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Technical Paper

NOx Emission during Operation of a Drying Toilet System in Air-Circulated Confinement Experiment

The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), designed to simulate material circulation, is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans, and animals. The drying toilet system “DRI-LET®” had been installed in the habitation module as a human waste processor for material circulation by carbonizing. Carbonizing of human waste has advantages in life support systems because it can minimize the total volume and weight of human waste. However, this toilet system releases many gases during processing. In particular, NO2 concentration in the habitation module increased up to 4 ppm when one person used the toilet system. In this paper, we report NO and NO2 behavior in the habitation module during experiments and a method to reduce their concentrations by using NO and NO2 adsorbent.
Technical Paper

Carbon Dioxide Separation and Recovery from the Closed Animal Breeding and Habitation Module of the CEEF during Closed Habitation Experiments

In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), an artificial ecosystem including crops, Shiba goats, and human inhabitants is to be constructed in order to conduct long-term habitation experiments. For carbon circulation in this artificial ecosystem, CO2 needs to be recovered from the air of animal breeding and habitation rooms using a CO2 separator and to be injected into growth chambers for consumption in crop photosynthesis. Moreover, daily crop yield from the growth chambers needs to be stabilized to drive carbon circulation in the artificial ecosystemwithout huge buffers. Because crops are cultivated in a staggered manner, controlling atmospheric CO2 concentration in the growth chambers at a constant level during light periods throughout crop cultivation is necessary for stabilizing daily crop yield.
Technical Paper

Carbon Flow in an Artificial Ecosystem Comprised of Crew, Goats and Crops for Three 1-Week Confined Habitation Experiments Using CEEF

Three 1-week experiments were conducted from September to October of 2005 in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility called Closed Ecosystem Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The test involved connecting a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM), which included the eco-nauts and two Shiba goats. Although only 34% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts was produced by crops in the PM in the first experiment, it was 81% in the second and third experiments. As for feed for the goats, although all was Timothy hay was supplied from outside in the first experiment, all of the feed (rice straw, soybean leaf and peanut shell) was produced in the PM in the second and third experiments. In all these experiments, the crops produced more oxygen than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals.
Technical Paper

Preliminary research on Energy Metabolism of Candidate Animals in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
Technical Paper

Circulation of Water in Addition to CO2, O2 and Plant Biomass in an Artificial Ecosystem Comprised of Humans, Goats and Crops During Three 2-Weeks Closed Habitation Experiments Using CEEF

The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for realistic estimation of radiocarbon transfer in the ecosystem. Two-week experiments were conducted three times from September to November of 2006, in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility, the CEEF. The eco-nauts were changed after a week from beginning of each experiment. In these experiments, a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, was connected to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM) which included the eco-nauts and two goats. 91.8-94.6% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts and 79% of the feed to the goats (straw, leaf and bran of rice, leaf and stem of soybean, and leaf, stem and shell of peanut) were produced from crops in the PM. Amount of oxygen produced by the crops was more than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals in these experiments.
Technical Paper

Outline of Material Circulation — Closed Habitation Experiments Conducted in 2005 – 2007 Using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for estimation of transfer of radionuclides from atmosphere to humans in the ecosystem. The first target among the radio-nuclides is 14C. In order to validate function of material circulation in an experimental system constructed in the CEEF, circulation of air constituents, water and materials in waste was demonstrated connecting the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Human habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the CEEF, since 2005 to 2007. The CPEF has a Plant Cultivation Module (PCM), which comprises of three plant chambers illuminated solely by artificial lighting, one plant chamber illuminated by both natural and artificial lighting, a space for preparation, and an airlock, and a physical/chemical material circulation system.
Technical Paper

Considerations of Material Circulation in CEEF Based on the Recent Operation Strategy

In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), with integrating the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) and the Closed Animal Breading & Habitation Facilities (CABHF), closed habitation experiments without material exchange with the outside will be conducted after the 2005 fiscal year. Cultivation experiments of about 30 crops and the integrating test of the material circulation system required for the closed habitation experiments have been performed since 2000 fiscal year. Using data reported in these experiments, material circulation in CEEF is simulated based on the recent operation strategy, and the storage capacity needed for the buffer of an air processing subsystem was estimated. In order for two humans to dwell over 120 days, the storage capacities of the carbon dioxide tank, the oxygen tank, and the waste gas tank in CPEF, and the carbon dioxide tank and the oxygen tank in CABHF are 820 g, 2830 g, 4425 g, 1780 g, and 1792 g, respectively.
Technical Paper

Matching of Gas Metabolism among Crop Community, Human and Animal in the CEEF

Rating of daily amounts of CO2 and O2 exchange of crops, animals and humans to be involved in the long-term habitation experiments using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were carried out. Daily amounts of the CO2-absorption and O2-generation of crops including rice, soybeans and other 27 vegetables were estimated from data obtained from a sequential crop cultivation experiment conducted from August to December of FY2001. Daily amounts of O2-consumption and CO2-expiration of two female Shiba goats to be involved were estimated based on gas exchange determination conducted in FY2002. Daily amounts of CO2-expiration and O2-consumption of two persons to be involved were estimated based on correlation between respiration rate and heart rate, heart rate data during the simulated habitation in the CEEF and a tentative work schedule.
Technical Paper

Study of Oxygen Recovery System using Reduction of Carbon Dioxide

The simulation test for the controlled ecological life support system is planned by Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) of Japan. The purpose of this test is to confirm that in the closed space, the environmental and life support system is normally carried out. The establishments to perform the simulation test has been constructed at Rokkasho-mura village, Aomori prefecture, in Japan. We have been developed “Oxygen Recovery System” which decompose carbon dioxide (CO2) and regenerate oxygen(O2), for the simulation test. The oxygen recovery system consists of a equipment to reduce CO2 using the Sabatier method and a equipment to regenerate oxygen using water electrolysis method (Refer to Figure 1). And this reaction principle is as follows; The carbon dioxide is produced by the respiration of human, animals and plants. The carbon dioxide is reduced to methane and water using hydrogen in the first reaction.
Technical Paper


In the closed environments such as manned space station, it is necessary to remove contaminant gas to keep a suitable environment. Removal of gaseous contaminants generated from crew, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (abbreviated as CEEF). CEEF consist of three modules for habitat, animal and plant, the supporting facilities for each module and a plant cultivation facility. CEEF are scheduled to be constructed from 1994 in Aomori Prefecture, northern part of Japan. For designing Trace Contaminant Control Assembly (TCCA) for CEEF, the following six (6) trace contaminants have been selected as major contaminant gas in CEEF; Ammonia (NH3) Methane (CH4) Ethylene (C2H4) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Ethylene is well-known as an aggressive contaminant to plant growth and maturity.
Technical Paper

Simulation to Support an Integration Test Project of CEEF

A simulation of an open mode system experiment was run using the same experimental conditions as an integration test conducted from September 1999 to February 2000 using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility at the Institute for Environmental Sciences in order to evaluate the operation of closed mode system to be conducted in future. Operation of the open mode system experiment required a supply of water and carbon dioxide from the outside, and the discharge of nutrient waste water and oxygen. The present simulation verified the feasibility of using non-integrated wet-oxidation processor, nutrient synthesis unit and nutrient waste water processor connected within a closed mode system, and it was confirmed that sufficient material circulation could be achieved when rice and soybeans were divided into six beds with different growing stages to facilitate control of the nutrient solution.