Technical Paper

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DUAL STAGE PASSENGER AIR BAG SYSTEMS

2001-06-04
2001-06-0190
A research program was initiated to evaluate the performance of prototype dual stage passenger air bags in terms of both restraint system performance and deployment aggressivity for different size occupants. Variations in inflator partitions, vent hole diameter sizes, and deployment timing were examined. High speed unbelted sled tests were conducted with both 50th percentile male and 5th percentile female Hybrid III adult dummies at 48 kmph; and belted sled tests were conducted at 56 kmph. Low risk deployment tests with child dummies were conducted to evaluate air bag aggressivity. Overall, it was concluded that the dual stage air bag systems under evaluation had improved performance over the baseline single stage systems in terms of providing high speed protection while reducing aggressivity to out-of-position occupants; however, some dual stage systems may require additional occupant detection methodologies to suppress or control inflation.
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for The National Advanced Driving Simulator of the 2006 BMW 330i

2007-04-16
2007-01-0818
The paper discusses the development of a model for the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid-body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The paper includes parameters for front and rear semi-empirical tire models used with NADSdyna. Longitudinal and lateral tire force plots are also included. The NADSdyna model provides state-of-the-art high-fidelity handling dynamics for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The realism of a particular model depends heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the actual physical system. Complex models do not guarantee high fidelity if the parameters used were not properly measured. Methodologies for determining the parameters are detailed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Large truck crash data collection

2001-06-04
2001-06-0159
The National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA) is collecting crash data relating to large trucks. Two data collection programs are specified. One is a crash causation study to investigate the cause of fatal and serious large truck crashes over two years. The other study is a continuous effort collecting data on large truck motor carrier crashes in each state, as coded on police accident reports.
Technical Paper

International Harmonized Research Activities (IHRA) status report of the Biomechanics Working Group

2001-06-04
2001-06-0133
A summary of the efforts of the Biomechanics Working Group to complete the task given to it by the International Harmonized Research Activities Steering Committee to determine specifications for a Universal Side Impact Anthropomorphic Test Devices is presented. Topics discussed are the nature of the world side impact problem, the anthropometric characterization of the world population at risk, dummy impact response specifications, and necessary and appropriate injury criteria and performance levels.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian head impact testing and PCDS reconstructions

2001-06-04
2001-06-0184
Pedestrian research and testing at the NHTSA Vehicle Research and Test Center has recently focused on assessment of proposed ISO and EEVC head impact test procedures, and extension of these procedures to additional vehicle frontal surfaces. In addition to test parameter sensitivity evaluation, reconstruction of PCDS (Pedestrian Crash Data Study) cases with laboratory impact tests and computer simulations has been conducted. This paper presents the results of this research.
Technical Paper

Characterization of CIREN

2001-06-04
2001-06-0024
This paper focuses on the overall structure of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), how data are collected, and what makes it unique. It discusses how it can be used to expand and enhance the information in other databases. CIREN is a collaborative effort to conduct research on crashes and injuries at nine Level 1 Trauma Centers which are linked by a computer network. Researchers can review data and share expertise, which will lead to a better understanding of crash injury mechanisms and the design of safer vehicles. CIREN data are being used in outreach and education programs on motor vehicle safety. CIREN outreach and education has already been credited with lifesaving information dissemination.
Technical Paper

Development of THOR-FLx: A Biofidelic Lower Extremity for Use with 5th Percentile Female Crash Test Dummies

2002-11-11
2002-22-0014
A new lower leg/ankle/foot system has been designed and fabricated to assess the potential for lower limb injuries to small females in the automotive crash environment. The new lower extremity can be retrofitted at present to the distal femur of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy. Future plans are for integration of this design into the 5th percentile female THOR dummy now under development. The anthropometry of the lower leg and foot is based mainly on data developed by Robbins for the 5th percentile female, while the biomechanical response requirements are based upon scaling of 50th percentile male THOR-Lx responses. The design consists of the knee, tibia, ankle joints, foot, a representation of the Achilles tendon, and associated flesh/skins. The new lower extremity, known as THOR-FLx, is designed to be biofidelic under dynamic axial loading of the tibia, static and dynamic dorsiflexion, static plantarflexion and inversion/eversion.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Biofidelity Ranking System for Anthropomorphic Test Devices

2002-11-11
2002-22-0024
A new biofidelity assessment system is being developed and applied to three side impact dummies: the WorldSID-α, the ES-2 and the SID-HIII. This system quantifies (1) the ability of a dummy to load a vehicle as a cadaver does, “External Biofidelity,” and (2) the ability of a dummy to replicate those cadaver responses that best predict injury potential, “Internal Biofidelity.” The ranking system uses cadaver and dummy responses from head drop tests, thorax and shoulder pendulum tests, and whole body sled tests. Each test condition is assigned a weight factor based on the number of human subjects tested to form the biomechanical response corridor and how well the biofidelity tests represent FMVSS 214, side NCAP (SNCAP) and FMVSS 201 Pole crash environments.
Technical Paper

Simulator Study of Heavy Truck Air Disc Brake Effectiveness During Emergency Braking

2008-04-14
2008-01-1498
In crashes between heavy trucks and light vehicles, most of the fatalities are the occupants of the light vehicle. A reduction in heavy truck stopping distance should lead to a reduction in the number of crashes, the severity of crashes, and consequently the numbers of fatalities and injuries. This study made use of the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). NADS is a full immersion driving simulator used to study driver behavior as well as driver-vehicle reactions and responses. The vehicle dynamics model of the existing heavy truck on NADS had been modified with the creation of two additional brake models. The first was a modified S-cam (larger drums and shoes) and the second was an air-actuated disc brake system. A sample of 108 CDL-licensed drivers was split evenly among the simulations using each of the three braking systems. The drivers were presented with four different emergency stopping situations.
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the NADS of the 1998 Chevrolet Malibu

2001-03-05
2001-01-0140
The paper discusses the development of a model for a 1998 Chevrolet Malibu for the National Advanced Driving Simulator’s (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The Malibu is the third vehicle modeled for the NADS, and this is the third paper dealing with model development. SAE Paper 970564 contains details of the model for the 1994 Ford Taurus and SAE Paper 1999–01-0121 contains details of the model for the 1997 Jeep Cherokee. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as elements in the rigid body formulation. To complement the vehicle dynamics for the NADS application, subsystem models that include tire forces, braking, powertrain, aerodynamics, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. The models provide state-of-the-art high fidelity vehicle handling dynamics for real-time simulation.
Technical Paper

Response of PMHS to High- and Low-Speed Oblique and Lateral Pneumatic Ram Impacts

2011-11-07
2011-22-0011
In ISO Technical Report 9790 (1999) normalized lateral and oblique thoracic force-time responses of PMHS subjected to blunt pendulum impacts at 4.3 m/s were deemed sufficiently similar to be grouped together in a single biomechanical response corridor. Shaw et al., (2006) presented results of paired oblique and lateral thoracic pneumatic ram impact tests to opposite sides of seven PMHS at sub-injurious speed (2.5 m/s). Normalized responses showed that oblique impacts resulted in more deflection and less force, whereas lateral impacts resulted in less deflection and more force. This study presents results of oblique and lateral thoracic impacts to PMHS at higher speeds (4.5 and 5.5 m/s) to assess whether lateral relative to oblique responses are different as observed by Shaw et al., or similar as observed by ISO.
Technical Paper

NHTSA’s Vehicle Compatibility Research Program

1999-03-01
1999-01-0071
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the crash compatibility of passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTV’s) in vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. NHTSA has conducted a series of eight full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests to evaluate vehicle compatibility issues. Tests were conducted using four bullet vehicles representing different vehicle classes striking a mid-size sedan in both side and oblique frontal crash configurations. The test results show a good correlation between vehicle aggressivity metrics and injury parameters measured in the struck car for the frontal offset tests, but not for the side impact tests.
Technical Paper

The New Car Assessment Program Has It Led to Stiffer Light Trucks and Vans over the Years?

1999-03-01
1999-01-0064
Since model year 1983, one hundred and seventy five light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles (LTVs) have been included in the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) frontal crash tests. In this frontal test, vehicles are crashed at 35 mph such that the entire front impacts against a rigid, fixed barrier. Instrumented anthropometric dummies are placed in the driver and right front passenger seats. Accelerometers are placed on the vehicle to record the response of the structure during the crash. A number of recent papers have examined the compatibility of LTVs and cars in vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. The studies in these papers, generally, consider three factors for vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility: (1) mass, (2) stiffness, and (3) geometry. On June 5, 1998, Transport Canada and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration held a forum entitled “Transport-NHTSA International Dialogue on Vehicle Compatibility,” in Windsor, Canada.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Properties of the Upper Thoracic Spine-Pectoral Girdle (UTS-PG) System and Corresponding Kinematics in PMHS Sled Tests

2012-10-29
2012-22-0003
Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) should accurately depict head kinematics in crash tests, and thoracic spine properties have been demonstrated to affect those kinematics. To investigate the relationships between thoracic spine system dynamics and upper thoracic kinematics in crash-level scenarios, three adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were tested in both Isolated Segment Manipulation (ISM) and sled configurations. In frontal sled tests, the T6-T8 vertebrae of the PMHS were coupled through a novel fixation technique to a rigid seat to directly measure thoracic spine loading. Mid-thoracic spine and belt loads along with head, spine, and pectoral girdle (PG) displacements were measured in 12 sled tests conducted with the three PMHS (3-pt lap-shoulder belted/unbelted at velocities from 3.8 - 7.0 m/s applied directly through T6-T8).
Technical Paper

Driver Crash Avoidance Behavior with ABS in an Intersection Incursion Scenario on the Iowa Driving Simulator

1999-03-01
1999-01-1290
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has developed its Light Vehicle Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) Research Program in an effort to determine the cause (s) of the apparent increase in fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes as vehicles undergo a transition from conventional brakes to ABS. As part of this program, NHTSA conducted research examining driver crash avoidance behavior and the effects of ABS on drivers’ ability to avoid a collision in a crash-imminent situation. The study described here was conducted on the Iowa Driving Simulator and examined the effects of ABS versus conventional brakes, speed limit, ABS instruction, and time-to-intersection (TTI) on driver behavior and crash avoidance performance. This study found that average, alert drivers do tend to brake and steer in realistic crash avoidance situations and that excessive steering can occur. However, this behavior did not result in a significant number of road departures.
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