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Technical Paper

NOx Emission during Operation of a Drying Toilet System in Air-Circulated Confinement Experiment

2006-07-17
2006-01-2155
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), designed to simulate material circulation, is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans, and animals. The drying toilet system “DRI-LET®” had been installed in the habitation module as a human waste processor for material circulation by carbonizing. Carbonizing of human waste has advantages in life support systems because it can minimize the total volume and weight of human waste. However, this toilet system releases many gases during processing. In particular, NO2 concentration in the habitation module increased up to 4 ppm when one person used the toilet system. In this paper, we report NO and NO2 behavior in the habitation module during experiments and a method to reduce their concentrations by using NO and NO2 adsorbent.
Technical Paper

Rapid and Accurate Determination of Bacterial Abundance and their Physiological Activity in Freshwater used in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) “Mini-Earth”, Japan

2006-07-17
2006-01-2078
In space utilization, an enormous amount of freshwater for drinking, daily use, hydroponics. is used and recycled in a closed habitat. We have developed culture-independent techniques to analyze microbial cells at the single level, a cell itself, and also community level. By using these methods such as fluorescent vital staining (double staining with carboxyfluorescein diacetate and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole), microcolony method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), bacterial abundance and their physiological activity in freshwater used in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) “Mini-Earth” were determined.
Technical Paper

Air Circulation Confinement Experiments in the CEEF: Physiological Status in Econauts through Repeated Seven-day Habitations

2006-07-17
2006-01-2294
Closed Ecology Experimental Facilities, CEEF, is designed to regenerate everything required for living, such as air, water, and food. Researchers called “econauts” play a crucial role in maintaining the system in good order. CEEF must involve confinement, which is one of the major factors responsible for deterioration in crew health and performance. Two econauts repeated 7-day habitation in the CEEF 3 times in 2005. Blood cells, hormones and mood status were analyzed. Although clinically no problem, changes of mood status and a stress hormone correlated in an econaut. Characteristic changes were observed in leukocyte ratio. These data are essential in considering the effects of forthcoming long-term habitation in CEEF.
Technical Paper

Air Circulation Confinement Experiments in the CEEF: Psychological Status in Eco-nauts through Repeated Seven-Day Habitations

2006-07-17
2006-01-2293
The Closed Ecology Experimental Facilities (CEEF), is designed to simulate material circulation, and is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans and animals. The first seven-day air circulated confinement experiments using the CEEF were conducted three times. The experiments included psychological monitoring of two crew members named “Eco-nauts”. Even though there was some trouble with the CEEF regarding the atmospheric gases (which one of the Eco-nauts discovered himself), all three experiments were completed without critical problems and both Eco-nauts maintained a stable psychological status. Through the experiments, it was found that the interior environment of the CEEF could fluctuate within short time periods, and that frequent monitoring by the instantaneous and sensitive Face Scale Test allowed scoring of the Eco-nauts' response to such fluctuations.
Technical Paper

Air Circulation Confinement Experiments in the CEEF - Changes in Physical Conditions and Health Managements of Eco-nauts

2006-07-17
2006-01-2296
In FY2005, the first series of seven-day closed habitation experiments was conducted using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The operation period of CEEF is planned to be extended to four months by FY2009. The CEEF is a two-manned system. The habitants, called “Eco-nauts”, are responsible for operating the system as a part of an artificial environment. Therefore, their continuous health checks are very important to the success of the habitation experiments. To check their health condition, medical examinations were carried out before, right after and two months after the series of experiments. During each experiment, physical data were obtained and evaluated by medical doctors using a web-video-meeting system. The primary objective of this study was to verify if the schedule and examinations selected for the health check of the Eco-nauts were successfully carried out.
Technical Paper

Carbon Flow in an Artificial Ecosystem Comprised of Crew, Goats and Crops for Three 1-Week Confined Habitation Experiments Using CEEF

2006-07-17
2006-01-2075
Three 1-week experiments were conducted from September to October of 2005 in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility called Closed Ecosystem Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The test involved connecting a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM), which included the eco-nauts and two Shiba goats. Although only 34% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts was produced by crops in the PM in the first experiment, it was 81% in the second and third experiments. As for feed for the goats, although all was Timothy hay was supplied from outside in the first experiment, all of the feed (rice straw, soybean leaf and peanut shell) was produced in the PM in the second and third experiments. In all these experiments, the crops produced more oxygen than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals.
Technical Paper

Carbon Dioxide Separation and Recovery from the Closed Animal Breeding and Habitation Module of the CEEF during Closed Habitation Experiments

2006-07-17
2006-01-2076
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), an artificial ecosystem including crops, Shiba goats, and human inhabitants is to be constructed in order to conduct long-term habitation experiments. For carbon circulation in this artificial ecosystem, CO2 needs to be recovered from the air of animal breeding and habitation rooms using a CO2 separator and to be injected into growth chambers for consumption in crop photosynthesis. Moreover, daily crop yield from the growth chambers needs to be stabilized to drive carbon circulation in the artificial ecosystemwithout huge buffers. Because crops are cultivated in a staggered manner, controlling atmospheric CO2 concentration in the growth chambers at a constant level during light periods throughout crop cultivation is necessary for stabilizing daily crop yield.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Energy Requirements of Eco-nauts in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2005-07-11
2005-01-3004
Preliminary seven-day habitation experiments without complete closure of the habitation module were performed in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) to obtain information for the closed habitation and to prepare for the actual closed habitation experiments to be launched in September 2005. Energy requirements have been estimated for habitant candidates in closed habitation experiments (to be called Eco-nauts). This paper presents the calculations of Eco-nauts' energy requirements using records of life activities during the preliminary experiments and compares them with the expected energy supply from the CEEF.
Technical Paper

Outline of Material Circulation — Closed Habitation Experiments Conducted in 2005 – 2007 Using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

2009-07-12
2009-01-2580
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for estimation of transfer of radionuclides from atmosphere to humans in the ecosystem. The first target among the radio-nuclides is 14C. In order to validate function of material circulation in an experimental system constructed in the CEEF, circulation of air constituents, water and materials in waste was demonstrated connecting the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Human habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the CEEF, since 2005 to 2007. The CPEF has a Plant Cultivation Module (PCM), which comprises of three plant chambers illuminated solely by artificial lighting, one plant chamber illuminated by both natural and artificial lighting, a space for preparation, and an airlock, and a physical/chemical material circulation system.
Technical Paper

Matching Between Food Supply and Human Nutritional Requirements in an Earth-Based Advanced Life Support System (ALSS) Test Bed

2005-07-11
2005-01-2819
A linear programming model has been constructed to develop a cultivation plan for habitation experiments using a two-person crew in Closed Ecological Experiment Facilities (CEEF), which is an earth based integration demonstration test bed of Advanced Life Support System (ALSS), under constraints such as a limited cultivation area and various nutritional requirements. The optimized area was 129.14 m2. According to the results, the optimized cultivation plan was then implemented in a habitation experiment in the CEEF during FY2004 with some modification to meet requirements from menu formulation. Results of the cultivation experiment, also during FY2004, showed feasibility of the plantation plan in the view point of nutrition supply, though errors between expected and observed productivities varied from −37 % to +267 %.
Technical Paper

Paper Production in an Advanced Life Support System (ALSS)

2005-07-11
2005-01-2929
This paper introduces a concept and a design to supply paper products for an earth based Advanced Life Support System (ALSS) test bed and it shows some results of paper production trials on the ALSS using inedible biomass. Rice plants (i.e. straw and roots), and soybean stems were pulped by boiling and/or alkali soaking and a mechanical processing method. Paper could be produced from both and exhibited different characteristics. Paper with quality suitable for hygienic tissue could be obtained and very absorbent paper was also possible. A rapid pulping method without a chemical process was also investigated. A potential for reducing chemical consumption, liquid waste and labor cost of paper production in the ALSS was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Workloads and Environment of Closed Habitation Experiments in CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) and Physio-Psychological Changes in Habitants (Eco-Nauts) During the Experiments

2005-07-11
2005-01-3005
The Closed Ecological Experimental Facilities (CEEF), designed to simulate material circulation, is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans and animals. In the experiments starting from FY2005, habitants referred to as eco-nauts will be exposed to complex workloads and various CEEF environmental factors, which may influence their physio-psychological state, and lower their performance. Therefore, preliminary experiments were conducted on the workload-matched (11.1h work, 168h, airlock open) and the environment-matched condition (6.9h work, 24h, air circulation) to monitor physio-psychological changes. As a result, both experiment types were conducted as scheduled without any major problems, and no serious physio-psychological disorders were observed in the eco-nauts. One week closed habitation experiments will be performed as a preliminary step toward much longer (max. 4 months) experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Life Support Systems Control Software Integrating Operators' Empirical Knowledge

2008-06-29
2008-01-1973
We developed an Advanced Life Support systems scheduler (ALS scheduler) to back up the habitation experiments of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), and integrated the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method for a scheduling algorithm of the scheduler. Later research revealed that when comparing solutions obtained by the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method and by a skilled operator, respectively, a schedule sought by the skilled operator has different features from those of a schedule sought by the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method. This paper describes how to generate a schedule such as one created by a skilled operator, while reducing complexity by integrating empirical knowledge to the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Operation Technology on the Waste Processing System of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities for Circulation of Carbon in an Experimental Closed Ecosystem Comprised of Humans, Goats and Crops

2008-06-29
2008-01-1979
Before a series of overall material circulation in an experimental system including crops, animals and humans, technical examinations for the development of a waste processing system were conducted for incorporating the system to the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The examinations are intended to validate the function of the carbonization and incineration processing units which were installed in the CEEF in 2006. Using different mock-up samples, examinations have been carried out to verify the function and capability of the whole system, including the waste carbonization processing unit, incineration processing unit, exhaust gas tank and the exhaust gas processing unit. In an examination using filter paper pulp as a mock-up sample, processing time in each unit was checked. The processing times needed for carbonization and incineration processing were 5.7 and 2.6 hours, respectively.
Technical Paper

Circulation of Water in Addition to CO2, O2 and Plant Biomass in an Artificial Ecosystem Comprised of Humans, Goats and Crops During Three 2-Weeks Closed Habitation Experiments Using CEEF

2007-07-09
2007-01-3091
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for realistic estimation of radiocarbon transfer in the ecosystem. Two-week experiments were conducted three times from September to November of 2006, in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility, the CEEF. The eco-nauts were changed after a week from beginning of each experiment. In these experiments, a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, was connected to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM) which included the eco-nauts and two goats. 91.8-94.6% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts and 79% of the feed to the goats (straw, leaf and bran of rice, leaf and stem of soybean, and leaf, stem and shell of peanut) were produced from crops in the PM. Amount of oxygen produced by the crops was more than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals in these experiments.
Technical Paper

Outreach Activities of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2007-07-09
2007-01-3068
The CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) was constructed for collecting data on carbon transfer from the atmosphere to crops, livestock and humans by conducting material circulation experiments, including the habitation of humans and animals and growing crops which supply food and feed, within a closed environment. The main objective of the CEEF project involves understanding the transfer of radiocarbon in the environment via experiments using stable carbon isotopes. On the other hand, the project is also a good example demonstrating human life in ecosystem material circulation. Many people visited and toured the CEEF and the project has been introduced by the media. The candidate inhabitants, who were selected for the project following medical and psychological testing, are called “eco-nauts”. The CEEF project was introduced and eco-nauts participated in events with the intention of educating the public on the human impacts on an ecosystem made by a science museum.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Life Support Systems Control Software Considering Computational Effort and Mathematical Validity

2007-07-09
2007-01-3025
A habitation experiment using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities was started in 2005. In the future, the stays will be gradually extended. We have been developing the three layered control software for a Control Computer System of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities in order to back up the habitation experiments. In this paper, we will show the development of an operation scheduling system for one of the three layers, such as at the planning and scheduling level, and discuss the development of a scheduling algorithm that does not cause the complexity of the ALS scheduler to be exponentially increased.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Repeated Closed Habitation Experiments on Crews Health

2007-07-09
2007-01-3229
Two-week closed habitation experiments were repeated three times using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) to evaluate the capability of advanced life support systems. The CEEF is a two-manned system. Four crew members, termed econauts, inhabited the CEEF, taking turns at one-week shifts in pairs. Each econaut underwent three habitations. In order to evaluate the state of health of the crew, medical examinations were carried out before, immediately after and two months after the series of habitations. Physical data such as blood pressure, body temperature and body weight were monitored during each habitation. In 2005, though calorie intake and expenditure were well balanced, a temporary reduction in body weight was observed. As a countermeasure in 2006, econauts began their habitation diet one week before habitation to adapt their condition. As a result, total serum cholesterol significantly decreased after the series of habitations.
Technical Paper

Physiological Monitoring of Crew During Repeated 7-Day Habitation in an Advanced Life Support System

2007-07-09
2007-01-3230
Human activities in space must include life in a confined, artificial and isolated environment. We investigated the mental and physiological status of four crewmembers undergoing repeated seven-day habitation in an advanced life support system. In order to monitor the psycho-physiological stresses, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline were sampled and visual-analog scale was serially recorded. As a result, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline levels were higher in pre- and post habitation. Psychological scales showed a relatively relaxed mood during habitation, indicating that the crew experienced stress in the pre- and post seven-day habitation periods. The periods of environmental change such as those pre-and post habitation seem to be critical for monitoring the health of crew performing analogous missions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Photosynthesis and Biomass Allocation for Simulation of Edible and Inedible Biomass Production and Gas Exchange of Main Crops within Ceef

2002-07-15
2002-01-2484
The plant system plays roles of edible biomass production, O2 production, CO2 removal, and so on, in bioregenerative life support systems. In order to simulate the edible and inedible biomass production and gas exchange of crops, it is necessary to construct reliable dynamic prediction models for each crop considering not only short-term environmental effects but also its long-term effects, because response of plant system is highly dependent on plant age, plant size, and environmental condition experienced by the plant. Closed Plantation Experiment Facility (CPEF) of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) has three plantation chambers with artificial lighting system, which has maximum capability for providing PPFD of approximately 1900 μmol·m-2·s-1 for crops at canopy top level in these chambers. Each even-aged population of rice and soybean was grown in each plantation chamber.
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