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Technical Paper

Nitrogen Fixation System as a CELSS Subsystem for CEEF

The Nitrogen Fixation System (NFS) which produces ammonia and nitric acid from nitrogen and water has been developed. The NFS is one essential part of material circulation system of the CEEF (Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility. Basically, physico-chemical and some new technologies are utilized as elemental processes in the NFS. Low pressure ammonia synthesis, ammonia enrichment with PSA and water electrolysis with SPE are such new technologies. We designed and installed the NFS as a subsystem of CEEF. The capacity of the NFS is 125g/day as fixed nitrogen. First operation of NFS is expected to be done early fiscal year of 1996 in CEEF.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery System in a CEEF (2)

A unique recovery system for NaCI (salt) from urine, which consists of electrodialysis (ED) and crystallization processes is proposed. The possibility of the mineral recovery included in urine is shown in a previous report. To improve the purity of the produced salt, pH control is needed as a pretreatment. By controlling pH of the feed solution to about 10, multivalent ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ are crystallized as phosphate solids which can be separated by filtration. As well as raising the NaCI purity, this controls scaling b y multivalent ions.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery System in a CEEF

We propose a new recovery system for NaCl from human urine. The system has an electrodialysis (ED) part and a crystallization part. Separation and concentration characteristics of the system are discussed for fundamental experiments of the ED and crystallization parts. Concentrated NaCl-KCl mixed solution is obtained using the ED process from simulated oxidized urine and sweat which include Ca2+ and S042- ions. Then, the crystallization process is used to separate about 80% of the NaCl from the ED treated solution. The experimental studies indicate that the mineral recovery system we proposed can recover NaCl from waste water of a CEEF.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Operation Technology on the Waste Processing System of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities for Circulation of Carbon in an Experimental Closed Ecosystem Comprised of Humans, Goats and Crops

Before a series of overall material circulation in an experimental system including crops, animals and humans, technical examinations for the development of a waste processing system were conducted for incorporating the system to the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The examinations are intended to validate the function of the carbonization and incineration processing units which were installed in the CEEF in 2006. Using different mock-up samples, examinations have been carried out to verify the function and capability of the whole system, including the waste carbonization processing unit, incineration processing unit, exhaust gas tank and the exhaust gas processing unit. In an examination using filter paper pulp as a mock-up sample, processing time in each unit was checked. The processing times needed for carbonization and incineration processing were 5.7 and 2.6 hours, respectively.
Technical Paper

Air Circulation Confinement Experiments in the CEEF: Physiological Status in Econauts through Repeated Seven-day Habitations

Closed Ecology Experimental Facilities, CEEF, is designed to regenerate everything required for living, such as air, water, and food. Researchers called “econauts” play a crucial role in maintaining the system in good order. CEEF must involve confinement, which is one of the major factors responsible for deterioration in crew health and performance. Two econauts repeated 7-day habitation in the CEEF 3 times in 2005. Blood cells, hormones and mood status were analyzed. Although clinically no problem, changes of mood status and a stress hormone correlated in an econaut. Characteristic changes were observed in leukocyte ratio. These data are essential in considering the effects of forthcoming long-term habitation in CEEF.
Technical Paper

Preliminary research on Energy Metabolism of Candidate Animals in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
Technical Paper

Circulation of Water in Addition to CO2, O2 and Plant Biomass in an Artificial Ecosystem Comprised of Humans, Goats and Crops During Three 2-Weeks Closed Habitation Experiments Using CEEF

The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for realistic estimation of radiocarbon transfer in the ecosystem. Two-week experiments were conducted three times from September to November of 2006, in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility, the CEEF. The eco-nauts were changed after a week from beginning of each experiment. In these experiments, a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, was connected to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM) which included the eco-nauts and two goats. 91.8-94.6% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts and 79% of the feed to the goats (straw, leaf and bran of rice, leaf and stem of soybean, and leaf, stem and shell of peanut) were produced from crops in the PM. Amount of oxygen produced by the crops was more than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals in these experiments.
Technical Paper

Physiological Monitoring of Crew During Repeated 7-Day Habitation in an Advanced Life Support System

Human activities in space must include life in a confined, artificial and isolated environment. We investigated the mental and physiological status of four crewmembers undergoing repeated seven-day habitation in an advanced life support system. In order to monitor the psycho-physiological stresses, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline were sampled and visual-analog scale was serially recorded. As a result, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline levels were higher in pre- and post habitation. Psychological scales showed a relatively relaxed mood during habitation, indicating that the crew experienced stress in the pre- and post seven-day habitation periods. The periods of environmental change such as those pre-and post habitation seem to be critical for monitoring the health of crew performing analogous missions.
Technical Paper

Considerations of Material Circulation in CEEF Based on the Recent Operation Strategy

In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), with integrating the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) and the Closed Animal Breading & Habitation Facilities (CABHF), closed habitation experiments without material exchange with the outside will be conducted after the 2005 fiscal year. Cultivation experiments of about 30 crops and the integrating test of the material circulation system required for the closed habitation experiments have been performed since 2000 fiscal year. Using data reported in these experiments, material circulation in CEEF is simulated based on the recent operation strategy, and the storage capacity needed for the buffer of an air processing subsystem was estimated. In order for two humans to dwell over 120 days, the storage capacities of the carbon dioxide tank, the oxygen tank, and the waste gas tank in CPEF, and the carbon dioxide tank and the oxygen tank in CABHF are 820 g, 2830 g, 4425 g, 1780 g, and 1792 g, respectively.