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Technical Paper

The Emerging Market for Biodiesel and the Role of Fuel Additives

With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselisation of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO2 emissions. To reverse this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO2 neutral. A common route towards this goal is to substitute diesel fuel with esterified seed oils, collectively known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. However a fundamental change to the fuel chemistry produces new challenges in ensuring compatibility between fuel and engine performance/durability. This paper discusses the global situation and shows how fuel additives can overcome the challenges presented by the use of biodiesel.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Parameters Ensuring Reliable Regeneration of a Sintered Metal Particulate Filter using a Fuel Borne Catalyst

The operating cycle of many vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters is such that soot accumulates within the filter and must periodically be oxidised. Work was carried out on a passenger car engine to elucidate how fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to soot ratio, oxygen mass flow rate, temperature and soot loading influence the oxidation rate of soot accumulated in a sintered metal filter (SMF). Results show that soot loading had a major influence; increased soot loading increased the oxidation rate. The other parameter had a smaller influence with increasing oxygen flow rate and FBC/soot ratio each increasing the oxidation rate.
Journal Article

Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Study of Resultant Deposits

Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment together with the move to ULSD and bio-blends have seen an increase in reports regarding deposits in both injectors and filters. Historically deposits have been generated from a number of sources: bio-contamination, both aerobic and non-aerobic, water contamination, lube oil adulteration, additives, dirt, metals in fuel, and biodiesel degradation. These may be ascribed to “poor housekeeping,” incorrect additivation, deliberate adulteration or some combination. However the recently observed deposits differ from these. The deposits are described and indicate possible precursor molecules that support proposed mechanisms and their ability to form filter deposits.